Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical Society"

See other formats

go M. L 









3 1833 01095 7444 




Historical Society 


TUNTK, 1899, TO JUNK, 190:2. 

/ . . 

V • 

; ; 







This volume consists of lour parts printed respectively in 
1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906. 

In binding the volume the title pages to the different parts 
should be omitted. 


/ Samull C. Eastman, 
Parts /, 2, j, pages t-j68.< Nathan F. Carter, 

( John Dowst. 

r John Dowst, 
Part 4, pages 569-441. ) Nathan F. Carter, 
( John R. Eastman. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


Alraira Rice Tappan 

facing pa 

ge 114 

George L. Balcom . 


Rev. James H. Fitts 

' i73 

John H. Pearson 

< 126 

Joseph C. A. Hill . 

• 176 

Harry Bingham 

• 268 

Lewis Downing, Jr. 

• 271 

Moses Humphrey 

. 2?2 

Charles A. Busiel 

' 274 

John T. Perry 

4 275 

Rev. Moses T. Runnels 

■ 278 

John W. Noyes 

« 281 

Virgil C. Gilman 

« 361 

Dr. Claudius B. Webster 

• 367 

William C. Todd . 

• 421 


Records of the Seventy-seventh Annual Meeting, June 14, 

l8 99 

Annual Report of Secretary 
" " Treasurer 

" Auditor . 

" " Standing Committee 

" " Librarian 

Report of the Naval History Committee 
Nominating Committee 
Records of 1st Adjourned Sevenl) u . enth Annual Meeting, 
I >ec. 13, 1S99 
Addic—., bj Prof. Charles L.Parson> ( aptun 
Wilin, nvd Alary". 
Records of the 2d Adjourned Seventy-seventh Annual Meet- 
ing, Feb. 14, 1900 ...... 

Records of the 3d Adjourned Seventy-seventh Annual Meet- 
ing, March 14, 1900 ...... 

Address, by Bishop W. W. Niles, D. D., "Carlton 
Chase, First Bishop of New Hampshire " . 
Records of the 4th Adjourned Seventy-seventh Annual Meet- 
ing, April 25, 1900 ...... 

Records of the 5th Adjourned Seventy-seventh Annual Meet- 
ing, May 16, 1900 ...... 

Address, by Prof. John K. Lord, "Nathan Lord 1 ' 
Records of the Seventy-eighth Annual Meeting, June 13, 
1900 . 
Annual Report of the Secretary . 
" " Treasurer . 

Auditors . 
" " Librarian . 

Report on Sabine Library . 

" of Nominating Committee 







1 1 


















Biographical : 

Almira R. Tappan .... 

John A. White 

John C. French ..... 

Titus S. Tredick .... 

Paul A. Stackpole, M. D. . 

George L. Balcom .... 

Alexander H. Ladd .... 

Johji H. Pearson .... 

Records of the Seventy-ninth Annual Meeting, June 12, 1901 
Annual Report of the Secretary . 
" • ' Treasurer . 

" " Auditor 

" " Librarian . 

Address, by Gordon Woodbury, «• The Scotch-Irish 
and Irish Presbyterian Settlers of New Hamp- 
shire 11 . . •« • 
Report of Nominating Committee .... 

Subscribers to the Building Fund .... 

Report of Special Committee, Society of the Cincinnati 
Records of the 1st Adjourned Seventy-ninth Annual Meet- 
ing, Oct. 9, 1901 ...... 

Biographical : 

Rev. James H. Fitts ...... 

John 1). Haselton ...... 

Fred G. Hartshorn ...... 

Joseph C. A. Hill 

Records of the Eightieth Annual Meeting, June 11, 1902 
Annual Report of the Secretary . 
Address, by John Scales, " Master John Sullivan of 

Somersworth and Berwick and His Family 11 
Annual Report of the Treasurer ..... 

41 " Auditor . . . 

" " Librarian . 

Report of Nominating Committee .... 

Records of the 1st Adjourned Eightieth Annual Meeting, 
June 16, 1902 ...... 

Records of the 2d Adjourned Eightieth Annual Meeting, 
Dec. 10, 1902 ...... 

Address, by Rev. D. C. Knowles, D. D., " Life and 
Character of Bishop Osman C. Baker 11 

1 14-129 
1 14 











1 80-201 





Records of the 3d Adjourned Eightieth Annual Meeting 
Jan. 13, 1903 .... 

Report on Historic Sites . . . "'. 

of Special Committee 
Address, by E. J. 13 urn ham, " Life and Public Se 
of John Dudley of Raymond" . 
Records of the 4th Adjourned Eightieth Annual Meeting, 
Feb. 1 1 , 1903 .... 

Rrcord* of the *5th Adjourned Eightieth Annual Meeting 
March 1 1, 1903 .... 

Records of the 6th Adjourned Eightieth Annual Meeting 
April 8, 1903 ..... 

Address, by Henry M. Baker. " Gen. Nathaniel 
som " ...... 

Records of the 7th Adjourned Eightieth Annual Me 

May 13. 1903 
II ograpliical : 

Harry Bingham ..... 

Lewis Downing, Jr. 

Moses Humphrey 

Charles A. Busiel .... 

John T. Perry ..... 

Charles T. Means .... 

Rev. Charles L. Tappan 
Rev. Moses T. Runnels 
Harwell P. Holden .... 

John \V. Noyes 

Records of the Eighty-First Annual Meeting, June 10 
Annual Report of the Secretary . 
" Treasurer . 

Librarian . 

Standing Committee . 
Report of Special Committee 
Address, by George F. Morris, «« Maj. Benjamin Whit- 
comb, Ranger and Partisan Leader in the Rev- 
olution 1 ' ........ 

Records of the ist Adjourned Eighty-first Annual Meeting, 
Dec. 9, 1 903 ....... 

Records of the 2d Adjourned Eighty-first Annual Meeting, 
Jan. 20, 1904 . . 







I903 2 







Address, by Amos J. Blake, "Life and Character of 

Amos A. Parker 1 '' ...... 324 

Records of the 3d Adjourned Eighty-first Annual Meeting, 
Feb. 10, 1904 ..... 

Records of the 4th Adjourned Eighty-first Annual Meeting 
March 9, 1904 ..... 

Records of the 5th Adjourned* Eighty-first Annual Meeting 
May 1 1, 1904 ..... 

Biographical : 360- 

John Ballard 
Cora K. Bell 
Virgil C. Oilman 
Isaac A. Hill 
Leonard A. Morrison . 
Joseph Pinkham 
Cyrus Sargeant . 
Dr. Claudius Webster 
Records of the Eighty-Second Annual Meeting, June 8, 

1904 .... . 369- 

Annual Report of the Secretary . 
" " Treasurer . 
" " Auditors . 
" '«' Librarian . 
Report of the Nominating Committee 
Records of the 1st Adjourned Eighty-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, Sept. 27, 1904 383- 

Records of the 2d Adjourned Eighty-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, Dec. 7, 1904 385- 

Address, by Charles Cowley, "The Life and Public 
Service of the Late Admiral Belknap of the 

United States Navy* 1 385- 

Records of the 3d Adjourned Eighty-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, Jan. 1 1 , 1905 ....... 

Records of the 4th Adjourned Eighty-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, Feb. 3, 1905 395- 

Address, by Col. Daniel Hall, " The Civic Record of 

New Hampshire in the Civil War" . . . 395- 

Records of the 5th Adjourned Eighty-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, March 2, 1905 ..... 
Records of the 6th Adjourned Eighty-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, April 12, 1905 . . . . • 414- 












-4 '4 


KccortU iaJFthe 7th Adjourned E 

Biographical : 

William C. Todd 
1). Arthur Brown 
Fletcher Ladd . 
Mary K. Bell . 
William G. Carter 
Chark-.s "C. Danforth 

Central Index . ... 

Index, of Names 


Second Annual Meet- 






Concord, June 14, 1899. 

The seventy-seventh annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society at 
Concord, Wednesday, June 14, 1899, at eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon, President Stevens in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The report of the secretary with reference to membership of 
the Society was as follows : 

Whole number of members, June 8, 1898, 176 

Klected to membership during the year, 22, of which 

number 11 have qualified, n 

Making a total of 
Less reductions, as follows 
From resignations, 


Total, 12 

Present membership, 175 

The- report of the treasurer, William P. Fiske, was read and 
approved, and ordered to be placed on file. 


Receipts credited to general income : 

Income from permanent fund, $487.50 

Income from savings bank, 14.68 

New members, 55°° 

Assessments, 378.00 

Life membership, 100.00 

Hooks, etc., sold, 73-5° 
Payment of dividend % Johnson Loan 

& Trust Co., debenture, 30.00 

State appropriation, 500.00 

Borrowed money, 800.00 


Income from Todd fund for purchase 

of books, #38.75 


Expenditures charged to general income : 

Printing and binding-, 

$i 4 2. 3 S 

Fuel and water. 




2 2 

2 5 

insurance, fc 




1 2 


Salary of librarian, 



N. F. Carter, incidental expenses, 



Taxes (two years) on Western farms, 



Interest on purchase money, 


2 5 


1 00 


Hooks, etc., 



Improvements on Chadwick lot, 



Paid on note, 





Permanent fund, as of June 1, 1898, 

$1 1,000.00 

Current funds, as of June 1, 1898, 

*>3Q2 95 


$i3> I0 3-75 

Land purchased by vote of the Societ 




To new account : 

Permanent fund, 

$1 i,i 00.00 

Current funds, 


Todd Fund. 

To investment, 




sale of 5 C, B. & Q. rights, 



By paid for genealogical works, 



Balance, $1,030.51 

Securities in hands of the treasurer : 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s debentures, $500 each, 
Receipt, Johnson Loan & Trust Co., 




3 Concord Land & Water Power Co.'s bonds, 

$ioo each, 
2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad bonds, 

4%, $500 each, 
2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad bonds, 

6%, $1,000 each 
1 Now York & New England Railroad bond, 7 °/ , 
1 Little Rock & Ft. Smith Railroad bond, 7%, 
Mortgage loan, 
5 shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad 

1 j .shares Concord & Montreal Railroad stock, 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 
( ash on hand, 

Todd Fluid. 

5 shares Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad 

stock, 5 %, 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 


1 ,000.00 

1 ,000.00 
j ,000.00 




$n f 303-75 

53°-"5 I 



I have this day examined the account of W. P. Fiske, treas- 
urer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, for the year 
ending June 13, 1899, and find the same correctly cast and 
sustained by satisfactory vouchers. I have also examined the 
securities constituting the funds of the Society and find them 
correct. John C. Thorne, 

Committee of Standing Committee. 

Concord, N. H., June 13, 1899. 

The certificate of the standing committee followed the 're- 
port of the treasurer, and was ordered placed on file. 


The standing committee of this Society would report that 
they have attended to their duties as far as possible the past 

The matter of chief importance has been the purchase of the 
adjoining land — known as the Chadwick property — by the 
Society, on recommendation of this committee. This was 


unanimously voted to be done at the adjourned annual meet- 
ing held April 12, and the sum of $1,825 wa s appropriated for 
the purpose, and the treasurer was authorized to receive the 
deeds. The treasurer has carried out these instructions and 
the land is now the property of the Society. The committee 
were empowered, by vote, to properly care for and grade said 
lot, which has been done, as can be seen to-day, at an expense 
of only $58.39. Your committee were very fortunate in ar- 
• ranging for the filling of the cellars without extra expense ; the 
mayor, Mi\ Martin, and the street commissioner, Mr. Johnson, 
upon representation, agreed to dump there the street cleanings 
and nearly four hundred loads were used. The committee 
are very thankful to these officials for this timely service. 

The duties of this committee, according to Sect. 5, Art. 4, of 
the By-laws are also those of auditors, so a committee from your 
committee have thoroughly examined the accounts of the treas- 
urer and find the same correct and supported by proper 

vouchers — while the investments were found on hand all 

agreeing to the report of the treasurer as. given. 
Respectfully submitted, 

John C. Thorne, 
For the Committee. 

The report of the librarian, Rev. N. F. Carter, was presented, 
which was accepted and ordered to be placed on file. The re- 
port is as follows : 


In presenting the annual statement of the condition of the 
library your librarian is happy to report commendable progress 
towards bringing it into such shape as to make everything it 
contains easily and quickly accessible to its many patrons. All 
mounted maps have been arranged, numbered, catalogued, and 
made ready for convenient use. The many loose maps of 
smaller size, genealogical charts, plans of towns, and the like, 
to the number of more than two hundred, have been mounted 
on stiff card-board, arranged, numbered, and catalogued, and 
placed in case and drawers, for ready finding. Our collection 
of portraits has been labeled for the better accommodation of 
visitors. One hundred and seventy-five boxes of catalogues 
and documents of the various grades of educational institutions 
have been arranged, labeled, catalogued, and placed in alpha- 
betical order on the balustrade above the pictures. Ninety 
boxes of classified sermons, twenty-one of political pamphlets, 
nearly one hundred of reports of various institutions and mis- 


ccllaneous documents, and the like, have been similarly treated, 
and, to save shelving, placed in order on top of alcoves. Any- 
thing they contain can be readily found. The general classifi- 
cation of the library is fast approaching completion, though 
there is considerable miscellaneous matter yet to be put in order. 
The need of more room is apparent. 

The accessions to the library during the past year have been 
seven hundred and eight, bound volumes, and two thousand 
(our hundred and thirteen pamphlets — three thousand one hun- 
dred and tiventy-one in all. This does not include town re- 
ports, nor the large number of periodicals received, contribut- 
ing considerably towards filling gaps in series. 

I). mors are the following: 


Abbott, Miss Frances M., 
Abbott, Mrs. J. S., 
Aiken, Rev. K. ]., 
Allen, Frederick J., 
Amen, Prof. Harlan P., 
Anagnos, M., 
Armstrong, George W., 
Atkinson, Edward, 
Ayling, Gen. A. 1)., 
H.'iker, Henry M., 
Ji.ilch, Thomas W., 
JUrtlctt, J. C, 
jlatchellor, A. S., 
Bachelder, Nahum J., 
Meek with, A. C, 
Hellas, H. H., 
Bcnner, Allen R., 
Benton, Joseph, 
lk-tts, Fred A., 
Ilingham, George W., 
Hingham, 1 larry, 
Bill well, Charles \V., 
lllake, John L., 
llUlichard, Miss Grace, 
Blumburg, Anton, 
Btttkett, A. L., 
Bradley, Moses II., 
Urigham, \V. 1-. Taylor, 
Brown, Krnest, 
Brown, F. II., 
Brown, J. W., * 



2 2 






2 1 



i i 







Burton, C. M., 
Caldwell, William H., 
Calvin, Samuel, 
Campbell, Prof. Alfred H. 
Carleton, William J., 
Carpenter, Rev. C. C, 
Carter, Rev. N. F., 
Carter, Mrs. N. F., 
Carter, Solon A., 
Chandler, William E., 
Chase, Charles P., 
Childs, Dr. William, 
Cilley, John P., 
Clarke, Mrs. Arthur E., 
Clark, Rev. Frank G., 
Cleaves, George P., 
Cobb, Rev. L. H., 
Cochran, J. A., 
Comstock, D. Y., 
Comstock, John M., 
Conn, Dr. G. P., 
Cooper, V. C, 
Cousins, Rev, E. M., 
Crao<>- T W 
Crisp, F. A., 
Cross, George N., 
Crunden, F. M. 
Cud more, P., 
Cummings, William H., 
Curran, Mrs. M. II., 
Daniels, Alfred H., 











Davis, Mrs. Lucy R., 


Jewell, M. Blanche, 


Davis, William F., 


Kasson, J. F., 


Denio, Herbert W., 


Kennedy, John, 

2 3 

Dickinson, Thomas A., 


Kimball, Benjamin A., 

Dike, Rev. S. W., 


Kimball, Henry A., 


Dodge, J. H., 


Kimball, John, 


Eastman, Samuel C, 


King, Horatio C, 


Elliott, Rev. L. H., 


Knowlton, George W., 


Emerson, C. F., 


Lamberton, James M., 


Ernst, F. W.* 


Landers, Albert C, 

1 2 

Farnsworth, F. T., 


Lane, Thomas W., 


Fiske, William P., 


Linehan, John C, 


Flanders, F. L., 


Little, George T., 


Fletcher, Prof. W. I., 


Little, Miss Priscilla, 


Gallinger, Jacob H., 

l 3 

McFarland, Miss Annie 

A., 1 

Gane, W. H., 


McFarland, Henry, 


Gerould, Rev. S. L., 


McQuesten, Evarts, 


Goodridge, Rev. George E 

• 5 1 

Merrill, Anna, 


Goold, Nathan, 


Moore, Rev. William H. 

Gordon, Miss Lucy A., 


Morrison, Rev. N. J., 


Green, Dr. S. A., 


Murkland, Rev. Charles 


Green low, Lucy H., 


Odlin, James E., 


Hackett, Chauncey C, 


Olim, William M., 

3 1 

Hall, A. A., 


Ord way,' John C, 


Hall, E. W., 

[I 3 

Page, Charles T., 


Hanson, Anna, 


Page, Miss Mary A., 


Hart, James H., 


Palmer, Mrs. C. F., 


Hastings, Hugh, 


Parker, Prof. Isaac A., 


Hastings, V. C, 


Parsons, Mary A., 


Hayward, Rev. Silvanus, 


Parvin, Newton R., 


Hazen, Rev. Henry A., 


Pearson, Edward N., 


Herbert, Miss Alma J., 


Perry, John T., 


Hill, Frank A., 

r 9 

Porter, Fitz John, 


Hill, Rev. H. F., 


Prentis, Charles E., 


Hill, J. C. A, 

2 7 

Prescott, Mrs. B. F., 


Hills, W. D., 


Preston, Frank W., 

2 3 

Holt, II. J., . 


Pritchett, Henry S., 


Howard, H. P>., 

2 5 

Raymond & Whitcomb, 


Hoyt, Dr. J. Elizabeth, 


Rix, Guy S., 


Hubbard, Dr. Oliver P., 


Rogers, Horatio, 


Humphrey, Moses, 


Root, Azariah S., 


Huntington, W. R., 


Root, L. Carroll, 

T 35 

Hurlin, Rev. William, 


Ropes, Rev. William L. 


Ives, T. S., 


Sanger, Austin T., 

3 2 

Jameson, Rev. E. 0., 


Shatter, Rev. E. F., 



Sheldon, George, 
Shepard, Frank E., 
Sherwood, George H. T. 
Smiley, Albert K., 
Smith, Albert B., 
Smith, Mrs. A. L., 
Smith, Miss Grace P., 
Snow, Rev. Elihu, 
Snow & Farnham, 
Stevens, L. I)., 
Stillson, H. L.,* 
Stilts, Rev. W. C, 
Stone, Mason S., 
Storrs, Charles, 
Swett, Charles E., 
Thome, John C, 
Thornton, George E., 
Todd, Mrs. George E., 
Trask, Julian F., 
Trask, W. P., 








Truesdell, C. T., 
Turnley, P. T., 
Waldron, Rev. I). W., 
Walker, Isaac, 
Walker, Joseph B., 
Walton, J. P., 
Warner, George E., 
Waterman, Rev. Lucius, 
Watson, Dr. Irving A., 
Whidden, C. W., 
Whitcher, William F., 
White, James T. & Co., 
Whittier, Rev. J. II., 
Wigglesworth, George, 
Willard, Mrs. I). E., 
Willey, Rev. Samuel H., 
Williams, Job, 
Win slow, Rev. William C 
Woodbury, John, 
Wyman, Partridge & Co., 






Contributions have been received from the following histor- 
ical associations and societies as follows : 

American Catholic, 


New England, 




New Haven Colony, 




New Jersey, 




New York, 






Essex Institute, 










Rhode Island, 


Long [sland, 






Western Reserve, 












Libraries have donated as follows : 

Boston Public, 


Los Angeles, 

N. II. State, 

New York Public, 

Syracuse Central, 
Vermont State, 

1 2 



From institutions of learning we have received as follows : 

Berea College, 1 Mount Holyoke College, i 

Boston University, i Oberlin, 62 

Brown University, 58 Tufts, , 2 

Colby College, 1 University of California, 4 

Columbia College, 1 University of New. York, 1 

Cornell University, 1 University of Pennsylvania, 2 

Drew Theological Seminary, 2 University of Toronto, 1 

Harvard University, 1 Wellesley College, 1 

Johns Hopkins University, 7 Wesleyan University, 2 

Mass. Inst, of Technology, 46 Yale University, 3 

The following societies contributed : 

American Antiquarian Society, 3 

American Museum of Natural History, 3 

American Philosophical Society, 3 

Appalachian Club, 1 

Canadian Antiquarian, 1 

Free Museum of Science and Art, 1 

Museum of Science and Art, 1 

Royal Academy, Stockholm, 1 

Worcester Society of Antiquity, 1 

From miscellaneous institutions we have received as follows : 

American Congregational Association, 1 

American Unitarian Association, 51 

Atchison & Sante Fe R. R. Co., 1 

Bank Commissioners, 2 

Benevolent Fraternity of Churches, 1 

Bookbinding Co., 1 

Boston Children's Friend Society, 18 

Boston Children's Hospital, 19 

Boston Home for Aged Men, 25 

Boston Provident Association, 17 

Boston Y. M. C. A., 3 

Boston Y. M. C. U., 25 

Buffalo Y. M. C. A., 1.6 

Bureau of Education, 1 

Butler Insane Flospital, 38 

Channing Home, Boston, 6 

Chase Home for Children, Portsmouth, 5 

Children's Aid Society, Boston, 1 

Church Home Society, Boston, v 7 

Church Relief Society, Chicago, 1 


City Clerk, Lawrence, Mass., 2 

City Clerk, Lowell, Mass., 5 

Civil Service Commission, 3 

Concord Home of the Aged, ^8 

Consumptives' Home, 15 

First National Hank, Concord, ] 

Government, 126 

Graham Home, .Brooklyn, . 7 

Home for Aged Women, Boston, 34 

Interstate Commerce Commission, 3 

Little Wanderers' Home, 1 

Massachusetts General Hospital, 1 

Massachusetts School for the Idiotic, 24 

N. H. Sons of the Revolution, 1 

N. Y. Children's Aid Society, 1 

Old Residents' Association, Lowell, 1 

Philadelphia Library Company, 1 

Smithonian Institution, 16 . 

Sound Currency Reform Club, 7 

Superintendent of Documents, S3 

Unitarian Sunday-school Association, 2 

Warren St. Chapel, Boston, 17 

Wisconsin School for Deaf and Dumb, 2 

Woman's Board of Missions, 1 

Worcester Lunatic Asylum, 42 

During the year 138 volumes have been bound, making with 
the 70S received a total of 846 added. These, added to num- 
ber of volumes as reported last year, make a total of 15,118 
bound volumes. 

Seventy-eight volumes have been purchased by direction of 
the library committee, mainly genealogies, parish registers, and 

The Society is subscriber to the 

American Archaeologist. 
American Historical Revietv. 
Essex Antiquarian. 

The following publications come regularly to the library : 


Exeter Gazette. 

Nashua Telegraph. 



Bristol Enterprise. 
Canaan Reporter. 
Dover Enquirer. 
Exeter Gazette. 
Exeter News-Letter. 
J"ou mat- Transcript. 
JLittleion Courier. 
Meredith News. 
Mirror and Farmer. 
People and Patriot. 
Plymouth Record. 
Portsmouth Journal. 
Somersworth Free Press. 
Wood svi lie News. 


Book Reviews. 

Church Building Quarterly. 

Life and Light. 


Sailor's Magazine. 

Our collection of unbound newspapers is large, and con- 
stantly increasing. More room is needed for their accommo- 

The portraits of President Pierce and Jonathan Eastman, 
which were sadly out of repair, have been renewed and made , 
as good as ever by the well-known portrait painter, U. 1). 

Among the notable accessions to the library during the year 
are the family Bible of Ebenezer Webster, father of Daniel, 
containing autograph, the Synopsis Criticorum Aliorumque S. 
Scriptorum Interpretum in five folio volumes, London, 1669- 
76, from the estate of Rev. Dr. Buxton of Webster, the History of 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Co., Boston, three volumes, 
from the company, and a fine piece of tapestry from the estate 
of Mrs. Pratt of this city; also a glass bottle from Rev. II. F. 
Hill, made at Temple, N. H., where, it is said, was the first 
glass manufactory in America. 

It hardly need be said that the library is not only growing 
in size but in greater historic value with every passing year. 


Now that an ample lot is in possession of the Society, it may 
nut be amiss to suggest a consideration of the propriety of 
tome movement looking to enlargement in the not distant 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. F. Carter, 


Hun. Albert S. Wait of Newport presented the report of the 
Committee for the Publication of the Naval History of New 
Hampshire as follows : 


/♦' the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

Vour Committee on Naval History submit the following 

As soon as was practicable after their appointment under 
Jpour resolution of June 14, 1893, hereafter recited, your com- 
mittee distributed among New Hampshire men known to be, 
or to have been, connected with the navy, the following circu- 
lar, which they also caused to be published in the leading 
newspapers of the state : 


"At the Annual Meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, held in June last, on the recommendation of a special 
committee the following resolution was adopted: 

** * Resolved^ That a committee of three be appointed, whose 
duty it shall be to encourage and promote the formation of an 
association of the men of New Hampshire at present and 
formerly connected with the naval service of the United 
States, the object of such association to be, among others, the 
preparation and publication of an authentic history of the 
efforts, from the earliest times to the present, of the state and 
its citizens in the naval department of the public service; said 
Committee to act in all appropriate ways in concert with such 
MWCiation, when formed, and also to obtain for the history, 
when published, similar state patronage to that accorded to 
regimental histories under the acts of the legislature now in 

" The committee appointed under this resolution will not 
presume to intrude their ideas upon the parties of whom the 
proposed association will consist, though they will be only too 



glad to render any assistance in furtherance of the movement 
of which they may be found capable. 

"As preliminary to the work of actual organization, it has 
been suggested by a gentleman high in the naval service, that 
a list of the naval men of the state be made by the committee, 
and thereupon to invite appropriate action for the accomplish- 
ment of the object in view. 

" Following this suggestion, the committee earnestly invite 
all men of New Hampshire who have served in the navy in 
any capacity, to communicate the fact to some member of the 
committee, as early as convenient after this communication 
shall come to their notice; and thus to give their aid to a 
movement for the preservation of the history of our state in a 
branch of the public' service with which they are themselves 
so honorably identified. 

'•A. S. Wait, Newport, 

"J. C. A. WiNciATE, Stratham, 

" P. B. Cogswell, Concord, 

" Committee." 

The gentleman referred to in this circular was Rear Admiral 
George E. Belknap, whom the committee consulted upon the 
subject, and who has taken deep interest in the success of the 
work they have in hand ; and it was hoped that this action 
would meet with such response as would result in the speedy 
organization of the association proposed, and that through it 
the object of the resolution would be attained. From the wide 
dispersion of the men of the state connected with the navy, 
among, perhaps, other causes, few responded, and the active 
interest manifested in the movement was not such as appeared 
to warrant action in the formation of the association suggested; 
and it became apparent to your committee that success could 
be secured only through the adoption of some other plan. It 
occurred to them that the approval of this Society might fur- 
nish as satisfactory a guaranty of the merits of the work in 
contemplation as could that of an association such as had 
previously been proposed, and that the legislature of the 
state might probably look favorably upon a proposition to 
substitute such approval for that formerly required. 

Accordingly, during the late session of the legislature, the 
following joint resolution was prepared, which, being presented 



by the Hon. John D. Lyman, a member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, who kindly consented to interest himself in its 
favor, was. passed by both houses without opposition, and re- 
ceived the approval of the governor, February 15, 1899. 

" fasofvtd by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court convened: 

" That the provisions of the joint resolution in relation to 
the purchase of t-he histories of the military organizations of 
[\n> .st ite in the late war between the states of the Union, ap- 
proved October 21, 1887, being chapter 145 of the laws of that 
year, and also the provisions of the joint resolution upon the 
lame subject, being chapter 128 of the laws of 1889, shall ex- 
tend to, include, and be applicable to such history of the naval 
contingent of New Hampshire in the wars of the American 
colonies and the United States, as shall be hereafter first pub- 
lished under the authority and with the approval of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society." 

By this legislation the work in view is assured of the financial 
aid of the state, and it now remains to find the competent party 
who can be engaged to undertake its performance. The work 
will be somewhat wider in its scope than was first contemplated, 
by reason of the late war with Spain, in the naval glory of 
which New Hampshire has her share. The selection can 
doubtless best be made through a committee appointed for the 
purpose; and in that view your present committee recommend 
the adoption of the following resolution : 

A\ wlvttii That a committee of three be appointed, whose 
duty it shall be to select some person of sufficient scholarly 
attainments, to compose for publication the Naval History of 
New Hampshire, under the provisions of acts and resolves of 
the legislature of the state relating thereto, and in conformity 
»ith previous action of this Society; said committee to give 
all possible aid and encouragement to the work in its progress, 
to the end that it may meet such approval of this Society as to 
ti-cute for it the patronage assured to it by the legislation 

Your committee cannot without injustice to their own feel- 
ing dismiss the subject without making some reference to 
ihcir late colleague, the Hon. Parsons B. Cogswell, whose 
lamented death deprived them of the important aid which 
while in life his excellent judgment and his great interest in 
the subject committed to their charge brought to the forward- 



ing of their plans. Deeply interested in whatever related to 
the history of the state; a student not only of its passing 
events, but of the spirit which determined its sequences; a 
patriot in sentiment, and a courteous and Christian gentleman 
in his bearing towards all with whom he became associated, 
the committee have felt his loss to be irreparable, while by the 
Society it must be deeply .and permanently deplored. It can 
but be deemed fitting that this closing work of the present 
committee should bear this tribute to the memory and the 
worth of one so greatly beloved and highly esteemed. 

A. S. Wait, 

J. C. A. WlNGATE, 


The report of the committee was accepted, and the resolu- 
tion recommended by the committee adopted. Later the same 
committee was by vote continued and empowered to fill the 
vacancy in its number occasioned by the death of Mr. P. B. 
Cogswell, and further empowered, with the advice and concur- 
rence of the president of the Society, to select and agree upon 
some suitable person to undertake the aforesaid history. 

Mr. Amos Hadley moved the appointment of a committee 
of three to nominate a list of officers for the ensuing year, and 
the chair appointed as such committee, Messrs. Amos Hadley, 
Edson C. Eastman, and John C. Thome, which committee sub- 
sequently reported the following list of officers, when upon 
motion of Rev. Dr. Murkland, the secretary was authorized to 
cast the vote of the Society for the persons named for the sev- 
eral offices, after which the chair declared the same to be the 
duly elected officers for the year ensuing. 

William C. Todd. 

Vice-Presiden ts. 

Albert S. Wait, 
Henry McFarland. 

Recording Sec ret a ry . 
John C. Ordway. 


Corresponding Secreta ry 
Charles R. Corning. 

William P. Fiske. 

Nathan F. Carter. 

A T ecrologist. 

Eli E. Graves, M. D. 

Standing Com m it tee. 

Jos. C A. Hill, 
John C Thorne, 
Edson C Eastman. 

Library Conunittee. 

Amos Hadley, 
Charles L. Taplan, 
Mrs. Frances C. Stevens. 

Publish ing Com m it tee. 

Samuel C. Eastman, 
Nathan F. Carter, 
John Dowst. 

Committee on New ALembers. 

Nathan F. Carter, 
J. Eastman Pecker, 
John C. Ordway. 



Committee on Speakers. 

William C. Todd, 
Charles R. Corning, 
Howard L. Porter. 

Committee on Naval History. 

Albert S. Wait, 
J. C. A. Wingate. 

Frank B. Sanborn, of Concord, Mass., was elected a corre- 
sponding member of this Society and requested to sit with us 

The following resolutions offered by John C. Thorne were 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee be authorized to 
care for the Bradley monument and grounds, and to suitably 
mark the bounds of the land surrounding said monument, as 
deeded to this Society. 

Resolved, That the secretary, Mr. John C. Ordway, and Air. 
Joseph B. Walker be a committee requested and empowered to 
confer with Mrs. Sabine in regard to the earlier transfer, if 
agreeable to her, of the Sabine library to our Society. 

On motion of Rev. N. F. Carter, voted that the usual an- 
nual assessment of $3 be levied upon members for the ensu- 
ing year. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker gave notice in writing that, at the 
next annual meeting, it will be proposed to amend the Con- 
stitution of this Society by the adoption of an additional sec- 
tion to this effect, viz.: 

"Unless otherwise ordered by their donors the several 
specific funds of this Society shall bear their names and be 
maintained intact; but, if at any time the principal of any one 
be impaired, its income shall thereafter be applied to its 
restoration, until it shall have been brought back to its 
established amount." 

On motion of J. Eastman Pecker, the matter of a field day 
was left with the president, secretary, and librarian, with full 
power to select place and date and make the necessary 



arrangements. Subsequently, on motion of Mr. John C. 
Thome, Col. J. Eastman Pecker was added to the committee. 

A vote was passed authorizing the librarian to procure the 
printing of a suitable number of copies of the Constitution and 
By-Laws, and a list of the members of the Society. 

A vote of thanks was presented Mrs. Jesse A. Gove for 
the gift of several volumes relating to the history of Mor- 

On motion' of Col. J. E. Pecker, a vote of thanks was 
tendered the retiring president for the very able manner in 
which he has presided over the affairs of the Society during 
Ids term of office, President Stevens gracefully responding. 

Following the business proceedings the annual address was 
delivered by the Rev. Charles S. Murkland, 1). I)., president of 
tin; New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic 
Aits. His subject was ''Col. Alexander Scammell." 

A vote of thanks was tendered the speaker on motion of 
Hon. A. S. Wait, and a copy of the address requested for pub- 

Voted to adjourn to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 



Adjournments of the seventy-seventh annual meeting, 1S99- 

Meeting of Wednesday, December 13, 1S99, called to order 
at 7 : 30 p. m. 

In the absence of the president, Vice-President McFarland 
occupied the chair, and introduced Prof. Charles L. Parsons of 
Durham, who delivered an address on "The Capture of Fort 
William and Mary." 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, the thanks of the 
Society were voted the speaker, and a copy of the address 
requested for preservation or publication in the Collections of 
the Society. 


BER 14 AND 15, i 77A . 

Few events in the history of New Hampshire have excited 
more interest or caused more controversy than the successful 
attack upon Fort William and Mary, in Portsmouth harbor 
on December 14, 1774; the removal of the powder contained 
in its magazine on the same afternoon; and the second cap- 
ture of the fort, together with the small arms and other 
stores, on the night of the following day. Too much has been 
written that is not history, and many statements concerning 
these events are generally accepted as facts which have 
had their rise in the fertile imagination of some writer. Many 
articles have appeared in the public press, but only a few 
really scholarly attempts have been made to determine the 
actual facts. 1 

Throughout the year 1774 the people of Portsmouth and 
vicinity shared in full measure the unrest that was felt 
throughout the whole country. Much sympathy was expressed 
for the people of Boston, and the populace were beginning to 
show signs of resisting the odious domination of the British 
ministry. The assembly had shown a disposition to refuse to 
vote the necessary supplies and men for Port William and 
Miry. In May a message was sent from the committee at 
Portsmouth to the committee at boston, promising assistance 
in anything agreed upon by the colonies. 2 On June 8th, 
Governor YVentworth dissolved the assembly which he' had 
from time to time adjourned to prevent action toward the 
appointment of delegates to a provincial congress. 3 On 
July 4, twenty-seven chests of tea had been quietly brought 
into Portsmouth. A town-meeting was immediately called, 
the consignee was forced to export the tea, and the vessel 

1 An especially fortunate find was made in the library of Mr- Lucien Thompson of 
Durham, N. 11., consisting of several early copies of the New Hampshire S/y and 
the New Hampshire Mercury of the year 1 7S9, which appear to be the only known 
ones extant and which contain descriptions of the affair over the signatures ol two of 
the participants. Especial acknowledgment is due for the aid winch Mr. Thompson 
has rendered. 

2 American Archives, by Peter Force, Vol. I, /. 337. 

3 Letter of Governor Wentworth, American Archives, Vol. I,/. 393. 


l 9 

carrying it was kept under guard, until it finally sailed for 
Halifax. 1 On July 6, Governor Wentworth ordered the sheriff 
to direct the committee of correspondence, who had met to 
choose delegates for a general American congress, to disperse 
and keep the king's peace. This they did, but only to meet pri- 
vately later in a tavern where they chose delegates to assemble 
in Exeter. ' J On August 29, Governor Wentworth wrote the Earl 
of Dartmouth that the assembly had met in Exeter, and adds "I 
think this Province is much more moderate than any other to 
the southward, although the spirit of enthusiasm is spread and 
requires the utmost vigilance and prudence to restrain it from 
violent excess." y Again later, Governor Wentworth reported 
the arrival of a second consignment of tea with results similar 
to the first. On November 15 he reported continued discon- 
tent throughout the province, and fears that disturbances will 
continue unless quiet is restored in Massachusetts Bay. 4 On 
December 2, he wrote that there is a growing unrest and a 
disposition on the part of the people to follow all the 
•'Resolves of the Congress and to approve them fully." 

Thus it will be seen that when Paul Revere brought his 
message on December 13, 1774, from the committee in 
Boston to Mr. Samuel Cutts of the Portsmouth committee, 
announcing that troops were to be sent to reinforce the fort, 
and bringing information, also, of the removal of the military 
stores in Rhode Island, and of the king's order in council 
prohibiting the exportation of gunpowder and military stores 
to America, the people were in a state of mind ready for 
revolt. Mr. Cutts immediately called the committee together, 
and they proceeded to plan for the capture of the powder 
upon the following day. Governor Wentworth seems to have 
had some intimation of what might happen, for he sent word 
to Captain Cochran, commanding at the fort, to be upon his 

1 Letter of Governor Wentworth to Earl of Dartmouth, American Archives, Vol. 

1 American Archives, Vol. I,//. 516, 536. 
8 American Archives, Vol. I,/. 744. 
4 American Archives, Vol. I,/. 982. 
8 American Archives, Vol. 1,/. 1014. 


guard. In Wentworth's report on the affair, however, he- 
states that "before any suspicion could be had of their inten- 
tions, about four hundred men were gathered together." Cer- 
tain it is that, about twelve o'clock on Wednesday, December 
14, all secrecy ended ; for members of the committee, accom- 
panied by drum and fife, paraded the streets of Portsmouth 
and called the citizens together. By order of Governor Went- 
worth the chief justice of the province made proclamation 
that what they proposed was open rebellion against the king, 
but they did not waiver, and having finally gathered together 
a company of their townsmen, and such others as could be 
obtained from the adjoining towns of Newcastle and Rye, in 
all about four hundred men, they proceeded to Fort William 
and Mary. There they were warned by Captain Cochran not 
to enter, and were fired upon both by cannon and small arms. 
No one appears to have been injured, however, and they 
immediately stormed the fort, and eabily overcame such 
resistance as the one officer, and five effective men could oiler. 
Having captured the fort, they proceeded to haul down the 
king's colors, and then removed all of the gunpowder in the 
magazine, with the exception of one barrel. About one hun- 
dred barrels of powder were so obtained, and these were sent 
up the Piscataqua to Durham, that same evening, with a letter 
to General Sullivan, who had not been in Portsmouth that day. 

On the following day, Thursday, December 15, 1774, a party 
of men came from Durham to Portsmouth, and, that night, 
together with other citizens, under the leadership of John Sulli- 
van, they again took the fort and carried off the lighter cannon 
and all of the small arms. On Friday, a party under command 
of Captain Nathaniel Folsom of Exeter, came to Portsmouth 
and remained on guard all day; until in the afternoon, on the 
rising tide, the arms were sent up the river. They finally 
reached Durham ; but only after many weary hours of cutting- 
through the ice, which had just formed in the branch of the 
Piscataqua, which leads up to that town. 

The main details of the proceedings of the three days may 
easily be gathered from the following official documents and 
letters of the time which have fortunately been preserved to us. 


On Wednesday, December 14, 1774, Governor Wentworth 
wrote to Governor Gaere as follows : 1 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
Dec. 14, 1774. 

Sir. — I have the honor to receive your Excellency's letter of 
the 19th inst. With the letter from the Secretary of State, which 
were both delivered to me on Monday evening last by Mr. 

It is with the utmost concern I am called upon by my duty 
to the King to communicate to your Excellency a most unhappy 
affair perpetrated here this day. 

Yesterday in the afternoon, Paul Revere arrived in this town, 
express from the committee in Boston to another committee in 
this town, and delivered his dispatch to Mr. Samuel Cutts, 
merchant in this town, who immediately convened the commit- 
tee of which he was one, and as I learn, laid it before them. 
This day before any suspicions could be had of their intentions, 
about four hundred men were collected together, and immedi- 
ately proceeded to his Majesty's Castle, William and Mary, at 
the entrance of this harbour, and forcibly took possession 
thereof; notwithstanding the bes't defence that could be made 
by Captain Cochran (whose conduct has been extremely laud- 
able, as your Excellency will see by the enclosed letter from 
him), and by violence carried away upwards of one hundred 
barrels of powder belonging to the King, deposited in the 
castle. I am informed that expresses have been circulated 
through the neighboring towns, to collect a number of people 
to-morrow, or as soon as possible, to carry away all the cannon 
and arms belonging to the castle which they will undoubtedly 
effect, unless some assistance should arrive from Boston in 
time- to prevent it. This event too plainly proves the imbecil- 
ity of this government to carry into execution his Majesty's 
order in Council, for seizing and detaining arms and ammuni- 
tion imported into this Province, without some strong ships of 
war in this harbor. Neither is the Province or custom house 
treasury in any degree safe, if if should come into the mind of 
the popular leaders to seize upon them. 

The principal persons who took the lead in this enormity are 
well known. Upon the best information I can obtain, this 
mischief originates from the publishing of the Secretary of 
State's letter, and the King's order in Council at Rhode Island, 
prohibiting the exportation of military stores from Great 

1 American Archives, Vol. I, /. 1042; Appendix Belknap, Vol. Ill, p. 328, 1S12; 
N. H. Provincial Papers. Vol. VI I,/. 420. 


Britain, and the proceedings in that Colony, in consequence of 
it, which have been published here by the forementioned Mr. 
Revere ; and the dispatch brought, before which all was per- 
fectly quiet and peaceable here. . I am etc. 

(Signed) J. Wentworth. 

The report of Captain Cochran to Governor Wentworth re- 
.ferred to above, dated the 14th of December, 1774, reads: l 

May it please your Excellency : 

I received your Excellency's favour of yesterday, and in obe- 
dience thereto kept a strict watch all night, and added two 
men to my usual number, being all I could get. Nothing 
material occurred till this day, one o'clock, when I was in- 
formed there were a number of people coming to take posses- 
sion of the Fort, upon which, having only five effective men 
with me, I prepared to make the best defence I could, and 
pointed some guns to those places where I expected they would 
enter. About three o'clock, the Fort was beset on all sides by 
upwards of four hundred men. I told them on their peril not 
to enter. They replied they would. J immediately ordered 
three four pounders to be fired on them, and then the small 
arms; and, before we could be ready to lire again, we were 
stormed on all quarters, and they immediately secured both 
me and my men, and kept us prisoners about one hour and a 
half, during which time they broke open the powder-house, and 
took all the powder away, except one barrel ; and having put 
it into boats and sent it off, they released me from confinement. 
To which I can only add, that I did all in my power to defend 
the fort, but all my efforts could not avail against so great a 
number. I am your Excellency's, etc., 

(Signed) John Cochran. 

On Thursday, the 15th of December, Governor Wentworth 
ordered thirty effective men to be enlisted or impressed for the 
protection of Fort William and Mary without result, as the fol- 
lowing will testify : 2 

Province ok New Hamp". 

2'o Capt.Johu Dennet &* the Commission officer of the First Reg- 
ime/it of Militia in the Province of New Hampshire : 
Gentlemen. — You are without Delay out of your several 

companies to enlist or Impress Thirty effective men to serve 

1 American Archives, Vol. I,/. 1042; Appendix to Belknap, Vol. HI,/. 330; N. II. 
Provincial Papers, Vol. VII, /. 420. 

2 N. H. Provincial Papers, Vol. II, /. 421. 


2 3 

' his Majesty as a Guard & Protection to his Fort William and 
Mary at New Castle and make return immediately to me of 
your doings therein with the Names of the Persons so enlisted 
etc., that Provision may be made for their being regularly 
placed in the said Garrison, for all which this is your Warrant. 
I am Gentlemen, your friend etc 

Theodore Atkinson, Maj r Gen 1 . 
Dated at Portsm on the 15th of 
Decern 1 " 1774 12 o'clock at noon. 

Indorsed on the back of the foregoing order is the following: 

Pursuant to the within Warrant we have Paraded the streets, 
caused the Drums to be Beat, & Proclamation to be made at 
all the Publick corners, & on the Place of Parade. No Person 
appearing to Enlist, we wait for further orders. 

John Den net, ^ Commanding 
Portsmouth, 15 December James Stoodley, \ Officers. 
6 o'clock, p. m. 

On Friday Governor Wentworth wrote to General Gage a 
further report, dated Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the 16th 
of December, 1774 : x 

On Wednesday last after 12 o'clock, an insurrection sud- 
denly took place in town, and immediately proceeded to Mis 
Majesty's castle, attacked, overpowered, wounded and confined 
the Captain, and thence took away all the King's powder. 
Yesterday, numbers were assembled, and, last night, brought 
oil many cannon, etc. and sixty muskets. This day, the town 
is full of armed men, who refuse to disperse, but appear de- 
termined to complete the dismantling of the fortress entirely. 
Hitherto the people have abstained from private or personal 
injuries; how long they will be so prevailed on, it is impossi- 
ble to say. I most sincerely lament the present distractions, 
which seem to have burst forth by means of a letter, from 
William Cooper to Samuel Cutts, delivered here on Tuesday 
last, P. M., by Paul Revere. I have not time to add further 
on this lamentable subject. 

On December 1 6th a gentleman in Portsmouth wrote to a 
gentleman in New York the following letter:' 2 

1 American Archives, Vol. I, /. 1042; Appendix Belknap, Vol. III. /. 331, 1S12 ; 
N. 11. Provincial Papers, Vol. VI I,/. 422. 

1 Mass. Gazette, Post Boy e> Advertiser, Dec. 19, 1774 ; N. II. Gazette of Dec. 23, 
1774; American Archives, Vol. 1,/. 1042; New Hampshire Provincial Papers, Vol. 
VII, p. 423. 


Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Dec 1 ' 16th, 1774. 
We have been in confusion here for two days, on account of 
an express from Boston, informing that two Regiments were 
coming to take possession of our Forts. By beat of, two 
hundred men immediately assembled and went to the Castle, 
in two gondolas, who on their way were joined by one hundred 
and fifty more, and demanded the surrender of the Fort, which 
Captain Cochran refused, and fired three Guns, but no lives 
were lost; upon which they immediately scaled the walls, dis- 
armed the 'Captain and his men, took possession of ninety- 
seven barrels of Powder, put it on board the Gondolas, brought 
it up to Town, and went off with it some distance into the 
country. Yesterday the town was full of men from the coun- 
try, who marched in in fours, chose a Committee to wait on 
The Governor, who assured them he knew of no such design 
as sending Troops, Ships, etc. This morning I hear there are 
a thousand or fifteen hundred men on their inarch to town. 
The Governor and the Council sat yesterday on the affair, and 
are now meeting again. The men who came clown, are those 
of the best property and vote in the Province. 

Another gentleman in Portsmouth, writing on Saturday, 
December the 17th, gives also the main facts in the case, but 
he states that the powder was sent up to Exeter, which may 
have been reported at the time, but which is shown to be 
incorrect by the letter of General Sullivan, published in the 
New Hampshire Mercury of May, 1 785. Lie also magnifies 
some of the other facts. The letter, however, adds its testi- 
mony to the main occurrences of the week. 1 

Portsmouth, N. PL, December 17, 1774. 
On Wednesday last a Drum and fife pervaded the streets of 
Portsmouth, accompanied by several Committee-men, and the 
Sons of Liberty, publickly avowing their intention of taking 
possession of Fort William and Mary, which was garrisoned by 
six invalids. After a great number of people had collected 
together, they embarked on board scows, boats, etc., entered 
the Fort, seized the Gunpowder, fired off the Guns, and car- 
ried the Powder up to Exeter a Town fifteen miles distant. 
The quantity was about two hundred to two hundred and 
twenty barrels; the day after, while the Governor and Council 
were assembled in the Council Chamber, between two and 
three hundred persons came from Durham, and the adjoining 

1 American Archives, Vol. I,/. 1043; N - H - Provincial Papers, Vol. VII, /. 423. 



2 5 

Towns, headed by Major Sullivan, one of the Delegates of the 
Congress; they drew up before the Council Chamber, and 
demanded an answer to the following question : Whether there 
were any ships or troops expected here, or if the Governor "had 
wrote for any? They were answered that his Excellency knew 
of no forces coming hither, and that none had been sent for; 
upon which they retired to the Taverns and about ten or eleven 
o'clock at night, a large party repaired to the Fort, and it is 
said -they carried away all the small arms. This morning about 
sixty horsemen 'accoutred, came into Town by eleven o'clock 
their intention, it is suspected, is to dismantle the Fort, and 
throw the Cannon, consisting of a fine train of 42-pounders, 
into the sea. 

In a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated " Portsmouth, 
20th Dec. 1774," Governor Wentvvorth gives most complete 
account, and says : l 

On Tuesday, the 13th instant in the afternoon, one Paul 
Revere arrived express with letters from some of the leaders 
in Boston to Mr. Samuel Cutts, merchant of this town. Re- 
ports were soon circulated that the fort at Rhode Island had 
been dismantled, and the Gunpowder and other stores removed 
up to Providence, and an Extract of the circular letter direct- 
ing the seizure of gunpowder was printed in a Boston news- 
paper of the 1 2th in consequence, as I have been informed, of 
the said letters having been communicated to the Mouse of 
Assembly at Rhode Island. And it was also falsely given out 
that troops were embarking at Boston to come and take pos- 
session of William and Mary Castle in this Harbour. These 
rumours soon raised an alarm in the town ; and, although I 
did not expect that the people would be so audacious as to 
make any attack of the castle, yet I sent orders to the captain 
at the Fort to be upon his guard. 

On Wednesday, the 1.4th, about 12 o'clock, news was 
brought to me that a Drum was beating about the town to 
collect the Populace together in order to go and take away the 
Gunpowder and dismantle the Fort. Immediately sent the 
Chief Justice of the Province to warn them from engaging in 
such an attempt. He went to them, where they were collected 
in the centre of the town, near the townhouse, explained to 
them the nature of the offence they proposed to commit, told 
them it was not short of Rebellion and intreated them to de- 
sist from it and disperse. But. all to no purpose. They went 

1 New England Historical and Genealogical Reg., 1869,/. 270. 



to the Island; and being found there by the inhabitants of the 
towns of Newcastle and Rye, formed in all a body of about 
four hundred men, and the Castle being in too weak a condi- 
tion for defence (as I have in former letters explained to your 
Lordship) they forced their entrance, in spite of Captain Coch- 
ran; who defended it as long as he could: but having only 
the assistance of five men, their numbers overpowered them. 
After they entered the Fort, they seized upon the Captain, tri- 
umphantly gave three Huzzas, and hauled down the King's 
colours. *" They then put the captain and men under confine- 
ment, broke open the Gunpowder magazine, and carried off 
about joo Barrels of Gunpowder, but discharged the captain 
and men from their confinement before their departure. 

On Thursday, the 15th, in the morning, a party of men 
came from the country, accompanied by Mr. (Gen. fohn) Sulli- 
van, one of the New Hampshire delegates to the congress, to 
take away the cannon from the fort also. Mr. Sullivan de- 
clared that he had taken pains to prevail upon them to return 
home again ; and said as there was no certain intelligence of 
troops being coming to take possession of the Castle, he would 
still use his utmost endeavors to disperse them. 

While the town was thus full of men, a committee of them 
came to me to solicit for pardon or a suspension of prosecu- 
tion against the persons that took away the Gunpowder. I 
told them I could not promise them any such thing; but, if 
they dispersed and restored the Gunpowder, which I earnestly 
exhorted them to do, I said I hoped His Majesty may be 
thereby induced to consider it an alleviation of the, offence. 
They parted from me, in all appearance, perfectly disposed to 
follow the advice I had given them ; and, having proceeded 
directly to the rest of their associates, they all publickly voted, 
about five o'clock in the afternoon, near the Town House, to 
return home ; which it was thought they would have done, and 
it also was further expected that the gunpowder would have 
been restored by the morning. 

But the people instead of dispersing, went to the castle in 
the night, headed by Mr. Sullivan, and took away sixteen 
pieces of cannon, about sixty muskets, and other military 
stores, and brought them to the out Borders of the Town. 

On Friday morning, the 16th, Mr. Folsom, the other dele- 
gate, came to town that morning, with a great number of 
armed men, who remained in Town as a guard till the flow of 
the tide in the evening when the cannon were sent in Gondolas 
up the River into the country, and they all dispersed without 
having done any personal injury to anybody in town. 


2 7 

Thev. threatened to return again in order to dismantle the 
fort entirely, and to carry off or destroy the remaining heavy 
cannon (about seventy pieces), and also to seize upon the 
Province Treasury, all of which there was reasonable ground 
to fear they would do, after what they had already done ; but 
on the Gunpowder's being taken away, I wrote to General 
Gage and Admiral Graves for assistance to restrain the bois- 
terous temper of the people; upon which the admiral ordered 
the armed ships Canceanx and Scarborough here, and they ar- 
rived (the former the 17th and the latter on the 19th) in time 
to prevent the further dismantling of the Fort. 

Further on Governor Wentworth says the government has 
no power to bring the offenders to punishment. 

No jail would hold them long and no jury would find them 
guilty; for, by the false alarm that has been raised throughout 
the country, it is considered by the weak and ignorant, who 
have the rule in these times, an act of self-preservation. 

Again he says : 

I tried to dissuade them by the civil authority, sheriff, 
magistrates, etc., and did all I could to get the militia raised, 
but to no purpose. 

Under date of December 20th, 1774, a gentleman in Boston 
writing to a Mr. Rivington of New York, says: 1 

On Monday the 12th inst. our worthy citizen, Mr. Paul 
Revere, was sent express from only two or three of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence at Boston, as I am creditably in- 
formed (of whom no number under seven are empowered to 
act) to a like committee at Portsmouth, N. II., informing them 
as 'tis said "That orders had been sent to the Governors of 
their Provinces to deliver up their several Fortifications or 
Castles to General Gage, and that a number of Troops had the 
preceding day embarked on board transports with a design to 
proceed and take possession of said Castles." That in con- 
sequence thereof the House of Assembly of Rhode Island had 
caused the Fort to be dismantled and the Guns, Ammunitions, 
etc., to be removed to Providence. 

Upon receiving this intelligence the Committee at Ports- 
mouth was called together to advise what was to be done in 
so alarming a crisis; but not having a full meeting, nor able 
to determine upon any measures proper to be taken, they con 

'American Archives, Vol. 1,/. 1054. 



eluded to defer the matter till the next day, when a fuller meet- 
ing of said committee was expected, but two or three warm 
zealous members, having the good of their country at heart 
more than the others, and thinking any further deliberation on 
so important an affair unnecessary, gave out their order early 
the next morning for the drums to be beat to raise Volunteers 
to go and take the King's Fort. With difficulty a number of 
men were persuaded to convene, who proceeded to the Fort, 
which is situated at New Castle, an island about two miles 
from the Town, and being there joined by a number of the 
inhabitants of said New Castle, amounted to near four hundred 
men ; They invested the Fort and being refused admittance by 
the Commander of it, who had only five men with him, and 
who discharged several guns at them, scaled the walls and 
soon overpowered and pinioned the Commander. They then 
struck the King's colors, with three cheers broke open the 
Powder House, and carried off one hundred and three barrels 
of powder, leaving only one behind. 

Previous to this, expresses had been sent out to alarm the 
country. Accordingly, a large body of men marched the next 
clay from Durham headed by two Generals, Major Sullivan, 
one of the worthy Delegates, who represented that Province in 
the Continental Congress, and the Parson of the Parish, who 
being long accustomed to apply himself more to the care of 
the bodies than the souls of his parishioners, had forgotten 
that the weapons of his warfare ought to be spiritual, and not 
carnal, and therefore marched clown to supply himself with the 
latter, from the King's Fort, and assisted in robbing him of his 
warlike stores. After being drawn up on parade, they chose a 
Committee, consisting of those persons who had been most 
active in the riot of the preceding day, with Major Sullivan and 
some others, to wait on the Governor, and know of him 
whether any of the King's Troops or Ships were expected. 
The Governor after expressing to them his great concern for 
the consequences of taking the Powder from the Fort, which 
they pretended to disapprove and be ignorant of, assured them 
that he knew of neither Troops or Ships coming into the 
Province, and ordered the Major, as a Magistrate, to go and 
disperse the people. When the Committee returned to the 
body, and reported what the Governor had told them, they 
voted it was satisfactory, and that they would return home. 
But by the eloquent harangue of their Demosthenes they were 
first prevailed upon to vote that they took part with and ap- 
proved of the measures of those who had taken the Powder. 
Matters appeared then to subside, and it was thought every 


2 9 

man had peaceably returned to his own home. Instead of 
this, Major Sullivan, with about seventy of his clients, con- 
cealed themselves till the evening, and then went to the Fort, 
and brought off in Gondolas all the small anus, with fifteen 
4-pCRinders and one 9 -pounder, and a quantity of twelve' and 
four and twenty pound shot, which they conveyed to Durham, 
etc. * 

The day following being Friday, another body of men from 
Exeter headed by Colonel Folsom, the other Delegate to the 
Continental Congress, marched into Portsmouth, and paraded 
about the Town, and having passed several votes expressive 
of their approbation of the measures that had been pursued 
by the bodies of the two preceding days in robbing the fort of 
(inns, Powder, etc., retired home in the evening, without 
further mischief. 

Thus by this false alarm was a great part of that Province, 
which though staunch in the cause of liberty, before in a state 
of peace and good order, kept for three days in the greatest 
confusion, and the good people of it persuaded by a few 
(laming demagogues, to commit a most outrageous overt act of 
treason and rebellion. 

No history, 1 believe, will furnish us with an instance of a 
King's Fort being taken and his Colors struck by his own sub- 
jects in time of peace, and without any cause or provocation. 

In the New Hampshire Gazette of Friday, December 23, 
appeared a letter which is somewhat humorous in its nature, 
directed to Mr. Printer, and signed a "Lover of Order." This 
is interesting to us chiefly because it shows that the king's order 
prohibiting the exportation of arms was the cause here as it had 
been in Rhode Island of the seizure of the powder. This letter 
says, among other things, "Alarmed with the tendency of the 
Quebec Act, with the accounts that the Canadians and Indians 
were to be called forth to enforce the Acts of Parliament, so 
disagreeable to all the Colonies, long inured to defend them- 
selves in the wide extended frontiers of this Province, by their 
valour against the restless savages of the Wilderness, without 
any other aid, and while destitute of arms necessary for such 
defense, finding that His Majesty, not knowing their peculiar 
defensless State, had been pleased to prohibit the Exportation 
of Powder, arms, and other warlike stores to the Colonies with- 
out special License Some of the good People of 


this Province, in the wonted Honesty and Simplicity of their 
hearts, imagined that no one would have just reason to com- 
plain of their too great Forwardness if they seasonably re- 
moved some of the warlike stores from the Fort 

Which they accordingly effected without any great Tumult or 

Again in the same paper, the following notice appears: 
" Since our last, arrived here his Majesty's Ships Canceaux, 
Capt. Mowatt, and the Scarborough, Capt. Barclay, both from 
Boston, with 80 or 100 soldiers aboard." 

On the 26th of December Governor Wentworth issued the 
following proclamation : 1 

A Proclamation by the Governor. 2 

Whereas, several Bodies of Men did, in the day time of the 
14th and in the Night of the 15th of this Instant. December, in 
the most daring and rebellious Manner invest, attack and forci- 
bly enter into his 'Majesty's Castle William and Mary in this 
Province, and overpowering and confining the Captain and 
Garrison, did, besides committing many treasonable Insults 
and Outrages, break open the Magazine of said Castle and 
plunder it of above One hundred barrels of Gunpowder, with 
upwards of sixty Stand of small Arms, and did also force from 
the Ramparts of said Castles and cany off sixteen Pieces of 
Cannon, and other military Stores, in open Hostility and direct 
Oppugnation of his Majesty's Government and in the most 
atrocious Contempt of his Crown and Dignity: — 

I Do, by Advice and Consent of his Majesty's Council, issue 
this Proclamation, ordering and requiring in his Majesty's 
Name, all Magistrates and other officers whether Civil or Mili- 
tary, as they regard their Duty to the King and the Tenor of 
the Oaths they have solemnly taken and subscribed, to exert 
themselves in detecting and securing in some of his Majesty's 
Goals in this Province the said Offenders, in Order to their 
being brought to condign punishment; And from motives of 
Duty to the King and Regard to the welfare of the good Peo- 
ple of this Province ; I do in the most earnest and solemn Man- 
ner, exhort and enjoin you, his Majesty's liege Subjects ot this 
Government, to beware of suffering yourselves to be seduced 
by the false Art & Menaces of abandoned Men, to abet, 

1 N. H. Provincial Papers, Vol. VII, /. 423. 

2 Copied from printed Proclamation in MS. Con., Vol. HI,/. 334- 




protect or screen from Justice any of the said high handed 
Offenders, or to withhold or secrete his Majesty's Munition 
forcibly taken from his Castle ; but that each and every of you 
will use your utmost endeavor to detect and discover the Perpe- 
trators of these Crimes to the civil Magistrate, and 'assist in 
securing and bringing them to Justice, and in recovering the 
King's Munition ; This injunction it is my bounden Duty to 
lay strictly upon you, and to require your Obedience thereto : 
as you value individually your Faith and Allegiance to his 
.Majesty, as you wish to preserve that Reputation to the Prov- 
ince in general ; and as you would avert the most dreadful but 
most certain Consequences of a contrary conduct to yourselves 
and Posterity. 

Given at the Council-chamber in Portsmouth, the 26th Day of 
December, in the 15th year of the Reign of our Sovereign 
Lord George the Third, by the Grace of God, of great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc., and in 
the year of our Lord Christ, 1774. 

J. Went worth. 
By his Excellency's Command 
with advice of Council, 

Theodore Atkinson, Sec'y. 

God Save the King. 

Again Governor Wentworth wrote to Lord Dartmouth, under 
date 28 December, 1774. He says: 1 

It is with the greatest concern 1 perceive the unlimited 
influence that the popular leaders in Boston obtain in this 
Province, especially since the outrage of the 14th instant. In- 
somuch, that I think the people here are disposed to attempt 
an)' measure required by those few men ; and in consequence 
thereof, ate arming and exercising men as if for immediate 


And further: In a letter to George Erving, Esq., dated 
Portsmouth, 5 January, 1775, referring to the 14th of Decem- 
ber, when the castle was seized, he says : 

The powers of magistracy have been faithfully and repeat- 
edly tried. Governor, Council, Chief Justice, Sheriff, and Jus- 
tices of the Peace personally appeared; Proclamation made 
according to law for all to disperse and desist; the militia 
ordered out : drums beat, etc. ; yet all of no avail. Not one man 

1 New England Hist, and Gen. Register, 1869, /. 277. 


appeared to assist in executing the law. And it was impossible 
for me, with four Councillors, two Justices, one Sheriff, Mr. Mac- 
dOriough, and Mr. Benning Wentworth, to subdue such multi- 
tudes, for not one other man would come forth. Not even the 
Revenue officers — all chose to shrink in safety from the storm, 
and suffered me to remain exposed to the folly and madness of 
an enraged multitude, daily and hourly increasing in numbers 
and delusion. 

He says, — 

Captain Cochran and his five men defended a ruinous cas- 
tle, with the walls in many places down, at length knocked, 
down, their arms broken and taken from them by above one 
hundred to one ; the captain was confined and at last would 
not nor did not give up the keys notwithstanding every men- 
ace they could invent ; finally they broke the doors with axes 
and crowbars. 

Jeremy Belknap, whose History of New Hampshire was writ- 
ten some years before its publication, and who was a contem- 
porary and friend of Sullivan and Langdon, gives us the follow- 
ing account, which, in spite of criticisms upon it, will bear the 
closest scrutiny, and is essentially accurate as are most of the 
accounts of that first historian of New Hampshire. 

Belknap's History of New Hampshire, Vol. 11,/. 288 : 

An order having been passed by the King in Council pro- 
hibiting the exportation of gunpowder and other military stores 
to America, a copy of it was brought by express to Portsmouth 
at a time when a ship of war was daily expected from 'Boston 
with a party of troops to take possession of Fort William and 
Mary, at the entrance of the harbor. The committee of the 
town with all possible secrecy and dispatch collected a company 
from that and some of the neighboring towns ; and before the 
Governor had any suspicion of their intentions, tiiey proceeded 
to Newcastle and assaulted the Fort. The Captain and his 
five men (which was the whole garrison) were confined, and 
one hundred barrels of powder were carried off. The next day 
another company went and removed fifteen of the lightest can- 
non, and all the small arms, with some other warlike stores, 
which they distributed in the several towns under the care of 
the committees. Major John Sullivan and Captain John Lang- 
don distinguished themselves as leaders in this affair. It was 
transacted with great expedition and alacrity, and in the most 
fortunate point of time, just before the arrival of the Scarboro 



frigate and Canseau sloop, with several companies of soldiers, 
who took possession of the Fort and of the heavy cannon which 
had not been removed. 

The governor put the live men who belonged to the fort on 
board the ship of war to be reserved as evidences in case of a 
prosecution of the offenders for high treason ; and having con- 
sulted council in this and the neighboring Province, thought it 
his duty; that he might prevent any charge of misprision of 
treason against himself; to dismiss from public trust, all those 
persons concerned in the assault of the fort, who had held any 
office under the government and concerning whose proceedings 
he had authentic testimony. He also issued a proclamation, com- 
manding all officers, civil and military, to assist in detecting and 
securing the offenders ; and exhorting all the people to beware of 
being seduced by the false arts and menaces of abandoned men. 

This closes the list of documents of the immediate period 
bearing upon the affair, and they seem to be sufficiently clear 
and to agree so closely as to leave little room for the contro- 
versies that have taken place. It is true that they mention 
hut few names and give few details from the patriot's stand- 
j» »int. Neither do they state anything authentic as to the 
disposal of the military stores nor of the influence this uprising 
had upon the future course of the Revolution. 

The main questions in dispute have been (i) the disposal of 
the powder and military stores ; (2) the names of the leaders 
in the affair and such of their men as could be determined; 
(3) whether the tradition of the use of this powder at Bunker 
Hill is founded on fact; and (4) whether or not this was the 
first real uprising of the Revolution. A study of some of the 
liter documents that bear upon these questions will help oiir 
conclusion, and where tradition aids it will be considered*as 
tradition and not as history; giving weight to traditional state- 
ments in accordance with the nearness of their origin to the 
date of the occurrence or to the actor concerned therein. 


Among the more important data to which we can give 
unquestioned weight is an article heretofore unnoticed in the 
tVtw Hampshire Mercury of 1785 and in the New Hampshire 
Spy of 1789. In one of these General Sullivan refers to an 


anonymous attack made upon him in the New Hampshire 
Mercury of April 19, 1785, of which no copy appears to be in 
existence, although diligent search has been made. It is 
probable, however, that the article was the same as one 
appearing in the New HampsJiire Gazette of about the same 
date and signed " Honestus," which contains nothing new 
except that the author speaks of the powder as having been 
sent to^Exeter, where eventually much cf it was undoubtedly 
stored. General Sullivan also refers to an act of congress 
of Tuesday, Ju:y 31, 1781, when the continental congress 
ordered 1 ''That the board of treasury pass to the credit of 
General Sullivan the following sums in specie, viz. : One hun- 
dred dollars as a compensation for the expenses incurred by 
him in securing the military stores and ordinances at Fort 
William and Mary, New Hampshire, in the year 1775, and 
distributing them in various parts of the country for the use of 
the United States ; one thousand dollars for the extraordinary 
expenses, necessarily incurred by him as the commanding 
officer in a separate department, for which no provision or 
compensation has been made ; and four hundred dollars as a 
reimbursement of the expense incurred by him after his resig- 
nation for the recovery of his health which he had lost in the 
service and was thereby induced to retire." 

The article of General Sullivan above referred to appeared 
in the New Ha?npshire Mercury of May 3, 1785, and was 
addressed to "The Impartial Public," and is as follows : 

Although I have no desire to satisfy or even to answer, 
a malicious, false, and cowardly writer, who under a feigned 
and very improper signature, lias endeavored to wound my 
reputation, by a publication in the A T ew-lIampsJiire Mercury 
of the 19th ultimo: yet in as much as 1 am conscious of hav- 
ing acted with uprightness in every part of my political con- 
duct, I shall for your satisfaction answer the three charges 
which his malice has suggested, and which his knowledge of 
their falsity has prevented being signed by his proper name. 

The first charge is obtaining a considerable sum from Con- 
gress by false representations, respecting the taking powder 
from fort William and Mary. 

Secondly, Giving up the iishing-ground. And, 

1 JournaLof Congress for the year 1781, Vol. VII, 159. 




Thirdly, Receiving a bribe in my office of Attorney-General, 
which prevented my complying with my duty in endeavoring to 
confiscate a valuable estate; by which I suppose he means 
Col. Boyd's. 

To answer the first it will be necessary to relate the man- 
ner of taking the stores from the fort. 

When 1 returned from Congress in 1774 and saw the order 
of the British King and Council, prohibiting military stores 
being sent to this country ; I took the alarm, clearly perceived 
the designs of the British ministry, and wrote several pieces 
upon the necessity of securing military stores; which pieces 
were published in several papers. 

On the iSth of December [date is evidently given from 
memory and is wrong] some gentlemen belonging to Ports- 
mouth, went to the fort and took sundry barrels of powder and 
sent in a gondola one hundred and ten barrels to my care; 
which myself and others deposited in places of security. The 
next day a report was spread that two vessels of war were 
coming from Boston to take possession of the fort and harbour. 

I went down with a large number of men and in the night 
following went in person with gondolas, took possession of the 
fort, brought away the remainder of the powder, the small 
.inns, bayonets, and cartouch-boxes, together with the cannon 
aud ordnance stores; was out all night, and returned to Ports- 
mouth next day. I might here add that I bore the expense 
of all the party. The gondolas, with the stores, were brought 
to Durham, after several days spent in cutting the ice, Durham 
liver being then frozen over; the cannon, etc., was then 
deposited in places of security. These are facts known to 
almost every person in the State — and to all them concerned, 
that almost the whole expense was borne by me; notwith- 
standing which I never applied for a single farthing to Con- 
gress, or any other body, for this service ; and when a com- 
mittee of Congress, who were appointed to report what was 
due for my allowance in separate departments where I com- 
manded, reported one hundred dollars for this service, I warm- 
ly opposed it, and told Congress I never expected, or desired a 
single farthing for it — for the truth of this I appeal to the Hon. 
Judge Livermore, who was with me in Congress, at the time, 
and knows every fact relating to it ; he is now on the circuit 
through the state, consequently any gentleman may satisfy him- 
self, by asking him whether these facts are true or false. 

But to prove whether Congress has been generous to me in 
their grants, I beg leave to mention that by a resolve of Congress 
of the 15th of June, 1775, general officers in separate depart- 


merits, were to be allowed one hundred and fifty dollars per 
month, over and above their wages: I served thirty months in 
separate departments, and Congress made me a grant of thir- 
teen hundred dollars only, in lieu of four thousand eight hundred 
which was my due : it is true one hundred of it vvas reported 
for the above-mentioned service, but upon my objecting to it, 
was not in reality granted in that light — and further, to prove 
the generosity of Congress to me, I now say, that for near five 
years' service, I have never received only the nominal sum in 
paper money for my services, and am the only officer in America 
that has received no depreciation or allowance therefor. 
* * * * * * * 

John Sullivan. 
Durham, April 23, 1785. 

Among the many political feuds early existing among the 
prominent men of the state of New Hampshire one had broken 
out between Judge Ebenezer r I nompson of Durham and Gen. 
John Sullivan. This had been fanned into open warfare from 
the fact that a quarrel had taken place between their sons 
in which the fathers afterwards took sides. Lawsuits were 
begun and appeals made to the public through the press. For- 
tunately for our purpose, one of the points in controversy 
between them was the respective parts each had taken at the 
capture of Fort William and Mary. As many of the partici- 
pants were alive, who knew all the facts, both were naturally care- 
ful to have their statements accurate. The first number of this 
series appeared in an article in the New Hampshire Spy of Friday, 
March 6, 1789, signed "An Enemy to Deceit," in which an un- 
named gentleman (Judge Ebenezer Thompson) is accused of 
appearing at Exeter at town-meeting to work against the elec- 
tion of General Sullivan as president of the state, and of keep- 
ing back a number of votes in the election of 17S6. 1 The only 
statement of interest to us is the following : 

It surely cannot be forgotten that this gentleman, in company 
with a number of others, went from Durham to Portsmouth in 
December, 1774, to assist in securing the stores at Fort William 
and Mary; and when Governor Wentworth suspended him and 
sundry others on that account he was restored by making oath 
before George Atkinson, Esq. [then Deputy Secretary], that he 
was not concerned. 

'Kbenezer Thompson afterwards refuted this charge by affidavits, etc. 




In the New Hampshire Spy of Friday, March 13, 1789, Judge 
Ebenezer Thompson defends himself from the attack of "An 
Enemy to Deceit," whom he assumes to be General Sullivan, 
and among other things says : 

That I ever was concerned, directly or indirectly, in taking 
the stores from Fort William and Mary, in 1774, is absolutely 
false. But had it been the case I should not have thought 
of' applying to, or receiving from, Congress a large pecuniary 
reward by single service. But what a gentleman did who as- 
sisted in the matter will appear by the following extract from a 
resolution of Congress printed in the Journal, Vol. VII, p. 159 : 

"Ordered that the Board of Treasury pass to the credit of 
John Sullivan in Specie one hundred dollars as a compensation 
for the expense incurred by him in securing the military stores 
and ordinance in Fort William and Mary, New Hampshire, in 
the year 1775." 

It is a well-known fact that the Hon. John Langdon, Esq., 
and a number of other persons took the powder from the afore- 
said fort and sent it into the country before the gentleman who 
received the reward knew anything about it. 

(Signed) Euenrzer Thompson. 

Durham, March 11, 1789. 

In the New Hamps?iire Spy of March 17, 1789, General Sul- 
livan addresses a reply to " Ebenezer Thompson, Esq." and 
after refusing to affirm or deny his authorship of the article 
signed "An Enemy to Deceit," he discusses the Exeter affair 
and the 1786 election and then the following appears: 

As different ideas may be affixed to the words directly or 
indirectly, I shall not assert that you were directly or indirectly 
concerned in taking the stores from Fort William *.\: Mary, in 
1774; but will relate facts as they are. In the night of tin; 18th 
of December, 1774 [again he has the date from memory incor- 
rect], a messenger came to my house from the Hon. Col. Dong, 
and I think also signed by President Langdon, informing that one 
hundred barrels of powder were sent to my care ; that they had 
been to the fort and secured as much of the powder as they could ; 
and desired me to come down with a party to secure the remain- 
der, with the cannon and munitions of war, as they were in 
danger of being seized by the British ships. I mustered 
hands — took care of the powder, part of which was lodged in 
your house. The next morning we mustered and you went to 


Portsmouth in company with about thirty or forty ; among 
whom was the Rev. Mr. Adams, Deacon Norton, Lieut. Dur- 
gin, Capt. Jonathan Woodman, Mr. Aaron Davis, and, I think, 
Mr. Footman of Dover, and many others, — I think you did not 
go down to the fort; that was at night when a number of us 
mustered what gondolas we could — went to the fort and secured 
as much as our vessels could bring away. When the gondolas 
arrived in Durham river, it was froze far down, and we were 
about two days in sawing the ice and getting up the boats, and 
one day^more in storing and distributing the stores; in this you 
were obliging enough to assist us ; — but whether that was being 
directly or indirectly concerned, I shall not determine. 

Nothing can be more unjust than your calling up again the 
matter of Congress voting me a hundred dollars for assisting 
to take the cannon, etc., from the fort; when it was so fully 
discussed in the public prints, about four years since, and the 
malicious charge refuted. The Hon. Judge Livermore who 
was in Congress with me, publickly declared and all the then 
members of Congress will attest, that the vote was passed in 
my absence, and upon a petition for my allowance in seperate 
departments, in which it was incidentally mentioned my being 
one of the first opposition and amongst those who first dared 
to attack a King's fort. The committee reported me a hun- 
dred dollars, and cut me off three quarters of my allowance in 
seperate departments; the vote passed before I returned into 
Congress. I was the person who rose and violently opposed 
the measure — told them I was so far from asking or wishing 
such a grant, that as it would open a door for similar grains, I 
could not from principle accept it; but Congress finding, how 
much I was cut short in my allowance for seperate commands 
advised me to a compromise, to take the sum voted in full and 
release my demands in seperate departments. Thus by a com- 
promise I had a hundred dollars voted, for releasing more than 
a thousand. Any person who wishes to be satisfied of these 
facts may apply to the Hon. Judge Livermore, or to any mem- 
ber then in Congress, or may by having recourse to the state- 
ment of facts by me, — and the proofs adduced in my answer 
to letters signed Candidus in the beginning of 1785, be fully 
convinced of the injustice of the accusation. . . . 

John Sullivan. 

Durham, March 14, 1789. 

The trouble between General Sullivan and Judge Ebenezer 
Thompson, arising out of this and other disputes, seems to 
have been settled the following year by a letter from General 



Sullivan, the original of which is now in the possession of Mr. 
Lucien Thompson, of Durham, and of which the following is a 
facsimile : 



£?*"" 7^~ ss ^SJ* 

s« />< 

/ / / 

-CO ^ **;*< *,*,'£ *: i>.^ , 

& -&rt*,, 


"-?/ <iij y£*- * * «-* < *, ytV* - <5^v ^^^ 


^tt-f/f 9-C^e.y Y*^ " £ r^* -Ar.' 

^.,. ...A-Ci «^ ,,^ 

J . p ^^ ^^ a ^ /cc ^ ^ ^ 

jfrsi ^cszat^ &%*/*" an. ^pTh^ 


These letters leave absolutely no doubt that, in the first 
instance, the powder ana other military stores were brought 
to Durham to be from there distributed. Whether or not part 
of the powder was lodged under the pulpit of the Durham 
meeting-house must remain, as heretofore, a matter of tradi- 
tion ; but the fact that the Rev. Mr. Adams was of the party, 
and that, with the exception of General Sullivan's own house, 
it was one of the nearest buildings to the landing where the 
powder was unloaded, lends probability to the report. We 
know positively, as the family tradition has always held, that 
some of the powder was stored in the house of Ebenezer 
Thompson, which is still standing in Durham, and is still occu- 
pied by a descendant of the judge in the person of Mr. Lucien 
Thompson. There is little doubt, too, that, in the subsequent 
distribution, a considerable portion of the powder was left 
with Maj. John Demerit of Madbury. Such has been the 
unvarying tradition in Durham. Powder and balls from Fort 
William and Mary, which had been kept in the original maga- 
zine built in the Madbury home, are now in the possession of 
the New Hampshire Historical Society, donated in 1S87 by Mr. 
John Demerit (now also major) of Madbury, N. II., a direct 
descendant and namesake of Major Demerit. Miss Mary P. 
Thompson, writing for the Independent Statesman of Nov. 17, 
1887, states that the wife of Major Demerit's grandson, who 
had had charge of Major Demerit during the last six years of 
his life, related to her the accounts of the capture of the fort 
and the preservation of this powder, as she had heard it from 
Major Demerit. Also, in Brewster's Rambles about Ports- 
mouth, it is asserted that Daniel P. Drown, calling upon Major 
Demerit in 1799 or 1800, was given two charges of this powder 
for his rifle with the statement that it was taken from Fort 
William and Mary. 

Lt is certainly true that a large part of the powder was after- 
wards distributed among the several towns. This is indicated 
by General Sullivan's letter and by the journal of congress, and 
has also been well brought out by Hon. John G. Crawford in 
an article read before the New Hampshire Society Sons of the 


4 1 



American Revolution. 1 Several documents quoted in the New 
Hampshire Provincial Papers, Vol. VII, also show this to have 
been a fact. The arms brought from Portsmouth were repaired 
and put in order at Durham, for in the Durham town records 2 
it is recorded that at March 31, 1783, town-meeting it was 
"Voted that the selectmen be directed 'to allow Thomas Wille 
20/9 in full for repairing the guns brought from Fort W*w and 


It is unfortunate that so little is known about the actual 
leaders and those who joined with them in the attacks upon 
the fort. The newspapers of the time were silent upon the 
question, and even the official reports contain scarcely a refer- 
ence, simply saying that the leaders were well known. The 
act was one of open treason to the king, and, as it was the 
almost unanimous act of the community, but little was written 
or published that might injure the participants. A few names 
only are preserved to us. Governor Wentworth says that the 
first attack was carried out by citizens of Portsmouth, Rye, 
and Newcastle. No individual is named. General Sullivan 
says the powder was sent to him by a messenger from Golonel 
Long, and, if he remembered correctly, signed also by John 
Langdon. John Sullivan was the unquestioned leader of the 
.second attack. Jeremy Belknap, who wrote during the lives 
of both Langdon and Sullivan and was a close friend of the 
latter, credits the leadership to these two prominent New 
Hampshire men. Judge Ebenezer Thompson, in the New 
Hampshire S/>y, says : " Hon. John Langdon and others took 
the powder." John M. Whitton 3 is the first to claim Thomas 
Pickering as a leader. No previous mention of his name in 
this connection has come to light, and Whitton does not give 
his authority. The History of Manchester, 1856, 4 Report of 
the Adjutant-General for New Hampshire, i866, & and Brews- 
ter's Rambles about Portsmouth speak of Thomas Pickering 

» Proceedi 
3 Vol. 11,/. 220. 
y History of New 
* P. 40S. 

f the N. 11. Sons Am. Rev., 1889-07. 
ampshire, 1S34, /. 122. 


as being the leader in the first attack. All three take their 
authority from Daniel P. Drown, a nephew of Pickering, who 
had received his version of the affair from his father, Samuel 
Drown, whom he stated as a participant. Brewster, obtaining 
his information from the same source, states also that Sullivan, 
Langdon, George Frost of Durham, and Dr. Bartlett of Kings- 
ton, were present. The account by Drown is so inaccurate in 
many particulars that it is doubtful if his memory of his father's 
story was correct in regard to the others. Brewster l also 
states that Pierse Long assisted in the removal of the powder 
which General Sullivan's article, before quoted, confirms. 
From the Ngw Hampshire Spy we learn that Judge Ebenezer 
Thompson went with the party as far as Portsmouth, but was 
not present at the fort, and that the Rev. Mr. Adams, Deacon 
Norton, Lieutenant Durgin, Capt. Jonathan Woodman, Mr. 
Aaron Davis, and, probably, Mr. Footman of Dover, were 
actively engaged in the second attack. 

Mr. Eleazer Bennet of Durham, who was probably the last sur- 
vivor of those who took part in the affair, gave a full description 
to the Rev. Mr. Tobey of Durham, who published it in an obit- 
uary notice of Mr. Bennet, in the Congregational Journal of Feb. 
1 8, 1852. It is unfortunate for our purpose that Mr. Bennet was 
one hundred years old at the time Mr. Tobey took clown his 
statement, for his account is very inaccurate, and with the ex- 
ception of adding several names of those present contains 
nothing of value. Fie enumerated John Sullivan, Winborn 
Adams, Ebenezer Thompson, John Demerit of Madbury, 
Alpheus Chesley, Jonathan Chesley, Peter French (a law stu- 
dent in Sullivan's office), John Spencer, Micah Davis, Edward 
Sullivan, Isaac Small, Benjamin Small, and himself, as members 
of the party. It is worthy of note that he makes no mention 
of Alexander Scammell, although in the narrative as quoted in 
Amory's Life of Sullivan as coming from the same source his 
name is included. It is probable that Amory copied this account 
from the highly imaginary article in Harper's Monthly of July, 
1886, rather than from the original publication. However, in 

» Vol. J I,/. 276. 



a letter to the senate of New Hampshire of Feb. 14, 1785, 1 
General Sullivan says that he was assisted by his three clerks in 
bringing the stores up the river, and this leaves but little.doubt 
that Alexander Scammell, Peter French, and James Under- 
wood, who were at that time in his office, were with him at the 
second attack. Another account by a survivor of the Exeter 
party, and published by Governor Bell in his History of Exeter, 
also differs so^ much from the known facts that little credence 
can be given to any part of it. It does not seem wise to further 
quote either of these accounts. 


It has always been the tradition in southeastern New Hamp- 
shire, founded upon the statements of persons who claimed to 
have the facts from the actors themselves, that Major John 
Demerit took a cart load of the powder, captured at Ports- 
mouth, from the magazine at his house, to Cambridge, and 
reached there just in time for its opportune use at Bunker Hill. 
No inhabitant of Madbury or Durham doubts the story, but it 
cannot with our present knowledge be proven. On the other 
hand there is nothing to render it improbable. The official 
documents of the time are silent upon the question. 

On the fly leaf of an application dated April 21, 1775, from 
the Committee of Correspondence in Portsmouth to a like 
committee in Exeter, a statement, made at the time, is given of 
the quantity of powder stored in Exeter and vicinity. 2 It states 
that at that time there were twelve barrels at Kingston, eight 
at Epping < four at Poplin, eight at Nottingham with Major 
(alley, six at Brentwood, one at Londonderry, four at Ports- 
mouth, and twenty-nine at Exeter. It is quite probable that 
this represents part of the powderfrom Fort William and Mary, 
but there is nothing to indicate the fact except, perhaps, that 
Major Cilley's name appears as a custodian, and he was 
directed by the Exeter Committee of Safety 3 on the 7th of the 
following August "to apply to the Selectmen of the Several 

1 N. II. State Papers, Vol. XVIII, /. 749. 

s Bell's History of Exeter,/. 242. 

3 N. H. Provincial Papers, Vol. VII, /. 573- 


Towns in this Colony with whom was lodged the powder taken 
last winter from Fort Willm & Mary, take an account of what 
is now in their Custody respectively and request of them forth- 
with to convey the whole of it to Col. Nicholas Gilman at Exe- 
ter." This request to Major Cilley was the result of a letter 
from General Sullivan to the Committee of Safety, under date 
of August 4th, at Winter Hill, stating that the army was in 
sore straits for powder, and asking that at least twenty barrels 
be sent at once. 1 There is no doubt that Major Cilley carried 
out his instructions, and that much of the powder from Fort Will- 
iam and Mary was carried to Winter Hill, for General Sullivan 
in a subsequent letter claims to have supplied the troops at 
Winter Hill, when in sore need, with powder. On June 2d the 
Committee of Supplies had been ordered to " apply and obtain 
the Quantity and Quality of the Powder bro't from the Fort 
Wm and Mary, also take it into their possession and lay the 
state of it before the Committee of Safety"'- but there is no 
record of their having carried out their orders, in fact the 
latter instructions to Major Cilley would seem to indicate that 
this order was not carried into effect. Now, although much of 
this powder was probably sent to General Sullivan at Winter 
Hill, there is nothing to indicate that the portion retained in 
Durham was not previously used at Bunker Hill. There are 
two facts, apart from tradition, which seem to show the truth 
of the statement, and that the tradition was not of recent 

C. E. Potter, in his History of Manchester, 1S56, p. 410, 
states in a footnote that Major Demerit took the powder to 
Bunker Hill, and further says that a "gentleman is now living 
in Portsmouth to whom he gave some of it for squirrel hunt- 
ing, after relating the taking of the fort, remarking as he gave 
it, ' Here, try this powder, this is the kind we killed the red 
coats with at Bunker Hill.'" Still earlier, on May 21, 1823, 
at the Portsmouth Bicentennial Anniversary celebration, the 
following toast was printed on the programme: "Major Sulli- 
van and Capt Langdon. Our delegates to Congress in '75 who 

iN. H. Provincial Papers, Vol. VII, p. S7 2 - 
s N. 11. Provincial Papers, Vol. VII. /. 497- 



supplied Bunker Hill with Powder from his Majesties fort at 
I'ascataquack." x 


There is no question that previous to Dec. 14, 1774, bodies 
of men had destroyed private 'property owing to their disap- 
proval of British methods, and in a few cases had even assaulted 
the royal power. But the capture of Fort William and Mary 
was the first organized tight of the Revolutionary War, and on 
Dec. 14, 1774, the first gun of that war was fired, ft is true 
that on Dec. 5, 1774, the assembly of Rhode Island ordered 
the powder and shot in Fort George to be removed to a place 
of safety, and it is further true that it was done with the same 
intent and purpose, and undoubtedly influenced the subsequent 
action at Portsmouth. It was accomplished without opposition 
and was simply the confiscation of stores already in their pos- 
session. The taking of the schooner Gaspee^ eight guns, com- 
manded by Lieutenant Duddington, at Gaspee Point, R. I., on 
June 9, 1772,- has been held to be the first assault against the 
crown, but erroneously, for it in nowise differs in principle from 
the act of firing upon the schooner St. Jo/in in July, 1764; s the 
seizure of the Maidstone* s boat at Newport 4 in May, 1 765, or the 
scuttling of the British armed sloop Liberty at Newport, in 
1769. 6 All were directed against the vessels of the British 
navy carrying the king's colors, but they were directed against 
the particular vessel that suffered on account of real injuries to 
the participants or to the community, and not from any uprising 
.•gainst the general authority of Great Britain. Arnold states 
in his account of the destruction of the Gaspee that "Lieut. 
Duddington, the commander, had practiced every arrogance 
upon vessels in the bay, detaining them often without a colora- 
ble pretext, stopping even market boats, and in some cases 
plundering people on shore." 

The "Battle of Alamance," in North Carolina, on May 16, 

iPjrtsmotith Journal of May, 1823; also N. H. Historical Society Collections, 
Vol. II, /. 195. 

* Arnold's History of Rhode Island, /. 309. 
»AW, /. 252. < Ibid,j>. 255. h Ilnd, p. 207. 

4 6 


177 i, was entirely of a local nature, and was fought between a 
band of so-called "regulators" and volunteer militia of their 
own province. Also, according to Hildreth (Hist, of V. S., Vol. 
11,/. 570), the regulators themselves became staunch supporters 
of the royal authority. 'The three and one half years interven- 
ing between this affair and that of William and Mary is sufficient 
in itself to separate it frc.n the Revolutionary period. 

The opinion of Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D.D., in regard to the 
capture of Fort William and Mary, is often well quoted in the 
words, "The daring character of this assault cannot be over- 
estimated. It was an organized investment of a royal fortress, 
where the king's flag was flying, and where the king's garrison 
met them with muskets and artillery. It was four months be- 
fore Lexington, and Lexington was resistance to attack, while 
this was a deliberate assault. When the king heard of this cap- 
ture it so embittered him that all hope of concessions was at an 
end. It made war inevitable." 

Note. — Besides the references given in the text, articles of more or less value 
bearing on the capture of Fort William and Mary are quite numerous. They are 
generally more popular in character than historic. The following will serve for refer- 
ence : 

McClintock's History of New Hampshire,/. 298. 

Barstow's History of New Hampshire,/. 231. 

History of Nottingham, N. II., /. 120. 

History of Rockingham and Strafford Co., N. H.,/. 805. 

Pickering Genealogy, by Eddy Sup.,/. 4. 

Adams' Annals of Portsmouth, N. H. 

N. E. Hist, and Gen. Keg., XXIII, /. 337 ; XXIV, /. 224 ; XXXII, /. 34. 

Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, XIV,/. 450. 

Amory's Life of General Sullivan,/. 295. 

N. H. Revolutionary Rolls, Vol. I,/. 3. 

Judge Ebenezer Thompson, by M. P. Thompson,/. 25. 

Magazine of New England History, 111,/. 200. 

American Irish Historical Society, Vol. I,/. 34. 

Several articles in the Portsmouth, N. H., Journal and Dover, N. II., Republican, 
by Miss Mar) P. Thompson and Dr. Alonzo H. Quint from September, 1SS6, to 
February, 1887. 

New Castle, Historical and Picturesque,/. 22. 

New York American Monthly Magazine, November, 1S92. 

Granite Monthly, article by Dr. A. 11. Quint, Vol. I,/. 190. 

Granite Monthly, article by Hon. Geo. W. Nesmith, Vol. 1, /. 325. 

Granite Monthly, article by M. G. Colby, Vol. V,/. 22. 

Proceedings N. H. Sons American Revolution, 1 889-1897,/. 78. 

Exeter, N. II., Gazette, Sept. 17, 18S6. 

Address Exeter, N. H., Quarter Millennial, 18S8, by Hon. Charles H. Bell. 



f/ar/er's Magazine, July, 18S6. 
Nexv.York Times, July, 1SS6, by. M. P. Thompson. 
Springfield, Mass., Homestead, August 14, 1SS6. 
[)over, N. 11., Enquirer, Sept. 17, 18.86. 
Portsmouth, N. 11., Daily Penny Post, Dec. 17, 1886. 
Concord, N. II., Independent Statesman, Nov. 17, 1SS7. 
Concord, N. 11., People and Patriot, Feb. 23, 18SS. 
Manchester Union, December, 1S08. 

Dedication of Sullivan Monument at Durham, N. II., pub. 1S96,//. 9, 13, 17, 18 
*?, 2 S,«73, 100, and 10;. 
> park's Life of Sulfivan. 
Botta's History of the United States. 
Bryant's History of the United States. 
Bancroft's History of the United States. 

I he First Parish in Dover, N. 11., by Rev. A. II. Quint, D. D.,/. 27. 
The 100th Anniversary of National Independence, 187(1, by Rev. A. II. Quint 

l> D..,/-3'5- 
General Sullivan not a Pensioner- of Lucerne, 1S74,/. a. 
General Sullivan not a Pensioner of Lucerne, 1S75,/. b - 
Wcntworth Genealogy, Vol. I, p. 539. 

The following persons were elected members of the Society: 
John Scales of Dover, 
George E. Thornton of Boston, Mass., 
Arthur H. Locke of Portsmouth. 
Voted to adjourn to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 



Called to order at 7 130 p. m., Vice-President Henry McFar- 
land presiding, and Col. Abial Rolfe of Penacook addressed 
the Society, his subject being "Concord in the Olden Time." 
The address was one of much interest, and the thanks of the 
Society were extended to the speaker and a copy of his " Rem- 
iniscences " requested for preservation. 1 

Brief remarks followed by Hon. John Kimball, Hon. Joseph 
B. Walker, and others, after which it was 

Voted to adjourn to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 


1 Col. Rolfe has since incorporated his address of reminiscences in a volume. 


MEETING OF MARCH 14, r 9 oo. 

Called to order at 7 130 p. m. In the absence of the presi- 
dent and secretary, Mr. John C. Thorne was chosen president 
pro tern, and Rev. N. F. Carter, secretary pro tern. The Rt. 
Rev. W. W. Niles, D. 1)., delivered a very interesting address 
upon "The Life and Character of Bishop Carlton Chase." On 
motion o£ Judge Dana a vote of 'thanks was tendered the 
speaker for his highly valuable address and a copy of the same 
requested for preservation. 


1 have the honor to be addressing you to-day regarding my 
predecessor in office, a man to whom I never spoke, and whom 
I but once saw. But "by their fruits ye shall know them;" 
and coming next after him, I am able better than another to 
bear my testimony in memory of a really eminent son of New 
Hampshire. And I account it a gracious thing on your part 
to have bidden me to this duty. 

Jt is with a most deep and high regard that I approach the 
study of a man like Carlton Chase. Born in liopkinton, 
on'" Dimond's Hill," February 20, 1794, sou of Captain 
Charles and Sarah (Currier) Chase, and grandson of Captain 
Jonathan Chase, he came of sound New England stock. A bet- 
ter than this of New England, out of which to form a man, 1 
would not know where in all the world to seek. And young 
Chase brought to it no stain or reproach. In the common 
schools, and in the academy at Salisbury, he was fitted for 
college. He was admitted at Dartmouth college in Septem- 
ber, 18 13 ; and he was graduated in 1 S 1 7 . In college becom- 
ing deeply impressed with the privileges and obligations of a 
Christian life, and having given considerable study to matters 
pertaining to the church, in his senior year he rode on horse- 
back fifty miles to receive Holy Baptism, at the hands of the 
Rev. Mr. Andrus, rector at Hopkinton. His excellent 
mother was of a stout Baptist family. Flis father later in life 
connected himself with the Episcopal church. Carlton soon 
gave over all thought of the law, and devoted himself to the holy 


He engaged himself two or three terms in teaching school, 
in Hopkinton, and in "Concord street " (wherever this latter 
is). Here he won distinction by taming, through his own self- 
control and dignified firmness, a crowd of boys of evil repute 
.is " unruly." 

Mr. Chase's theological studies were pursued in Rhode 
Island, under the venerable and holy Griswold, bishop of the 
■• Eastern diocese," by whom he was afterwards ordained. The 
fall of 1S19 found him settled over the parish of Immanuel 
church in Bellows Falls. There he ministered, in humility 
and love, a quarter of a century, until chosen to be bishop of 
New Hampshire. In that diocese of Vermont, not less than in 
his own parish and town, Mr. Chase was held in high esteem ; 
and he filled the most important offices in the church's gift. 

While in Vermont he gathered much material for a history 
of his church in that state. He wrote to the several pastors, 
soliciting facts touching their parishes. And a somewhat ex- 
tended report by him was printed in Thompson's Gazetteer of 

In 1832 Mr. Chase was elected an honorary member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society; which Society brings us 
together to-njjht. He was also a Royal Arch Mason, and deliv- 
ered Masonic addresses in several places. 

The 20th day of October, 1844, in Christ church, Philadel- 
phia — the church in which Washington used to worship — Carl- 
ton Chase was consecrated a bishop in the church of God. 
The Right Reverend Philander Chase, great man of the West* 
a kinsman of our bishop, whose early life was spent in New 
Hampshire, acted as chief consecrator. He was assisted by 
four bishops, of whom was Smith of Kentucky, twenty-six 
years later my consecrator in Concord. 

To the forming of any just estimate of Bishop Chase it 
ought to be remembered that he never knew such a thing, 
from childhood, as vigorous, robust health. His son has writ- 
ten it down, that what little constitution his father possessed 
was pretty nearly destroyed by a very severe illness in college. 
And, other disorders following at various times, he was, in his 
son's language, "one of those men who live on to a compara- 
\ ■ 4 


tive old age in a condition not far removed from sickness." 
This, perhaps, being added to his natural gravity, explains 
why he engaged in none of the college sports (only sitting by, 
sometimes, and quietly enjoying them), or much hi the earlier 
frolics of childhood. Serious, conscientious, deeply religions, 
the sportive element was far from prominent • at all times. 
Neither imagination nor fancy seems to have had in him very 
vivid or nimble play. So that, to carry him through the hard 
passages in his official life, considerably more of Divine grace 
was needed, than serves for those to whom is given a very keen 
sense of the ludicrous, and who are kept longer alive by the 
humorous aspects of things. 

But if Bishop Chase would have objected to be set down as 
a man of wit, he certainly possessed no small endowment of 
quiet humor. I recall to mind personal letters which he wrote 
me when I was editor of The Churchman, which were delightful 
reading, full of the play of a genuine humor. When I men- 
tioned this at the time to a highly accomplished man, he re- 
plied : (i Bishop Chase has a real distinction as a writer of letters." 
His mental associates, Coleridge, Addison, Burke, Dr. Sam- 
uel Johnson, Goldsmith, Walter Scott, and the rest, were men 
who cared both for the substance and the form in writing. 
Moreover, a fixed habit of this man's life was to do well what- 
ever he thought worth doing at all. This reached not to the 
thoughts only, and their expression, but to his clear and fin- 
ished handwriting as well. 

The genial, sly humor, in which he was not wanting, shows 
itself in many a little touch in his private diary. Fond of 
gardening, and of the culture of trees and vines, Dr. Chase 
used to record just what he had done in each instance. One 
scion which he had gotten with some difficulty, and had en- 
grafted as he thought skilfully, gave him much hope and con- 
fidence. All this he records at large. Later this is written 
in : "It failed, notwithstanding! " 

Once, journeying by stage-coach, a noisy, smart infidel 
was loudly setting himself forth, and his follies, to the fatigue 
of the good people who made up the group. "That story in 
Genesis, about the Creation, and the making of the stars also, 



5 1 

*hat is that good for! Every intelligent person knows that 
the second chapter contradicts the first, and that the whole 
narrative is a bundle of inconsistencies and errors." The 
patient bishop having endured to the utmost, and perhaps 
bethinking him of that most wholesome advice : " Answer a 
fool according to his folly, lest he be wise in his own conceit," 
said quietly: "Have you everjieard of a lately discovered 
boqk in which all these things are explained, and the difficul- 
ties wholly removed ? " "What book is that?" exclaimed the 
brawler. " The book of Jaazaniah," said the bishop, " I'm 
afraid you haven't read it." "Oh, yes, I have," said he, "yes I 
have. I've read it through twice ; but there is nothing to it ! " 
Then was the time for the Christian sufferers to do the shout- 
ing—their disturber having so beautifully walked into the trap. 
The bishop felt always a deep sympathy with the people in- 
clined by their bringing up to be religious but living inconven- 
iently far from the public worship of God. I have just now 
toad through reports made during his entire episcopate, to the 
annual convention of the church, and I am much impressed 
with the good man's solicitude always for all Christians (and 
especially, of course, for them that were members of his com- 
munion), who could not often get to church. The very clos- 
ing senten^g of kis last address delivered, speaking of " needy" 
neglected places, has these words: "I desire to express my 
thanks to those of our clergy who have given occasional ser- 
vices. . . . Much more of this may be done without any loss 
to the stronger churches. I wish the clergy would bear this in 
mind. The missionary means of the diocese . . . will war- 
rant a moderate appropriation fur the payment of expenses." 
These were Bishop Chase's last words to his church in New 
Hampshire; and they are words of soberness and of Christian 
( ompassion. 

Until his health gave way, under the weight of advancing 
years and of labors too manifold, that is to say, during nine- 
teen years the bishop was rector of an important parish at 
Claremont, as well as in charge of the diocese. Pie, evidently, 
could not personally do much in missionary work in a general 
'way, with scattered folk. He once drove out to some remote 


regions to find whether any members of his church could be 
reached. At the inn he inquired whether they knew of any 
Episcopalians thereabouts. " Never heard of any such," was 
the reply. The bishop explained a little what he meant; and 
the man said: " There is a pretty decent family down the road 
a mile or so, who moved in a year or two ago. They arc good 
neighbors and good people, with civil, well-behaved children. 
But they do have odd ways. The man gets his family together 
some hour on Sunday, and they read some Bible, and they sing 
a hymn. Then they kneel down and talk to God out of a 
book." "That's my man," said the bishop, and straightway 
started in pursuit. And lo ! it was. 

Attention has been sharply turned the last year to spirit- 
ual destitution in some of our remote regions, and in those 
sparsely populated. I think this call will do us all very real 
good, and the people in those places, if we bestir ourselves 
lovingly to help. My predecessor was more fortunate in his 
quest than good old Bishop Strachan of Toronto in his. 

Several years bishop, -the latter had not even tried to push 
out any work among the scattered folk living on the dreary 
flats which pertained to his charge, and which now make up 
much of the district called Algoma. The bishop had thought 
the Wesleyans admirably fitted to go among these remote 
people, and to do them good. But being a minister of the 
Church of England, and by birth a dutiful Scotchman, after 
some years it pressed itself a little upon his conscience that 
perhaps he ought to inquire into the case of these regions, and 
to see whether he should try to give occasional ministrations 
to stray members of his own church. So he fitted out a reso- 
lute, devout young priest with a horse and saddle-bag or buck- 
board, and sent him to find what he might, and to do any 
spiritual things which came to his hand. Returning at the 
fortnight's end, the bishop accosted him: "Well, Mr. Jones, 
what is your report? I've no doubt you found a good many 
God-fearing people scattered in hamlets and on farms, Church 
of England people among them ; and many pious Wesleyans 
ministering pretty well to their needs." "No, my lord, not 
jnany of either. The day before yesterday, for instance, being 



very warm, I set out early and rode all day, stopping only for 
a rest at noon and to bait my horse with fodder [which fortu- 
nately I had brought with me], and the nearest approach to a 
Church of England family that I saw all that day, and the 
nearest approach to a Wesleyan, my lord, was one emaciated 
red squirrel sitting on his tail, nibbling of a pebble-stone, with 
a great teardrop in each eye ! " 

• We in New Hampshire were not in Dr. Chase's day and are 
not now in quite that sad case- 

The Rev. Dr. Hubbard, a native of New Hampshire, and one 
of the strongest and best of our clergy, after the bishop's death 
wrote down these words: " We hardly understand yet, breth- 
ren, how much we are indebted for the present position of our 
Church in this state, to the silent, continuous, firm, but concili- 
atory and kindly influence of her first bishop." Nigh one 
third of a century later, I, who have witnessed the growing out 
into all of fruit that in a community like ours could as yet be 
looked for, from the plants of the first bishop's planting, do 
very sincerely add my testimony to what Dr. Hubbard had 
laid. True, then, it is after thirty years more manifestly 

There are, no doubt, some places in which the bishop was 
intere'*pd, and in which he began work with considerable of 
hope, which have not responded to the confidence expressed in 
his conventional remarks. As of that favorite engrafted scion 
which promised much and came to nothing, time has written 
the comment : " It failed, notwithstanding." But even these 
failures — Laconia, Ashuelot, Epping — are few, and may be but 
failures for a time. The material thing is this: That judging 
bv what could then be seen and known, no place was entered 
on and no institution was favored which did not then warrant 
his action. And so far as I have been able to perceive, no 
opening was by him neglected into which with his slender re- 
sources of clergy and of money he ought to have gone. 

The work which could be here done by any man as bishop, 
was very small, very modest, very uneventful, very humble. 
With five hundred communicants (although his Church was 
early in New Hampshire), and ten or a dozen clergymen to 


help him in this whole state, what could he do that would pro- 
duce a ripple on the water's surface? 

And the bishop's character was so rounded aud compacted 
and consistent in all its parts, that it fitted well the humble 
work to which God had set him. Salient features, lending 
themselves most readily to vivid description, are not here. Vet 
let no one suppose Bishop Chase to have been a tame, mild 
man, & sort of " boarding-house-tea bishop" (to use Mr. Rich- 
ard II. Dana's strong word), or other than a man of mark and 
decided individuality. But lie and his duties were of the quiet, 
un-noisy kind. Look on this winsome picture drawn by the 
distinguished bishop of Connecticut, Dr. John Williams, in the 
address made by him at the burial of Bishop Chase: 

"Is it not a privilege, greater than tongue can tell, to leave 
behind one so fair, so pure a record as your bishop, brethren, 
leaves of patient, well done labor? Is it not a privilege to 
look and meditate on such a record ? This vision of a long 
and faithful pastorship, this 'image of a long and pure episco- 
pate, left on the most sacred recollections in parish churches, 
in Christian families, in secret hearts,' does one dream of lack 
of eventfulness when he thinks of these? What natural days 
ire those to which men love best to go back in memory ? Are 
they days marked with the scenic displays of nature, resound- 
ing with the crash of storm and thunders, and brilliant 
with the glare of lightnings ? Or are they not rather days that 
are 'bridal days of earth and sky,' in which the calm morning 
has passed on to the quiet noontide, and that again to the 
peaceful sunset, and where all is so blended together that even 
if no one thing stands very prominently out, the whole impres- 
sion is one of blessing and of peace! . . . And as it is 
with them so it is with human lives. In this age of reckless 
change, and noisy pretension, and bustling self-assertion, and 
pushing after notoriety, place, influence, the spectacle of a 
calm, quiet life of contented discharge of duty, which shuns 
the observation of the world ; which bears its own burdens and 
does its own work, seeking no changes but only taking those 
which God may send; which does not strive to create duties 
for itself that may bring it before men's eyes, but does quietly, 



in its own place, the duties • which God allots to it; which 
thinks not of itself more highly than it ought to think-, but 
loves to think soberly, to take the lowly place and do the 
humble work; such a life is indeed a blessed thing to look 
upon. When we contrast it with that other style of life, it is 
like leaving some gaudy, man-made spectacle with its coarse 
daubing, its glare of gas-light and- poisoned atmosphere, and 
coining out upon some peaceful rural scene, swept over by the 
ficsh, pure airs of heaven, and bathed in God's ova sunlight." 

This same brilliant man, Bishop Williams, a great lover of 
<<kl fashioned piety, and not a great worshiper of every con- 
ceivable organization in our churches, each with a big name, 
in speaking of the designation to be finally given to each age, 
once said : "This must be set down as the age of Holy Fuss." 
Certainly Bishop Chase was possessed by no "holy fuss." But 
quiet, and free from bustle and haste, and from passing moods, 
he was filled with Christian charity and with a holy zeal. Of 
those who personally knew him not, none can lead his remarks, 
suggestions, addresses, year by year, touching every least thing 
in his care, and see the love, the thought, the prayer, which he 
gave to each, and not be impressed with Bishop Chase's burn- 
ing zeal. 

When I read, again and again, and see the humility yet 
strong conviction and purpose with which he took on him the 
work of having a church in Hanover, for instance : how he 
planned and toiled to get together a few hundred dollars to 
purchase the decayed and deserted house of worship belonging 
to the Methodists, and a few hundred dollars more to put this 
in a decent condition for reverent use: and how cheered he 
was by the coming in, just then, of a gift from the Earl of Dart- 
mouth of one hundred pounds; and how, for the missionary's 
salary he secured considerable aid in his lifetime, I cannot but 
wish I could tell the departed bishop that, though small and 
feeble still, the little parish for which he cared so much has 
now a good parsonage, a neat little chapel for Sunday-school 
and for week-day services, and (save that the tower is not yet 
built) a small church of stone, which, both in architectural and 
structural worth, surpasses, beyond question, any other rural 


church of any denomination in New England ; and that there 
are a few thousand dollars of endowment. I wish he might 
know, too, how honorably and ably, and how fairly and gener- 
ously, and how successfully in all ways, Dartmouth college is 
now administered. Nor would it be an unpleasant picture for 
him to look down upon, of this one scene in the last years of 
his own lifetime, but which never came to his knowledge, of 
three bri41iant, noble, well-bred fellows, students in college, try- 
ing to warm up that broken-down furnace in the old church, 
one Sunday morning at 5 o'clock (when the mercury stood 
many degrees below zero), so that the congregation might not 
perish six hours later. And sitting about the furnace in the 
basement, one on the flattened side of a barrel once filled with 
charcoal, one on an inverted coal-hod, one on some heaped up 
sticks of wood, they, for the first time, opened each his lips 
upon the subject: whether it would not be their duty to give 
up law, medicine, and banking and seek the holy ministry. 
Everyone of these three men is now a faithful and very greatly 
loved bishop in the Church of God ! 

If the bishop, like his diocese, was wanting in those things 
which much and sharply thrust themselves upon the public 
gaze, it may be just to point to certain characteristics which 
went to make up a strong, symmetrical, influential man. 

Bishop Williams says that the word steadfastly that which best 
marks Carlton Chase. There is much which is just in that char- 
acterization. And what a noble trait this is ! Faithful to 
God; faithful to duty; faithful and trustworthy always in 
standing by good men and honest endeavors ; able to be leaned 
On ; true also to one's friends, from start to finish ; how need- 
fid is this character in any worthy life, eminently in the nature 
and life of a bishop, that he may not fail them that look to 
him for counsel and support, and become to them a broken 
reed ! 

But one is not likely to be steadfast {stayed fast) if he 
hastily takes, up opinions, or, to borrow the phrase from the 
ancient Greeks, if he rushes "hot foot" into a project as soon 
as it is presented to his mind. This, whether in opinions or 
in action, Bishop Chase never did. After his decease the late 



eminent Judge Edmonds of New York was called to testify, as 
an expert in spiritualism, in a case of alleged "obtaining 
money under false pretences,'' for claiming to make photo- 
graphs of spirits of the departed. "Can this be done? "'was 
asked of the distinguished witness. " I do n't know anything 
tbout it," came in reply. " But, Judge, you know all that is to 
be known about spiritualism; -and we would be exceedingly 
^ to have your opinion." "If in my life," he said, " I have 
ever given an opinion with no solid basis to go upon, I have 
invariably made an ass of myself." Bishop Chase never did 
(hat. My young cousin in Phillips Academy, Andover, fifty 
years ago, was pulled up one Monday morning before the 
august principal, the awful Dr. Sam Taylor himself, for some 
misdemeanor, and pleaded : " 1 took it for granted that it would 
!.e .ill right." "Young man," was the ready response, "you 
Uke quite too many things for granted." Bishop Chase never 
did this. In his very thoughtful "Essay on the Millenium," 
re. id before a large gathering of Congregational ministers, and 
printed when I was a small boy, Dr. Nathan Lord of Dart- 
mouth college, designated with keen irony, a set of men smart 
and .shallow, as men " who think before they study, and write 
before they think." Bishop Chase never matured his opinions 
before he had studied the matter; and never tossed off opin- 
ions before he had really formed them. Therefore he could 
be guided by steady, sure principles, and was never vacillat- 
ing in conduct. Among his' fellow-citizens, as in the adminis- 
tering of things of the Church, he was accounted a wise man, 
and sober, and just. I have not found him making any 

Among his peers in the House of Bishops, the bishop of 
New Hampshire not very often asked for the attention of his 
brethren. Whenever he did he arose to his full stature — he 
was a man of more than six feet, of striking form, of finely 
chiseled features and of scholarly mien — and standing firmly 
on his feet, said what he had to say. He always knew just 
what it was. It was sure to be something worth saying. And 
he always stopped when he had said it. It is needless to 
add that his well-weighed words carried great weight. 



In the Conference of all Bishops of the Anglican Commu- 
nion throughout the world which met at Lambeth palace two 
years ago, under the Archbishop of Canterbury's presidency, 
all of the two hundred bishops might like to be heard some- 
times in 'the discussions. One bishop who sat far towards the 
front — a man from far off Oriental lands — was little disposed 
to let any subject be settled without putting in his word. As 
if recognizing that he was making himself a bit of a nuisance, 
admirable man that he was, he often drew himself but about 
half way to an erect posture before putting in his little speech. 
The quiet, clever missionary bishop of a Western jurisdiction 
of ours, fretted perhaps rather more than usually that day, re- 
marked in a whisper: "The bishop of comes from the 

land of the kangaroo; he can neither stand up nor sit down." 
So it was not with the first bishop of New Hampshire. He had 
in a very large measure what the Scotchman calls the " con- 
tained spirit." And it is a very respectable possession to have. 

This, no doubt, explains in part the fact that when the dio- 
cese of New York was in affliction very sore, Bishop Chase 
was the man called in to do the duty there, in their critical 
condition. Their own bishop, after a painful ecclesiastical 
trial, had been indefinitely suspended from the exercise of his 
functions. Some, at the time, believed (as the Church court 
found) that the bishop was justly chargeable with considerable 
personal improprieties. Others, many among the clergy and 
I suppose a majority of the laymen, especially of men learned 
in the law and accustomed to weighing evidence, held that 
nothing material was made out against their bishop, and that 
fright and panic, merely upon the charge of some wrong-doing 
by their ministerial leader, unconsciously swayed the mind of 
the court. One can readily see in a Church like the Episcopal 
Church in which a presbyter is tried before a court made up of 
presbyters, and a bishop by bishops, who are all very jealous, as 
they ought to be, for the purity of their order, and without that 
training in cool weighing of testimony which lay judges 
possess — we, I say, can see some ground in reason for the 
remark once written by a very distinguished presbyter after 
an ecclesiastical trial of a clergyman, for some wrong-doing 



charged: "If I am ever charged with any wrong behav- 
ior, I waive wholly my right to trial before my peers, before 
men of my own order. Let me be tried by a court of Christian 
laymen. A group of the best clergy in the world will try a 
man for being suspected, and convict him for being tried!" 

Among these distressed, half-distracted people of New York 
the bishop of New Hampshire walked up and down, on various 
occasions, during more than three years. For at each new 
yearly need, they with one mind turned anew to him. lie was 
a man who knew how to mind his own business, and to let 
the business of other folk alone. Rarely could the pure gold 
of such a habit shine out more brightly than there it shone. 
And Bishop Chase in these three years confirmed almost twice 
as many persons in New York, as in all the diocese of New 
Hampshire in twenty-six years. And they of all opinions as 
to the painful case declared their diocese to be in a much bet- 
ter condition for Bishop Chase's coming among them. And 
the chief clergyman, perhaps, who promoted that trial of 
Bishop Onderdonk, was later one of the most active in seek- 
ing his restoration from the suspension, liven to me kindness 
was shown in the city of New York, and help was extended in 
my earlier years, for the sake of my good and wise pred- 

And then, how meek he was, and of what beautiful humility 
always! Writing of his one long pastorate, that at Bellows 
Falls, he says: "At the beginning of my residence here, the 
sum of five hundred dollars was proposed by the vestry as my 
salary. This sum from that time to this neither the parish has 
proposed to lessen nor I to increase. Though small, the kind 
providence of God has enabled me to live within it, and indeed 
to relinquish very large arrearages at different times. My re- 
ceipts have not averaged four hundred and fifty dollars 
per year. To be economical without meanness, and liberal 
without profusion or extravagance, is a lesson which every 
minister of the gospel ought diligently to study." 

Yet exceedingly small as his salary was, when called to go 
from his cure in Vermont to the charge of this diocese, the 
bishop-elect wrote this entry: "I have been a sad man from 


the moment this matter was announced to me. I find my 
roots have run deep in this spot, and the pulling them up is 
dreadful. Too much for my own confort hereafter have I 
loved this flock, and too much have they loved and indulged me. 
Never, never was a pastor more blessed, and few are the 
churches so united, consistent, faithful, prosperous, and happy. 
1 never can look upon its like again." And it paid four hun- 
dred and fifty dollars ! Verily this godly minister was a man 
wise after that Scripture: "My son, seekest thou great things 
for thyself ? Seek than not ! " 

This leads me to call attention to the wonderful efficiency of 
Bishop Chase in living respectably on an exceedingly narrow 
income. He was no celibate. Five or six children were reared 
under his roof. Two sons were sent to college. His bills 
were always promptly paid. In New Hampshire the entire 
salary, from parish and diocese, was nine hundred dol- 
lars (I think without a house). And he made it his rule, 
strictly adhered to, to give to God just one tenth of this little 
income ! And he left at his decease rather more, I believe, 
than the accumulations of any private patrimony which he may 
have had, and of what remuneration he received from the 
diocese of New York. The exclamation to me of a distin- 
guished rector in New York, who, with one child, found it 
hard to live upon his salary of ten thousand dollars and a 
house was : " He ought to be canonized, for a worker of 

I think he must have impressed himself with the sad truth : 
" Promise was a pretty maid; but being poor she died unwed," 
or with that other, out of old Fuller : " He had calched a great 
cold had he had no other clothes to wear than the skin of a bear 
not yet killed." I think that the bishop, both in things personal 
and in things of the Church, made a pretty sharp distinction 
between ventures of presumption, and what some good men 
name " ventures of Faith." I am sure he would always go forward 
when the plain word from God was Go forward / But he evi- 
dently remembered that when somebody at the Red Sea set 
out upon an unbidden advance, his "chariots drave heavily 
when the wheels were off." From all my observations I should 


6 1 

think the bishop knew that faith won't pay a note at the bank ; 
and that in making promises, faith and /unify go admirably to- 

To come back to salary and living, I really am ashamed to 
own that I can find no way to subsist, in the simple, frugal 
habits of my household, upon three times the salary furnished 
to Bishop Chase. 

And then the really large man, of whom I am to-night speak- 
ing, could with his own hands do almost everything. Of his 
skill in gardening, and in the culture of trees, I have said 
something. When they at Bellows Falls were furnishing the 
chapel of the church, the rector with his own hands made all the 
?>ettees. And he was wont not seldom to send a friend some 
dainty bit of furniture by himself wrought out. 

1 have religiously striven, and have managed, to keep myself 
and the diocese out of debt, as Bishop Chase did. Alas ! there 
is no one thing in all the world that 1 know how to do, with 
my hands. 

I did formerly think that in one thing practical this very 
sagacious man had wrongly judged,— had, perhaps, been led 
astray by his love for the beautiful. When he erected the 
church in Claremont, which is of a very imposing interior, to re- 
lieve the otherwise rather blank, liat walls without, the frame 
was put on the outside of the walls. A shrewd countryman 
neighbor was one day in the village, and the bishop said : 
"Neighbor J., how do you like my new church?" "Well, 
Neighbor Chase, I have been thinking that when the Almightly 
made animals, he did pretty wisely to put the skin outside of the 

But no serious harm coming to the fabric in these fifty years, 
probably the bishop in his plans was not far astray. 

One is moved, sometimes, to be sore grieved that locomotion 
by steam was ever devised, with the dirt, and the racket attend- 
ant thereupon, and the disfiguring of our fair landscapes; and 
lo wonder whether Ruskin was not more a true prophet than 
painter or poet merely. Be this as it may, we cannot but in 
fairness acknowledge that the lot of one who, like me a kins- 
nun after the flesh of that wandering jew, to whom the word 


always comes out of the very wind : " Move on," that such a 
man's lot, say, is far easier than it was during the episcopate 
of Carlton Chase. 

It was on a " change of cars," in his later years, a~nd not by 
stage, that the man, aged and feeble, was compelled to write in 
his diary : " I had the misfortune to fall on an icy platform, to 
the serious injury and pain of several parts of my person." 
This, however, was slight compared with that other accident by 
" stage," in which (as the admirable little memorial volume, to 
which I am much indebted, tells us) " he was as effectually 
scalped as though he had fallen among Indians." ''The 
coach was overturned, and fell down the side of the mountain, 
rolling completely over." His head " coming in contact with 
the sharp corner of a rib in the roof, his scalp was turn up and 
turned forward nearly over his eyes. He supposed himself 
fatally injured, and so announced in a loud voice to his com- 
panions," which, however, was not the case. 

But an evil thing as it is to be scalped, and half frightened 
to death besides, what is even this by the side of that other 
calamity, to be compelled to leave one's bed at dead of night, 
in the depth of winter, and to come by stage all the way from 
Claremont to Concord, before ten or eleven o'clock, or else not 
to come at all during the day, and to do this dreadful thing 
year after year always, and by a man never endowed with health, 
and growing old besides ! There can, I think, be small doubt, 
that the adage of our childhood needs, in this bustling, noisy, 
nervous age, a little change, so as to read : " Early to bed and 
late to rise " is the way to be healthy, wealthy, and wise. Alas, 
for those of us who have to change it in practice just the other 
way, and to make it: "Late to bed, and early to rise." 

No, considerable as are the cares, and the really sore bur- 
dens now, and the causes of discouragement, it is a light thing 
to be bishop of New Hampshire to-day, in view of what it was 
when Carlton Chase came to the task fifty-five years ago. 

And how lonesome he must have been, starting with his 
five hundred communicants in this great state, and eleven or 
twelve clergymen owning his jurisdiction. One thinks this 
man of God must have felt much as "a sparrow that sitteth 


alone on the housetop," both when he came here to his work, 
and all through his life. It took him ten or twelve years to 
stir his own puny church to any missionary ideas, to any spirit 
of outgoing. 

It is true that before he died Bishop Chase saw his eleven 
clergymen become twenty-two, and his live hundred communi- 
cant members about thirteen hundred. And St. Paul's School 
had not only begun its blessed work, but had advanced far 
enough to comfort the good bishop's heart by letting him see 
what kind of a thing it was going on to be, and of what un- 
speakable benefit to this lean, cool, diocese. 

So prudent, far-seeing the bishop was, he may have looked 
forward to these few fruits of his zeal and prayers, of his deep 
ploughing and faithful tillage, which I have been permitted to 
gather. His ten or eleven clergymen to begin with and later 
twenty-two are increased to forty-five; his five hundred, later 
thirteen or fourteen hundred, communicants, to about four 
thousand six hundred (spite of constant emigration); and our 
great helper, St. Paul's School, grown from nothing up to 
eighty scholars in the bishop's lifetime, and now to three hun- 
dred and fifty. 

When elected to the bishopric my warden in Connecticut, a 
native of New Hampshire, was at first eager that I should 
come. On reflection he changed his mind. 'Phis was his 
comment: "Plenty of work in New Hampshire needs to be 
done. You would go on well and pleasantly with the people, 
but you can get no resources with which to do il. There are 
no churchmen in New Hampshire. The few who are there 
haven't any money. The few who have a little money, didn't 
get it to give away, but to keep. Wholly impossible you will 
find it to enkindle any interest, any confidence, in New Hamp- 
shire, old and dried up, among your friends outside the state. 
They are asking you to go to sea in a boat without oars. That 
is asking too much of any man ! You had best stay where you 
are well off." 

How doubly true was all this when the first bishop meekly 
took up the work ! 1 thank God that he did. 

The bishop was not striking, and very popular, in his style 



of preaching. He was grave, argumentative, and a good 
teacher. Thoughtful men were always glad to hear him. 

I am now to be quoting the words of another, because they 
do exactly express my view: "Bishop Chase was a' man and a 
bishop of an antique mould. In him was no weakness, no 
littleness. Calm, self-centred, faithful and true, of a grand 
simplicity, he stood four square to every wind that blew." 
This typical best New Hampshire character, disciplined, 
ripened, mellowed by the grace of God's Holy Spirit, is about 
as wholesome and as forceful, and as abiding, as can anywhere 
be found — my friends of this New Hampshire Historical 
Society. I testify to this the more freely, as I cannot lay claim 
to New Hampshire birth or ancestry myself. 

One brief record more I desire to make, and then I am done. 
Our dear Dr. Shattuck, if living in this nineteenth century, a 
very saint of God, founder of St. Paul's School, once carefully 
told me as if he much desired this to be known, that of the 
three reasons weighing much with him to determine New 
Hampshire to be the place of the school he meant to have, 
one was, that he here possessed this property for a summer 
home. This came first. The third reason was the healthful- 
ness of the climate, its vigor bringing character. (Nor had he 
seen that list, printed in newspapers three or four years ago, 
of all towns in the United States having a population of ten 
thousand or more, as to their vital statistics, — having, as to 
lowest death rate, at the very head of that list, " Concord, 
New Hampshire.") The second determining reason, Dr. 
Shattuck said, was his very high regard for Bishop Chase, as a 
wise, churchly, just, intelligent, peace-loving man, whom he 
much loved, and with whom he knew that all could go smooth- 
ly on. I am glad to state this thus publicly, as I know Dr. 
Shattuck would wish me to do. 

And I will now, with thanks for patient attention, mercifully 
release you. 

The following resolution, presented by Hon. j. B. Walker, was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That Mr. J. C. Thorne be requested to call upon 
Mrs. Lorenzo Sabine of Dorchester, Mass., and ascertain if she 



dc*ires to divest herself of the care of the books and pictures 
given by Mr. Sabine to the library of this Society, and report 
upon the matter at a future meeting. 

Herbert W. Odlin of Concord was elected a member of the 

Voted to adjourn to the call of the president. 

N. F. Carter, 

Secretary pro tern. 
A true copy, attest, 

John C. Ordway, Secretary. 


I ri the absence of the president and vice-presidents, the 
meeting was called to order by the secretary, and the Hon. L. 
I). Stevens was chosen president pro tern. 

The speaker of the evening was Thomas II. Talbot, Esq., of 
llrookline Mass., and the subject of his address, " A Part of 
the Battle of bunker Hill : The Fight at the Rail Fence." 

A vote of thanks was given the speaker, and a copy of the 
address requested for preservation in the archives of the 

A vote of thanks was presented Major Henry McFarland for 
the binding of several volumes of newspapers. 

Voted to adjourn to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 



Called to order at 7:30 p. m., Vice-President McFarland in the 

An address was given by Professor John K. Lord of Dart- 
mouth college, subject " Nathan Lord." 

On motion of Hon. L. I). Stevens, the thanks of the Society 
were presented to the speaker, and a copy of his address 
requested for preservation in the archives of the Society. 




Nathan Lord was doubtless known personally to some, per- 
haps to several, of those before me, but the nearly thirty years 
that have passed since his death have inevitably dimmed the 
outline of his personality, to the extent that it may require 
some thought to revive the distinct impression of the living 
man. t Yet he has not receded far enough into the past to be- 
come a historic character, of whose actions and qualities we 
judge in a purely impersonal way. Memory still exercises her 
ipower against the action of dispassionate criticism. On the 
-other hand his contemporaries of nearly equal age have also 
passed away, and we cannot depend upon personal reminis- 
cences and impressions that form so large a part in the esti- 
mate of one who has but lately gone. 

But in bringing Nathan Lord before you I wish to gain what- 
ever help I may from the memory of those who may have 
seen him. And for those who never saw him I would try to 
describe him as he will rise before the memory of the others. 
For there is a close connection between a man's mind and 
character and his physical aspect. Great intellectual powers 
are not always supported by bodies of corresponding mould, 
but they are rarely hidden under insignificant features or 
masked by feeble expressions. The soul speaks through the 
face and seldom fails to stamp its character upon trie features, 
or else the two growing together develop in a harmonious 
nature to a mutual likeness. 

To Nathan Lord was not given the commanding stature that 
sometimes enshrines the royal soul. He was not above 
medium height, but his frame was compact and well-knit, 
muscular and vigorous, indicating by its alert and sturdy move- 
ments the combination of suppleness and strength. Plis 
carriage was erect and his walk energetic and elastic. In his 
youth he was athletic, according to the fashion of the day, and 
was noted for his swiftness as a runner and his ability as a 
jumper. I have heard that he could vault a bar as high as his 
head. He was a famous skater, and after he was seventy years 
old he attracted on one occasion the attention of a large 


company on the Merrimack, at Lowell, by the skill and grace 
which he exhibited in skating. His physical activity he re- 
tained till near the close of his life, when an affection of the 
heart forced him to comparative quiet. He was very forrd of 
walking and in that way took much of his customary exercise, 
as he was thus brought into close touch with nature which was 
always his delight, and at the same time gained an undisturbed 
lime fur thought. Some of you may remember " Sand Ridge " 
a long sand dune northwest of the village of Hanover, flanked 
on one side by whispering pines and on the other looking out 
in grand perspective to Cube and Moosilauke, the advance 
guard of the White Mountains. This was his favorite beat, 
and he has told me that it was in pacing back and forth on 
that ridge that he wrestled with himself in the long reasonings 
by which he reached those theological and ethical views, that 
he afterward so tenaciously held and that excited so much 
opposition. With the earth under his feet, the free air about 
him, and the sense of God over him he had a struggle not un- 
like that of Jacob and the angel at Peniel. 

Dr. Lord's bearing and face were marked. His large and 
well-developed head rose above a corresponding neck from 
sloping shoulders, and was always carried high and erect. His 
features were massive and strongly marked. Within the 
rounded outline of the face one instinctively noted the wide, 
high forehead with its suggestion of intellectual force, the 
prominent nose with its heavy nostril, the large mouth and 
firm-set lips, the square and unyielding chin, all indicating a 
resolute will matching the vigor of the brain above. But the 
natural sternness of the features was softened by their expres- 
sion. A blue eye of great intensity and piercing quality when 
theie was occasion for disapproval or searching inquiry, grew 
soft and mellow under other circumstances, and was a crystal 
window out of which looked a loving nature. It was often 
lighted, too, with the expression of a pervasive humor, which at 
the same time played in smiles about the mouth like unex- 
pected bursts of sunshine. A stranger looking at Dr. Lord 
would have been impressed with the strength of his face, an 
acquaintance would have been attracted in addition by the 


evidence of true sympathy and interest in others that appeared 
upon it. He also possessed a strong and impressive voice, and a 
manner that without affectation was the outcome of a true 
desire to render to all men their due and to put olhers at ease 
in his presence. He belonged to that courtly school of men 
who believe that the forms of politeness are essential to it, and 
that the true gentleman ean never fail in those acts of courtesy 
that recognize the feelings and positions of others. 

In estimating a man's work and character it is impossible to 
determine with exactness what is due to his individuality and 
what to the combination of heredity, training, and environ- 
ment. All have their effect, modifying and accentuating one 
another beyond the possibility of separation, and must be 
taken into account in a general judgment. 

Nathan Lord was the fifth in descent from an ancestor of 
the same name, who was the first of the family to settle in 
America. That ancestor emigrated from Stackpole Court, 
Pembrokeshire, Wales, in 1653, and settled, after one remove, 
in that part of Kittery, Maine, that is now the town of South 
Berwick, taking a homestead in the heart of the wilderness, 
which remains in the possession of his descendants to this 
day. To his children he left an honorable name, a sturdy 
independence, a resolute will, and a strong sense of the obli- 
gation of moral duty and civic responsibility. Fourth in 
descent from the first settler was General John Lord, so called 
from the position which he held in the militia. He was a man 
of affairs, an owner of ships, and prosperous in his business. 
He married Mehitable Perkins of Wells, Me., a woman of 
remarkable talents and virtues. Four sons and one daughter 
were born to them. Two of his sons were educated at college, 
one at Harvard and one at Bowdoin, and "fifty of their de- 
scendants, to the fifth generation, have been educated at 
college, and about thirty have become ministers." The third 
of the children was the Nathan of our thought, who was born 
at South Berwick, Me., Nov. 28, 1792. I cannot tell particu- 
larly the influences that surrounded the growing boy, ^ther 
than that they were those of a Christian home, a respeMble 
and God-fearing community, in which churches kindled the 


6 9 

religious spirit, and the estimate of the value of education was 
attested by the foundation in 1791 of an academy, that has 
rounded out a century and more of honorable and effective 

From this academy, where he obtained his preparation, he 
went to Bowdoin college, where he is reported to have been an 
excellent student, and from which he was graduated in 1809, at 
the early age of seventeen, a result not entirely due to N 
differences of standards from the present, but partially to a 
natural love of study and to an unusual maturity and vigor of 
mind, lie was a thorough classical scholar, and retained his 
fondness for Greek and Latin through his life. Me was also 
a great reader and was especially fond of the English poets, 
with whom he had an intimate familiarity. He was equally 
acquainted with English prose literature and philosophy, but 
above all he was a student of the Bible, and knew by heart 
not only passages but chapters and whole books. The book 
of Proverbs was a great favorite with him, and on one occa- 
sion, while he was president of Dartmouth college, when the 
Bible had disappeared from the desk at morning chapel, he is 
said to* have repeated the 119th Psalm entire. His memory 
was wonderfully retentive and exact. 

From college he went to Phillips academy at Exeter as a 
teacher. His extreme youth and small size suggested to the 
students possibilities of frolic with the new teacher, but it 
soon appeared that he was master both of himself and others, 
and that he possessed in an extraordinary degree the qualities 
of a disciplinarian and an instructor. After two years of 
honorable service he left Exeter to enter upon the study of 
the profession which he had chosen, the ministry, and began 
his theological studies with Rev. Mr. Jenks of Path, Me. 
Then entering Andover Theological seminary he was duly 
graduated in 1815. The teaching of the seminary, then but 
lately founded, was strongly Calvinistic though not of an 
extreme type, as it was then interpreted, its creed being, in 
the words of Dr. Leonard Woods, its first professor of Doc- &> 
trinal Theology, "a matter of compromise between men who 
agreed in the great doctrines of Christianity, but differed in 



the modes of thinking on minor points." Under the instruc- 
tion of Woods, Stuart, and Porter, the members of the semi- 
nary naturally, if not irresistibly, became valorous champions 
of orthodoxy, and carried to their churches the spirit of the 
contest that their teachers were waging from Seminary Hill. 

The theology there taught was heartily accepted by Nathan 
Lord. It commended itself to his reason and judgment, it 
was approved by his keen logical faculty, supported^ by his 
imagination, and strengthened by his later studies. His 
belief in its doctrines never wavered, but grew more confident 
with the years, in his assurance that it was founded on the 
Bible, which was to him the ultimate authority. 

Soon after his graduation from the seminary he was called 
to the church in Arundel, Me., and while he was considering 
the call an invitation came from the town and church of 
Amherst, N. If., to settle there as a colleague of the Rev. 
Jeremiah Brainard. He decided in favor of Amherst, and was 
ordained and installed May 22, 1816. His letter of accept- 
ance was characteristic, and indicated clearly the principles 
on which he acted till the end of his life. The purpose of his 
early manhood was the purpose of his old age. "And here I 
avow," said he, "my object in complying with your proposals. 
It is to promote the interests of the Christian church. It is 
to save my soul and the souls of others. And, in the accom- 
plishment of this object, I shall, by the grace of God assisting 
me, endeavor to regulate myself by the principles of the 
gospel. I shall know as your minister no party distinctions. 
I shall seek to understand the mind and will of God as 
revealed in the Holy Scriptures, to preach plainly and affec- 
tionately the doctrines of Christianity, and enforce its pre- 
cepts. I shall strive to maintain 'the watch and discipline' 
of the church, 'to reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long suffer- 
ing and doctrine.' These things, with divine assistance, I 
shall observe and do, and shall confine myself to the ' ministry 
of the word,' for ' I have determined not to know anything 
among you save Jesus Christ and him crucified. ' ' 

Such were the object and spirit with which Mr. Lord 
entered upon his life-work. They indicate no common 



earnestness and maturity in a young man just past twenty- 
throe, and strength of conviction was combined with an equal 
jcal and devotion to work. At the outset he made a compre- 
hensive plan of what he wished to do, as is shown by the fol- 
lowing extract from his diary, headed, "Things to be at- 
tempted for the good of my people." " 1. Prayer. • 2. Fre- 
quent pastoral visits. 3. Visjting of schools, and catechising 
of children. 4. Formation of societies (a) of married ladies 
for reading and conversation of a religious nature, and prayer, 
ib) of young ladies,' for the same objects, (c) Cent Societies, 
(d) Auxiliary Bible, Education, and Tract Societies, (e) for the 
suppression of vice and immorality. 5. Church meetings, for 
prayer and religious instruction. 6. Meetings of inquirers 
after truth. 7. Monthly Concert of Prayer. 8. Circulation of 
Scott's Family Bible, and various religious books, tracts, and 
magazines. 9. Formation of a Church Library. 10. Distribu- 
tion of the Bible among families that may be found destitute." 
Surely this was a programme, if not quite that of a modern 
institutional church, yet that gave full scope for the energies 
and sympathies of a young minister in the early days of the 
century, and that indicated a clear apprehension of the need 
of organization of religious work that is such a marked char- 
acteristic of our own times. 

His success in the ministry was greatly furthered by his 
marriage on the 24th of July, 18 16, to Elizabeth King Leland 
of Saco, Me., who throughout her life in vigor of mind, 
strength of judgment, force, and grace of character proved 
herself a true helpmeet for her husband. His record of his 
marriage shows the sobriety and consecration of his heart. " I 
regard this event," he writes, "as the most important of my 
life. It calls for my unfeigned gratitude : for a new consecra- 
tion of myself, and all my privileges to God. May lie gra- 
ciously help me to discharge the solemn duties it involves; 
may he continue to smile upon the union he has formed, make 
it productive of great and lasting good to myself, to the com- 
panion he has given me, and to the Church of Christ; and at 
length perfect it in the kingdom of heaven." 

On the earthly side this prayer was certainly granted, by a 


long and happy life, marked by increasing mutual love and 
helpfulness, true companionship of mind and heart, perfect 
sympathy of purpose and belief, unfailing loyalty to one an- 
other because it was unfailing to God and duty, and glad 
sharing in the varied experiences of joy and trial that came 
to them, all marking a union so complete that after Mrs. Lord's 
death, which preceded that of her husband by a few months, 
he said as he was looking from the window of his house upon 
a scene, he loved, " Somehow the beauty has gone cfut of it." 
Of the perfecting of that union in the kingdom of heaven we 
cannot doubt. 

The settlement of Mr. Lord corresponded with the rise of 
the Unitarian movement in New England, which had already 
made itself manifest at Amherst. Mr. Brainard, whose col- 
league Mr. Lord had become, was an Arminian, with whose 
preaching the strong Calvinistic views of Mr. Lord came in 
sharp contrast, developing in clear light the differences of be- 
lief already existing in the church. The unmistakable empha- 
sis of Mr. Lord's doctrine did not allow indifference or careless 
acquiescence, and a small portion of his church soon left to 
form a Universalist society, which was afterwards merged with 
a Unitarian church formed five years later. But the major 
part remained and strengthened under Mr. Lord's preaching 
and leadership, until at the close of his ministry he left a vig- 
orous and united church to Ids worthy successor, the Rev. 
Silas Aiken. 

In February, 1S26, as the result of a violent cold, Mr. Lord's 
voice completely failed him, and he was absent from his pulpit 
for more than a year. He then preached till May, 1S2S, when 
his voice again failed, and his physicians gave him small hope 
of speedy recovery. In 1S21 Dr. Lord, as he then became, 
had been chosen a trustee of Dartmouth college, and in 1828, 
on the resignation of the Rev. Bennet Tyler, D. D., he was 
chosen president of that college. At first declining, he after- 
ward yielded to earnest entreaty and advice, and accepting 
the position, entered upon office Oct. 25, 1828. He brought 
to his new station the same high purpose, the same resolute 
will, the same abiding faith in God and desire to do his will 


73 he took to his ministry. Under date of Nov. 28, 1828, 
the last entry in his diary, all too short, referring to his coming 
presidency of the college, says : "I know not what is before 
He, nor would I he solicitous. I would do what my hand 
fiodeth to be done, and leave events with Him, in whose right- 
eous government I confide. May God Almighty bless my 
beloved family, and preserve them and myself for the station 
|n which we are to be placed, and use us evermore for the pur- 
pOSe of his glory." 

To change the plan and work of one's life is a serious mat- 
ter .U any time, much more so is it when the new labor offers 
special difficulties. When Dr. Lord came to the presidency of 
Dartmouth the college was in a condition to cause anxiety as 
nell as hope. Ten years before it had won its great constitu- 
tional struggle with the state in the matter of its charter, but 
it was almost exhausted in the struggle. Its funds were few 
4ral slightly productive, its equipment was trifling, and the 
promise for its future lay chiefly in the strong purpose of its 
officers and the loyalty of its friends. Its triumph had been 
dimmed by the irreparable loss it had sustained in the death 
of its noble president, Francis Brown, who had guided it safely 
during the conflict, but who, worn out with labor and anxiety, 
h*tl sealed his devotion with his life, dying, at the early age of 
thirty-six, in 1820, one year after the end of the controversy. 
His successor, Daniel Dana, was compelled by ill health to 
resign within a year, and was unable to give to the college any 
of the strength which he afterward showed in public life. The 
)c.irs from 182 1 to 1828 were years of holding fast the things 
that remained rather than of advance. The effective force of 
the faculty and the number of students remained about the 
lime. Outwardly there was little change, and the steady work 
of the college gave a chance for the cooling of heated party 
feeling and the allaying of animosity. Inwardly the college 
experienced a decided spiritual movement under the influence 
of its gifted president, Bennet Tyler, who had rare qualities as 
a preacher, and who found the work of the pulpit so congenial 
that after seven years he left the college to resume the work of 
the ministry at Portland, Me. 



When Dr. Lord came to the college he was not only the 
youngest college president in the country, but one of the 
youngest men who had ever been called to the presidency of a 
college in the United States. His administration- extended 
thirty- five years, till his resignation in 1863, aiu ^ vvas more 
than twice as long as that of any other president of Dartmouth, 
except the second Wheelo*ck's, whose term of service exceeded 
Dr. Lord's by a few months. Jt fully met the hopes which 
had been formed of it, and justified the wisdom of the policy, 
so largely followed in this generation, of choosing as college 
presidents men whose working years are before them, and who 
can reasonably hope to see in their own lifetimes the result of 
plans and policies that a decade or even a score of years may 
not fully mature. Time is no small element of success, and 
continuity of service has much to do with courage. The man 
who can wait upon the years to justify his measures does not 
need to run the risks of haste, and can afford to delay the 
superstructure for the sake of the foundations. 

During his long presidency Dr. Lord was successful as an 
administrator, as an executive, and as an educator. His first 
work, from the nature of the case, was to attempt to strengthen 
the financial condition of the college. On the day of his 
inauguration the trustees had voted to appoint the president 
"an Agent to solicit subscriptions to the benefit of the Col- 
lege," and had requested him "to spend the ensuing vacation 
and such further time as may consist with his more appropriate 
duties in promoting" the enlargement of the funds. This vote 
he proceeded at once to carry out by putting into operation a 
plan, already mooted, for a general subscription among the 
alumni and friends of the college, overseeing all its details and 
personally making solicitations wherever possible. The sum 
of $50,000 was desired, and subscriptions received ranged 
from 50 cents to $1,000. The heated feelings of the old quar- 
rel had not wholly cooled, but ten years had done much to 
allay them, and the responses were, perhaps, all that were 
expected, if not all that were hoped. Within two years $30,000 
were subscribed, and in 1830 two new college dormitories were 
erected. These added greatly to the convenience of the col- 



kge. and were brought immediately into service by the increas- 
|tf number of students. In fact, within ten years a third dor- 
mitory was needed and built. 

It \> not my purpose here to follow out historically the prog-- 
t<\> of Dr. Lord's administration. It will be enough to say 
(hit the college broadened and strengthened internally and in 
i\\ constituency. Its funds were greatly increased, though, as 
U always the case, never equaling its wants. In addition to 
the buildings already mentioned the astronomical observatory 
*as built and equipped ; the libraries and apparatus were much 
enlarged ; eleven new chairs of instruction were established, 
partly by the division of existing departments, and partly by 
the founding of new ones. While the present system of elec- 
tive studies had no place, the course of study was widened to 
embrace the advance in science, especially in chemistry, phy- 
li< s, and astronomy, and at the same time the older humanities 
and the modern languages were given more attention. The 
scientific department, which has lately been closely incorpo- 
rated with the college, was established by the gift of Abiel 
Chandler, with the special purpose of giving a scientific train- 
ing for "the duties and employments of active life." The 
Dumber of students in attendance had nearly doubled by 1840, 
and apart from the medical students had nearly trebled. The 
decade from 1840 to 1850 witnessed the largest attendance, 
the increased facilities of communication after 1850 uniting 
v.ith other causes somewhat to lessen the number of students. 
The constituency of the college ceased to be local and stretched 
out to the Western and Southern states. The " small college" 
of Mr. Webster's famous plea had not indeed become a great 
one, but it had far surpassed the limits of the earlier time, and 
had shown itself to be a steadfast force in the moral and edu- 
cational world, a worthy institution of the granite hills amid 
which it stood. 

But the growth of the college, as I have outlined it, marked 
as it was, was not in itself such as to warrant claiming for the 
administration under which it occurred extraordinary merit. It 
was a time. of educational development. Not to grow would al- 
most have been death. Energy, determination, prudence, ad- 


7 6 


mihistrative ability, tact, knowledge of educational movements, 
and devotion to duty were all necessary, and all existed in 
President Lord, but these qualities, even in combination with 
themselves and others not so essential but still desirable, are 
fortunately not so rare that an institution may not rea- 
sonably hope to secure them as it may need. The reputation 
of Dr. Lord as a great college president rests on securer 
grounds [han the fact that the college grew under his adminis- 
tration. He will be credited in common with others in similar 
positions with wise judgment and vigorous executive ability. 
His name in the history of the college will be associated with 
substantial and lasting progress, but the true glory of his presi- 
dency will always be the impress of his character upon succes- 
sive generations of students. He was one of a group of re- 
markable college presidents, whose periods of service, mainly 
in the first half of the century, overlapped each other, and who 
left a lasting mark upon the educational progress of New 
England. Wayland of Brown, Lord of Dartmouth, Hopkins of 
Williams, and Wolsey of Yale, to mention them in the order of 
their appointment, are all regarded in their several institutions 
as representing the highest type of college presidents. All of 
them, according to their individual skill, did a similar service 
from a similar motive. Each of them believed that the highest 
form of college was a Christian college, and the greatest func- 
tion of such a college was to train Christian men, and each 
according to his circumstances and after his measure, did his 
utmost to make Christianity a living force in the college over 
which he presided. Dartmouth had been founded with a 
mission. The legend on its seal proclaimed that it was "the 
voice of one crying in the wilderness," and President Lord be- 
lieved that the college had no higher purpose or more impera- 
tive duty than "to make straight the way of the Lord" and to 
render his word effective in the lives of men. He fully believed 
that science, knowledge, and attainments in general were service- 
able only as they were purified and sanctified by love for God 
and sent to do his will, and that otherwise they were deceitful, 
arrogant, and destructive. " The wisdom of this world" was to 
him "foolishness with God," and his sole purpose as the head 



Of the college was to make its teaching and influence accord 
with the spirit of Christ's kingdom. There was, however, noth- 
ing morbid or ascetic in his belief or practice. The learning 
that was dangerous apart from God was desirable and beauti- 
ful when brought into his service, and that service was worthy 
of man's highest ambition. On the other hand his belief was 
not visionary but practical, a-nd his teaching, example, and 
character enforced upon the students the obligation of applying 
righteousness "to life. The proper limit of knowledge was the 
limit of one's powers, and every mental and physical power 
was to be energized by its devotion to God's service in actual 
righteous living, which was obedience to God's law and God's 
will revealed in Christ. 

In trying to make his principles effective in the college Dr. 
Lord did not make the mistake of supposing that this could be 
done solely or chiefly by talking of them or preaching them. 
They were set forth in the class room, in the chapel, from the 
pulpit, in private, and in public pamphlets as occasion called 
for, but above all they were made to appear in the adminis- 
tration of the college, not in any doctrinaire method, but in 
open, frank application of them to the current work and life. 
No better example of this could be given than his treatment of 
the question of college honors. Prizes had been established 
.it Dartmouth, as at other colleges, and honors, in the shape of 
appointments on the ground of superior scholarship, had been 
awarded to members of the Junior and Sophomore classes for 
exhibitions at stated times, and especially to the Seniors in 
connection with their commencement exercises. In 1S30 at 
the instance of Dr. Lord these were all done away with, 
commencement appointments henceforth being by lot. The 
faculty, never a unit on the matter, varied between support, 
opposition, and acquiescence. The trustees steadfastly 
supported the president even when in 1S58 a strong memorial 
was presented by prominent alumni in Boston and vicinity 
urging a return to the system of prizes and honors. The sub- 
ject had originally come to the attention of the trustees by a 
petition of the students, asking the abolition of college honors. 
The impulse of the students, while it may have arisen partly 


from the discussions common at the time, came, doubtless, from 
Dr. Lord, who presented the subject to the students, and, in the 
words of a graduate of those days, "persuaded us that we did 
not think college honors right." The reasons with which he 
convinced the students were probably the same as those in the 
answer of the trustees, written by him, to the memorial of the 
Boston alumni, and in substance were as follows : 

Laying down as " first principles " that a college is a " public 
institution designed to qualify young men for leaders in Church 
and State," that " the requisite qualifications for such leader- 
ship are knowledge, wisdom, and virtue," that "these qualifica- 
tions are valueless in separation from each other," that the 
organization and discipline of a college constitute its "order," 
which must be carried on " agreeably to the highest standards," 
that the " ultimate standard is the Scriptures," that the order 
of a college is " moral in respect to principle," and, finally, that 
no college "however organically perfect, or judiciously admin- 
istered, that does not embody a righteous moral principle, or 
that cannot be operated consistently with it, can be otherwise 
than injurious in its ultimate results," he proceeded to inquire 
what motives could be properly appealed to in urging young 
men to the highest ends. In turn he examined aesthetics, 
honor, and ambition as motives and rejected all. ./Esthetics 
was uncertain, wavering, " without a higher principle " or " any 
healing or conserving power." Art at its best cannot save, for 
art " is outside of heart, where true virtue only can reside." 
Honor could not be a motive for " honor belongs to God, to a 
perfect state ; the honor which was before shame entered ; the 
honor which will be when virtue shall return ; the honor which 
is but ideal in the present state." Honor in a fallen world "at 
bestis not a safe reliance, . . . whatever it hasbeen in story or 
in song, in chivalry or diplomacy, in warlike hosts or courtly halls, 
in ermine, tiara, diadem, or sceptre [it] has never saved." In 
college idleness, disorder, and vice lurk under its protection ; it 
has false standards, and it "goes forth from college halls true 
to its false ideas ; not to the general, but the particular ; not to 
virtue* but interest; not to God, but some fiction of humanity. 
Yet it is true not to man in general, but to a party; not to a 



pftff)', but a clique; and in the last reduction, not to a clique, 
but the ultimate and supreme first personal." Honor rights 
And embroils men and nations that it may have its own glory. 

liut still less could a motive be found in ambition, which is 
Akin to honor, or in emulation, which is ambition set on fire, for 
In the competition for prizes " the appeal is made, not to the 
love of essential excellence, but of personal preeminence. 
•The stimulus is felt in the wrong place ; not in the sense of 
duty, but the sense of interest." Selfishness is its foundation, 
" and that particular variety of it which affects greatness and 
preeminence is everywhere destructive. Disorganization is 
inlaw. ' By that sin fell the angels.' It has in every period 
filled the world with controversies and wars." Ambition, 
honor, and aesthetics could not, therefore, be the ultimate and 
approximate motives in education. 

To what, then, was the appeal made ? Was there any prin- 
ciple stronger, more authoritative, more legitimate? Dr. Lord 
believed that there was. This was the conscience, which he 
regarded *'as constitutionally supreme over all the natural 
faculties; and [which] when taught by natural and revealed 
religion, with the concurrent testimony of Christian teachers 
and their consistent administration of affairs, produces the 
most wholesome excitement of the intellectual powers, and the 
best restraints of the appetites and passions. . . . The 
conscience is susceptible, responsive, tractable. Education 
rightly conducted, draws it out, first, midst, last; and it is en- 
throned. It is as the power of gravity preserving the spheres 
in their orbit ; . . . to attempt a substitute, except the higher 
and supernatural principle of love, would be like scattering moon- 
shine through the realms of space to keep the spheres in order." 
Conscience was thus an all-sufficient motive. The voice of 
duty, stern and attractive, was to be the energizing call in 
college training. But as conscience may be perverted it 
should be the grand purpose of education to give it a right 
direction by a Christian culture. The Christian character of 
educated young men was the highest product of a college. '"It 
is out of the question," said Dr. Lord, "that this is the desir- 
able end of all learning and discipline," and for that end it was 



essential that the process of training should rest upon, and be 
accompanied by, the clear discrimination between right and 
wrong. Work done or prizes gained under the stimulus of a 
wrong motive could only be mischievous in their result. Good 
fruit could come only from a good tree. 

Such were the views that led Dr. Lord to advocate and 
maintain the abolition of college prizes, honors, and appoint- 
ments for scholarship. His argument was not conclusive to 
his successors, for when it lacked the support of his presence 
and official position the college reverted to its former system. 
There are probably few to-day who, whatever they may think 
of the principles underlying Dr. Lord's argument, would be 
willing to put its conclusions into practice. It is not popular 
now, it was not popular then, but to him that made no dif- 
ference, and it is a more convincing proof of his persuasive 
personality that he was able to bring a large body of 
young men to petition for the withdrawal of what were gener- 
ally regarded as their especial privileges and chief distinctions. 
Certainly his appeal to the conscience of the young men justi- 
fied to a degree the logic of his position, and it does not 
appear that under the new system, during all its continuance, 
the scholarship of the college suffered any deterioration. He 
was able to keep good to the last the appeal to the conscience 
as a stimulus, though he may not have always prevented the 
rising desire for the joys of competition and its rewards. 

A man's work cannot be separated from his personality, and 
to tell of Dr. Lord's administration must be, therefore, to 
tell of the man. His position in the matter of college honors 
clearly indicates certain traits of his character. He was a man 
of deep convictions, definitely thought out, for which he held 
himself and no one else responsible. He accepted no man's 
dictum, and was ready to give a reason for the faith that was 
in him. The foundation of all his thinking was religious. He 
never made the division which appears in some lives between the 
religious and the secular. With him religion was all inclusive 
and embraced no less the daily working of the college than the 
service of the church on Sunday. Principles with him were 
not convenient items of belief, to be shifted or evaded as suited 



the occasion, but orders and charts for action. When his 
wind was settled about the right of a matter there was no ques- 
tion about the doing of it, the method might be in doubt, but 
mot the action. He was uncompromising with what he be- 
lieved to be wrong, and never hesitated through fear of per- 
gonal loss to express his convictions strongly, even when he 
stood alone. His courage marched side by side with his faith, 
and duty was a call before which he never faltered. Such 
tjualities sometimes become obstinate, domineering, and of- 
fensive. They are likely to become dangerous to one's own 
peace and to that of one's associates. To be effective without 
injury they need to be pervaded by a loving spirit and guided by 
a gracious tact. These were happily the possession of Dr. Lord. 
A successful college president must meet and harmonize 
three separate, and to some degree, divergent interests, the 
trustees, the faculty, and the students. Trustees generally are 
professional or business men, diligently engaged in their own 
tailings, who have comparatively little time for outside inter- 
ests. As a rule they are not familiar with the details of 
college administration or the growth and development of edu- 
cational problems. They naturally look to the president for 
the initiative in matters of policy, and are willing that he 
should accept the responsibility for changes and new move- 
ments. Yet men of strong personality and independent 
judgment are not always harmonious, and develop idiosyncra- 
sies in counsel that tend to friction with the president or one 
another. It is the wisdom of a president to unite divergent 
judgments, to conciliate opposing interests, to meet fairly 
criticisms of his proposals, whether they are intelligent or 
based on insufficient acquaintance with the subject, and to 
maintain the confidence of the trustees in his leadership. Dr. 
l^ord was happy in his relations with the trustees, receiving 
their cordial support, as in the matter of honors, from the 
beginning to the end of his presidency, except as toward the 
close they were fearful of the outside effect of his pro-slavery 
views. Apart from that I am not aware that anything ever 
rose to weaken the mutual confidence and esteem of President 
Lord and the trustees. 



With the faculty, the relations of the president are closer if 
not mOre intimate. Association with them is of daily life. 
Personal traits are more in evidence because the opportunities 
to exhibit them are more frequent. With them, to some extent, 
leadership and comradeship go hand in hand. The former 
must be real, the latter must not be lost sight of. All are 
engaged in a common purpose, though in different phases of it. 
•There must be constant counseling on the general character of 
the work, and on the current administration of it. Here are 
chances for disquiet. A faculty always contains men of differ- 
ent ages and different temperaments whose natural diversity is 
accentuated by the recurrence of matters leading to the appli- 
cation of their varying views, till often more heat arises in the 
discussion of a trivial thing of regulation or discipline than in 
that of a vital educational subject. A faculty is liable to 
divisions, if not to parties, and is often jealous of its privileges, 
and of what it deems its rights. As a whole it may make 
the president merely a senior member, or by its parties strive 
to force him to take sides. Its individual members, either 
older or younger, may think they are too little consulted, or on 
the contrary that close observation of their work indicates a 
lack of confidence. For a president to hold an even hand is 
indeed difficult. To disagree without antagonizing, to support 
without elating, to exhibit a discriminating impartiality, to 
make use of the experience of the older and the energy of the 
younger, to avoid complications without trimming, to be open 
to advice and yet be able to depart from it without closing the 
door to future offers, to leave no bitterness in any mind, to 
inspire trust in his wisdom and uprightness, to stimulate to best 
effort, to show that all have a common interest, and that leader- 
ship is not autocracy, is the great work of the president with 
his faculty. To guide a faculty with the just balance of stimu- 
lus and restraint, of radical innovation and conservative stability, 
is often more difficult than to manage the student body. That 
Dr. Lord held such a relation was the unvarying testimony 
of those who labored with him, and may be believed from the 
statement made at his death, that " those who have held offi- 
cial relations with him for thirty years aver that they have 


ucver known him to yield to passion or to reply with bitter- 
ness," and from the statement that "it was more delightful to 
<j»:Ter from President Lord than to agree with most men." 

The relation of the president to the students is very differ- 
ent from that to the trustees or to the faculty. With them 
there is only leadership, guidance, example. Instruction, 
Counsel, and control are the points of contact. On them 
centers his chief thought. Trustees and faculty exist but for 
their interest. 'Plans are made and resources sought for their 
grciter good. They, however, are not steadied by a sense of 
responsibility, are quick to follow new fancies while strongly 
adherent to custom, without the poise of experience, yet with 
the vigor of manhood, liable to sudden impulses yet open to 
itason and loyal to a recognized leader, instant in detecting 
»lum and unreality of any kind, yet responsive to lofty motives 
and appreciative of noble character. Only strong natures are 
sufficient for the guidance of such companies. 

The first article of Dr. Lord's creed of administration was 
thit the government of the college must be supreme. He 
believed in law, that it must be enforced and must be obeyed. 
He was a strict disciplinarian, resolute in maintaining the 
order of the college, but calm and considerate in times of peril. 
Not long after his coming to the presidency a decisive test was 
made of his firmness. There was a college rebellion, and a 
member of the class of 1830, then in college, in speaking of it 
in later years, said, " Some will recollect the electric effect of a 
.speech of his to the students who were moved to rebel. They 
bad threatened to leave college en masse (as they often do if 
their wishes are not complied with). One sentence from 
Dr. Lord went like a loaded shell into their ranks. It was 
this : 'Go, young gentlemen, if you wish; we can bear to see 
our seats vacated, but not our laws violated.' This was said 
with such regal decision and dignity that no man of those 
classes afterwards spoke of deserting the college." 

But while he was unyielding as a rock in upholding the law, 
he was always gentle to those in distress. None came to him 
so quickly as those who had done wrong, if only they repented 
or needed help. He never belittled a transgression or glossed 

8 4 


over a fault, but his sympathy was unfailing and his advice 
sound. He had some of that divine quality of hating the sin 
and loving the sinner that enabled him to inspire hope in the 
erring and despondent. His absolute truthfulness gained re- 
spect and his affectionate urgings to recovery of what was lost 
gave courage. But he was a terror to evil-doers. An inter- 
view with him in his study was an ordeal from which the bold- 
est shrank. " He seemed to have," said a student under him, 
speaking perhaps from experience, " an intuitive perception of 
character, especially of the young, for he always seemed to 
know, when any young man was brought before him, what and 
all that was in him." 

In his time what might be called the police duty of the col- 
lege devolved upon the president and faculty, and no small 
part of it was the quelling of disturbances and the detection of 
offenders at night. As might be expected such service gave 
occasion for the setting of the wits of the students against 
those of the faculty, and sometimes one side came out ahead, 
sometimes the other. Out of these contests and the discipline 
resulting from them grew an immense number of stories, gath- 
ering about the person of the president, which are to-day cur- 
rent among the graduates of his time, and are sure to appear 
when he is mentioned. It is worthy of remark that none of 
them, at least as far as I have heard them, represent Dr. Lord 
as lacking in dignity, as thrown off his balance, or failing to 
command respect. On the contrary they represent him as 
dignified, resourceful and courageous to the last degree, never 
hesitating to enter the fiercest contest of the classes with his 
historic words, " Desist, young gentlemen, desist," enforced by 
the vigorous blows of his equally historic cane. They ascribe 
to him unfailing humor that cheered what would otherwise 
have been rather dreary places. And, in fact, this was a marked 
characteristic. He used it himself and appreciated it in 
others, turning it to good effect. A student was once reported 
to have played cards for something besides amusement. Dr. 
Lord called him to his study and said, " I am told that you 
sometimes play for stakes." "No, sir," said the student, "I 
have never played for steaks but I sometimes have for oys- 



ters." The humor was highly appreciated and turned to an 
effective moral. His humor was made to play a part even in 
his serious talks to the college. Once after a serious college 
disturbance he addressed the students, and drawing a picture 
of the orderly life that had prevailed for some time previous, 
said, ,k I would live in such a college," but then describing the 
recent disturbance he said, " In such a college I would prefer 
to die, but I would die with an explosion, and the wicked 
should be scattered." 

Humor often enlivened his argument or helped to cover his 
retreat. A paper which he once read in a company of minis- 
ters on slavery aroused great opposition, but the discussion 
was closed by Dr. Lord's remark that according to the Bible 
God gave to man dominion " over every living thing thatcreep- 
elh upon the earth." "Of course," said he, "that includes 

Apart from the discipline and administration of the college 
Dr. Lord had access to the students in the class room, the 
chapel and the pulpit. For a considerable number of years he 
performed the duties of the department of ethics and theology, 
and always had an exercise in the Greek New Testament, 
which was " largely a lesson in the ethics of Christianity." "It 
was so conducted," writes one, "that any student might inter- 
rupt its progress with a pertinent question, and the utmost in- 
terest was maintained in his profound and lucid exposition." 
It was in connection with his ethical teaching that his millen- 
narian and pro-slavery views would have found place, but he 
was a Christian before he was a theologian, and except on re- 
quest he rarely brought forward these subjects, and never at- 
tempted to proselyte. He was more anxious to enforce the 
personal truths of Christianity than to justify his position by 
gaining adherents. The outside public laid much stress upon 
his views, but they did not figure much in his instructions or 
his sermons, and had little effect upon his relations to the stu- 
dents. We judge of strangers by their opinions, of acquain- 
tances by their character. So to a large part of the public the 
opinions of Dr. Lord, especially on slavery, and increasingly as 
the conflict over slavery came nearer, were an offense, and he 


was the object of bitter criticism, and in some quarters of dis- 
trust, but with the students his character and personality were 
all effective. Whatever they thought, if they thought at all 
about what they called his "peculiarities," they did not lose 
sight of the wise teacher, the able officer, and the kind and 
judicious friend. They were not disturbed by opinions which 
they hardly understood While the personal qualities of the man 
excited their admiration and respect. 

The personal relations which Dr. Lord maintained with the 
students were singularly pleasant. " It is difficult to describe," 
said an alumnus, " except to one who personally knew him, the 
fine friendly relations, coupled with the most perfect respect 
for himself and his office, which he maintained with the col- 
lege students. He took a strong personal interest in the af- 
fairs and ambition of each student, and inspired in the most 
natural way almost a filial feeling of regard toward himself. 
His discipline or advice was always persuasive, because it was 
both kindly and impressively given. His intercourse with the 
students was free and genial and his manifest interest in them 
went far to break down the barriers of official relations. His 
courtesy was unfailing, and his politeness no mantle worn only 
among his peers, but was a part of his nature. To high and 
low, to rich and poor, he was always the same courtly gentle- 
man, one to whom the forms of politeness had a meaning be- 
cause they recognized the essential elements of humanity, and 
because the meanest frame was the shrine of an immortal soul 
that had the semblance of divinity." 

In the conduct of the exercises of the college chapel and in 
frequent occupying of the college pulpit Dr. Lord established a 
strong influence over the students. In his time there were 
morning and evening prayers, which with rare exceptions he 
conducted when in town. There were then, as there always 
will be, some who had no interest in such things, but as a rule 
the pure devotion of the exercise impressed the college. Dr. 
Lord had remarkable power in prayer. He escaped the fatal 
tendency to repetition in form or thought, and while keeping 
within the experience of daily life gave new expression to it. 
His prayers were direct, simple, and yet profound, forcible in 



expression, enriched by experience and feeling, deeply spiritual 
and tender. His familiarity with the Bible led him not so 
much to quote its words as to catch its penetrating spirit. He 
prayed not as one afar off, but as standing in the very presence 
of God. Prayer was not an observance, it was a reality.. He 
made petitions as if he knew they would be answered, and 
from petition he passed to praise that seemed to catch a heaven- 
ly note, to be the response to the strains of angels. Even the 
thoughtless were impressed by the grasp of his thought, the 
strength of his faith, and the compelling power of his urgency. 
Said a student not especially religious, " I like to hear Dr. 
Lord pray. I like to hear him say, 'The Lord bless these 
young men, the Lord bless every one of them,' for whenever 
he says that I feel safe for the day." On more public occa- 
sions Dr. Lord's power in prayer was remarked. Such occa- 
sions seemed to give him a stronger sense of God's presence 
and overshadowing might and to lead him to corresponding 
expressions of praise and prayer for the divine blessing. One 
who did not fail for many successive years to attend the 
commencement exercises at Hanover said that he went to hear 
Dr. Lord's prayer on Commencement day, and having heard 
that lie was satisfied for the year. 

Before he came to Hanover, Dr. Lord had become one of 
the prominent preachers of the state. He had some of the 
natural gifts of the orator. His voice was originally clear, 
resonant, and strong, though after its temporary failure in his 
early manhood it carried a suggestion of weakness. It had 
great volume and corresponded to his massive style. His 
manner was forcible and impressive, emphatic in utterance, 
though not accompanied by much gesture. He kindled under 
the influence of his thought till his earnestness seized and 
held his audience. Profoundly convinced of the truth of salva- 
tion which he was commissioned to preach, he spoke with the 
authority of a divine messenger. He did not shrink from the 
thunders of Sinai, but he preferred the mount of blessing and 
the cross of Calvary. He was ready to declare what he be- 
lieved to be the "whole counsel of Cod," but it was that men 
might be made " partakers of his holiness." He urged men to 



"ilee from the wrath to come," but like a veritable Greatheart 
he led them on to the Heavenly City. Thoroughly Calvinistic 
he laid stress on man's lost and sinful state by nature and the 
necessity of repentance and conversion, and on the gracious 
purpose of God in Christ and the atoning love of his sacrifice, 
and the fervor of his utterance corresponded to the certainty 
of his belief/ 

His thinking was clear, strong, and logical, forcing his con- 
clusions if you admitted his premises. His style was massive, 
wanting in simplicity, but never in force. It had not the 
limpid clearness of the stream through which one sees all that 
is carried in it, but was rather like the resistless current that 
sweeps away all in its course. He was a master of rhetoric 
and marshaled sonorous periods with almost crushing effect. 
He used a vocabulary of extraordinary range and was espec- 
ially fond of words derived from the Latin. Yet there was 
nothing pedantic or artificial in his style, and he was never 
guilty of improprieties or solecisms. No word was ever used 
for effect independently of the thought. There was never any 
doubt as to his meaning, it was as clear to others as to himself. 
Some might prefer a simpler style, but no one could fail to 
recognize its stately progress, its effective force, its massive 
strength, and its grand rhetoric. All his writing was pervad- 
ed and stimulated by a powerful though thoroughly regulated 
imagination. It did not appear as much in formal and sus- 
tained figures, though these were sometimes worked out in 
fulness of detail, as in a general glow and warmth of feeling. 
It seemed to be just under the surface ready to come out, ap- 
pearing now and then in a word, a phrase or an allusion, and 
producing an effect like the flash of lightning that for a mo- 
ment illumines and seems to burn in the deep hollows of a 
cloud as if its very mass was on fire. It was his imagina- 
tion that saved his style from being over- weighted, both by 
the living hold which it gave him of his subjects and by the 
restrained intensity of his expression. The imagery of the 
Bible especially attracted him, and he used it constantly in 
his writing. It often became the symbolism of his thought, 
and by it he felt before he reasoned out his conclusions. 



8 9 

Such were the qualities, the abilities, and the influences by 
which Dr. Lord made his presidency effective. His great work 
was the formation of character. His stamp upon the college 
was the stamp of manhood. Few of the 2,675 alumril who 
received their diplomas at his hand failed to carry away from 
contact with him the impulse to a higher ideal; many were 
powerfully affected for all their lives; some owed to him their 
nioral reformation. But the impression which individuals 
tarried away remained also in the college. Year after year it 
deepened within it, developing the resolute purpose, the steady 
energy, the strong determination and the desire to think for 
one's self that have united to form that independence of 
character and readiness for individual action, sometimes 
aggressiveness, which have characterized the graduates of 
Dartmouth to this day. 

Dr. Lord resigned the presidency of the college July 24, 
1863, in consequence of a vote of the trustees following upon 
the presentation to them of a series of resolutions passed by 
the Merrimack County Conference of Congregational churches. 
These resolutions expressed the deep regret of the members of 
the conference that the welfare of the college was "greatly 
imperiled by the existence of a popular prejudice against it. 
arising from the publication and use of some of his [Dr. Lord's] 
peculiar views touching public affairs, tending to embarrass our 
government in its present fearful struggle and to encourage and 
strengthen the resistance of its enemies inarms," and also their 
opinion that it was " the duty of the Trustees of the college 
seriously to inquire whether its interests do not demand a 
change in the presidency." 

The resolutions of the conference were referred to a com- 
mittee of three, which by a major vote made a report with reso- 
lutions. The report declared the entire agreement of the 
trustees with the Conference in their views on slavery and 
the war, and stated that neither the trustees nor the faculty 
coincided with the president of the college on these subjects; 
that they recognized fully the gravity of the existing struggle 
in the country, but that in their judgment it was not wise to 
remove the president. The resolutions declared with greater 



earnestness the sympathy of the trustees with the government, 
and the duty of literary institutions and the men who control 
them, in such a crisis, " to stand in no doubtful position," and 
their ardent hope that slavery "with all its sin and shame . . . 
may find its merited doom in the consequence of the war which 
it has evoked." 

Dr. Lord immediately 'offered his resignation, protesting 
against the right of the trustees to impose " any religious, 
ethical or political test upon any member of their own body or 
any one of the college faculty, beyond what is recognized by 
the Charter of the Institution or express statutes or stipulations 
conformed to that instrument." Such a test he said was virtu- 
ally imposed by their action, inasmuch as he was censured as 
having become injurious to the college not for official malfea- 
sance, but for opinions and publications on questions of bibli- 
cal ethics and interpretations, which the trustees supposed bore 
unfavorably upon the administration of the country. " For my 
opinions," said he, "and expressions of opinion on such sub- 
ject, I hold myself responsible only to God, and the constitu- 
tional tribunal of my country. . . . I do not feel obliged 
when the exercise of my loyalty is called in question, to sur- 
render my moral and constitutional right and Christian liberty, 
nor to submit to any censure, nor consent to any conditions, 
such as are implied in the action of the Board. . . . But 
not choosing to place myself in any unkind relations to a body 
having the responsible guardianship of the college . . . 
and believing it to be inconsistent with Christian charity and 
propriety to carry on my administration, while holding and 
expressing opinions, injurious as they imagine to the interests 
of the college . . . I hereby resign my office as president." 
lie also resigned as trustee. 

The situation was a trying one. Under the circumstances 
the action of the trustees was perhaps as natural as that of 
Dr. Lord was inevitable. When honest men hold irreconcilable 
views there can be only entire freedom of judgment or separation. 
It was a time of tremendous feeling. The chord of patriotism 
was at its utmost tension under the passion of war. The 
opinion, however honestly held, that slavery was right, seemed 


lo many no less than treason, and he who held it, even if not a 
personal traitor, gave comfort to the enemy, and was not a 
proper person to hold a position of responsibility. It is always 
difficult, sometimes impossible, to distinguish between opinion 
and character. Dr. Lord's pro-slavery views were in evidence 
away from the college, and in the general unrest many felt that 
it was injurious to the college not to have its head in sympathy 
with the prevailing opinion of the section in which it was 
placed. Sometimes there crept into criticisms a bitterness 
greater than the cause of truth would warrant, but in times of 
excitement it is hard to make distinctions. The trustees, having 
personally no sympathy with Dr. Lord's views and feeling 
doubtless their responsibility for the college before the public, 
took the action that seemed to clear themselves and the college 
from taint of error. The result they foresaw and expected, 
though they did not wish to establish tests of opinion, as Dr. 
Lord felt that they had done. On his part, he was prepared to 
give up everything rather than his liberty of thought and 
speech, but he loved the college, and in resigning he said, " I 
.shall never cease to desire the peace and prosperity of the col- 
lege," and he attested the desire to the end of his life. 

1 must in closing say something of Dr. Lord's beliefs, for 
what a man says and does grows naturally out of what he thinks 
and feels. If any man could say, " I believed and therefore 
have I spoken," Dr. Lord could have done so. The fundamental 
element of his character was faith, faith in God and his word, 
and loyalty to both. Lor him the Bible not only contained a 
rule of conduct, but it was the ultimate declaration of moral 
and spiritual truth. Nothing could supersede it, or modify it, 
and whatever was contrary to it was evil. He believed in its 
plenary inspiration and its literal interpretation. The Old 
Testament and the New Testament, history and prophecy, 
were equally authoritative, because they were equally the word 
of God. From his literal interpretation came the views that 
seemed peculiar to his brethren. He believed in slavery as 
the exact fulfilment of the curse pronounced upon Canaan, k 'a 
servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren " ; he believed 
from the literal interpretation of many passages of Scripture 

9 2 


in the moral degeneration and growing deterioration of the 
race, as distinct from its material advancement, which might 
under the guise of a sensuous rationalism become only a more 
exalted paganism, and in the millennial reign of Christ followed 
by the revelation of " that Wicked, " whom the Lord was finally 
to "destroy with the brightness of his coming" and afterward 
set up an everlasting kingdom of righteousness. 

Intensity of conviction led to intensity of expression, and 
his pamphlets on these subjects read like the strains of the old 
prophets declaring without the possibility of doubt the counsels 
■of God. So confident was he of the correctness of his view 
that he regarded the disbelief of others as a prophetic evidence 
of the truth, and his isolation made him more steadfast and 
more urgent. But these beliefs never chilled his philanthropy, 
they rather opened the sympathies of his heart. Under him 
Dartmouth welcomed the negro while other New England col- 
leges closed their doors against him, and he preached by invi- 
tation the ordination sermon of a negro minister in Troy, 
N.-Y., when no other white clergyman was present. 

As a more definite exposition of his beliefs I cannot do bet- 
ter than to give a statement written by his son, Dr. William H. 
Lord, just after his death. 

"He belonged," wrote he, "so far as the independent char- 
acter of his mind would allow, to what is termed the old school 
of theologians. But the principles that were best settled in 
his mind, and lay there without controversy, were those in 
which he differed from, rather than agreed with, his brethren, 
lie regarded even the old school as gradually merging into the 
more liberal views of the new, and the new as rapidly tending 
to positive rationalism. The question, therefore, ( When the 
Son of Man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth ? ) was 
practical and forcible in his mind. lie reduced his theology 
to a very few essential principles and facts, and his ethics 
radiated from his theology. His first principle was this : God, 
the God of Abraham, and Isaac and Jacob, the God and 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, reigns in the world. His 
government is not an abstraction but a reality. His kingdom 
is vital, spiritual, organized, supreme. The law of this king- 



dam is the revealed will of God, of absolute and infallible 
minority, and binding forever on the minds and hearts of men. 
To this government man is responsible. He owes it honor, 
love, obedience. But he has rebelled against it and refused to 
have God rule over him. He has done this in general and in 
particular. For his general and universal alienation the sen- 
tence of death has passed upon all men : for his special and 
particular disobedience and offenses he has special and par- 
ticular penalties. Slavery, war, pestilence, famine, persecu- 
tion, evil and pain of various sorts, more or less protracted, 
more or less terrible, are the penalties of the divine govern- 
ment on special modes of human offense and sin, when com- 
mitted by individuals, families, or nations. Thus the original 
penalty of death is supplemented, as occasion requires, and 
human wrong demands, by distinct pains and penalties in- 
flicted in the order of the divine economy. Human govern- 
ment he regarded as a mode of the divine government, and 
expressive of it, just as it coincides with the principles of God's 
kingdom. Hence he justified slavery as the penalty of sin. 
He called it a divine institution, not because it was intrinsic- 
ally blessed, not because he loved it in itself, but because it 
was divinely ordered. He accepted it as he would any primi- 
tive and disciplinary system of providence or of human gov- 
ernment. It was a part of that order of penalties and checks 
by which God revealed his indignation at sin, and sought also 
the benefit of the sinner. He called slavery a governmental 
relation and institution, like apprenticeship, or jails and alms- 
houses, penitentiaries and reform schools, designed ultimately 
for the correction and enlargement, though immediately for 
the punishment of men or nations guilty ot special sins. 

" liut he held as the central and radiating fact and principle 
of his theology the revelation of God in jesus Christ as the 
Prophet, Priest, and King in this divine kingdom. As Prophet 
He was its teacher, as Priest He was its atoner and redeemer, 
and resurrection, as King He was its orderer, ruler, and eternal 
head. Christ was the all in all, and first and last, both in his 
theology and ethics. He believed that God had given him all 
authority and power over things in heaven and on earth, and 



that he was the supreme object of human faith and love. To 
him the covenant with David, the advent of the Son of God, 
the ministration and miracles of Jesus, the cross of sacrifice on 
which the offended died to set the offender free, the resurrec- 
tion of the dead, the glorified person of the risen and ascended 
Redeemer, and his second coming and enthronement, were all 
the most pure and simple facts and verities, worthy of all be- 
lief, as Christ was worthy of his personal homage and love. 
And since Christ was a King he believed also that of his king- 
dom there should be no end ; that the brow which once was 
crowned with thorns shall be crowned with the royal diadem ; 
that the feet which once wandered under the shadow of the 
olive trees of Gethsemane shall yet stand on the Mount of 
Olives as the visible and anointed King of this redeemed and 
regenerated world. He laid great stress upon the supernatural 
methods as well as aims of Christianity, nor did he suppose 
that its supernatural work was ended. He looked for the new 
and miraculous setting up of a new and millennial dispensa- 
tion by the Son of God, in which the whole church of the 
Redeemer of all ages should visibly partake of the glory of 
their Saviour. In the interest of that consummation God 
ruled the world. All secular movements were subordinated 
to it. He contemplated the changes of empires, and king- 
doms, and nations only in their bearings upon the progress and 
triumph of the kingdom of the Lord from Heaven. Therefore 
he was observant of all human events, and ever watchful lest 
the kingdom to which he belonged, and whose supremacy was 
the one object of his heart and hope, should suffer any detri- 
ment. He looked upon earthly states as the providential min- 
isters and preservers of God's church — the husk of the grow- 
ing and ripening corn ; but he believed that when the corn 
should be full in the ear and ready for the garner, the husk 
which had given it cover and protection should be threshed off 
with the tribulum of God, and the final issue of the .divine 
administration be seen in the living, redeemed, and glorious 
church, which is the body of Him in whom dwelleth all the ful- 
ness of God." 

Such were the beliefs of Dr. Lord, held firmly during life 



ami reaffirmed at death. As he lived so he died. His end 
n*> peace. Gradually his strength failed till the supreme hour 
came, when on the morning of September 9, 1870, his children 
fathered about his bed, and he left the few to "go over to the 
majority." As they heard his final prayer, "The Lord take 
rnc and mine," and saw his eye fill and burn with a light that 
*as not of earth but the very radiance of immortality, and 
lAc-w that for a moment even here he saw the King in his 
beauty and beheld the land that was very far off, they could 
but cry, as if for the lost Elijah, " My father, my father, the 
chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof." 

J. Milnor Coit, Ph. D., of Concord, was elected a member of 
the Society. 

John C. Thorne, on behalf of a committee of the Congrega- 
tional churches of Concord, expressed the wishes of the latter 
that the monument lately erected on the Plains, to mark the 
spot where the first public religious service was held in this 
town, be placed in the care and custody of the Society, and 
presented properly executed deeds of the same in the Society's 
name, and the same were formally accepted on motion of Hon. 
Joseph B. Walker. 

On motion, voted to adjourn. 

John C. Ordway, 



Concord, N. IT., Wednesday, June 13, 1900. 

The seventy-eighth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society at 
Concord, Wednesday, June 13, 1900, at 11 o'clock in the 
forenoon, about thirty members being in attendance. President 
Todd in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The report of the secretary with reference to the member- 
ship of the Society was as follows : 

Whole number of members June 14, 1899, 175 

Number elected and qualified during the year, 6 

Making a total of 181 

Less reductions by resignation, 1 

by death, 8 

— 9 
Present membership, 172 

On motion of Hon. L. D. Stevens the chair appointed a 
committee to nominate officers for the ensuing year, viz. : Hon. 
I.. 1). Stevens, J. C. A. Hill, Esq., and John C. Thorne, Esq. 

The report of the treasurer was read, accepted, and placed 
on file, and is as follows : 


Receipts credited to general income : 

Income from permanent fund, $519.10 

Income from savings bank, IO -73 

New members, 30.00 

Assessments, 336-00 

Life membership, 100.00 

9 S 


Books, etc., sold, $74.2? 

Payment of dividend % Johnson Loan and * 

Trust Co. 's debenture, 70.00 

State appropriation, 500.00 

Income from Todd fund for purchase of 


Expenditure charged to general income 
Printing and binding, 
Fuel and Water, 

Salary of librarian, 
N. F. Carter, incidental expenses, 
Books, etc., 

Paid balance of land purchase note, 
Interest on note, 

Permanent fund, as of June 13, 1899, 
Current funds, as of June 13, 1899, 



. 10 





J 9-95 






2 ° 7 




2 2 


p 1 1,100.00 
2 °3-75 


1, 5 6 4-63 

ll >3Q3-75 

To new account : 
Permanent fund, 
Current funds, 

>i 1,419.03 

Todd Fluid. 

To investment, 

To balance unexpended for 1899, 

To income, 

By paid for genealogical works, 

jsi 1,200.00 



39- 8 3 


Securities in hands of the treasurer : 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co. 's debentures, $500 each, $1,000.00 
Receipt, Johnson Loan & Trust Co., 870.00 

3 Concord Land & Water Power Co.'s bonds, $100 each, 300.00 
2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad bonds, 

4 per cent., $500 each, 1,000.00 



2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad bonds, 

6 per cent., $1,000 each, $2,000.00 

1 New York & New England R. R. bond, 7 per cent., 1 ,000.00 

i Little Rock & Fort Smith R. R. bond, 7 per cent., 1,000.00 

Mortgage loan, 1,625.00 
5 shares of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R.R. stock, cjoo.oo 

13 shares of Concord & Montreal R. R. stock, 2,268.50 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 
Cash on hand, 




Todd Fund. 

5 shares of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. stock, 

5 per cent., 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 

$1 1,419.03 



We have this day examined the account of W. P. Kiske, 
treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society for the 
year ending June 13, 1900, and find the same correctly cast 
and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We have also examined 
the securities constituting the funds of the Society and find 
them correct. 

J. C. A. Hill, 
J. C. Thorn e, 

Standing Committee. 
Concord, N. H., June 13, 1900. 

Jonathan Smith of Clinton, Mass., John F. Kent, and Isaac 
Andrew Hill of Concord, were elected members of the 

The committee on the proposed Naval History of the State 
of New Hampshire reported orally through its chairman, Hon. 
Albert S. Wait of Newport, and the report was accepted and 
the committee continued another year. 

The report of the librarian was presented, accepted, and 
is as follows : 

librarian's report, 1900. 

I am happy to report another prosperous year for the library. 
The donors have been many and the accessions large, in all 



numbering live hundred and fifty-seven bound volumes and 
twenty-two hundred and ninety-live pamphlets, not including 
numbers of periodicals and the annual town reports required 
by law to be sent to the library. During the year eighty-seven 
volumes of miscellaneous books have been bound, 'and fifty 
copies of volume VII of Collections. At the last annual 
meeting there was a total of 15,118 bound volumes, to which, 
adding the number received and bound during the past year, 
we have at present 15,662. 

The following individuals have made donations : 

Adams, Dr. George S., 14 

Aiken, Rev. Edwin ]., 4 

Albertson, Ralph, 1 

Andrews, J. INT., 1 

Armstrong, George W., 1 

Atherton, Samuel W., 1 

Atkinson, Edward, 3 

At wood, F. E., 1 

Bachelder, Nahum ]., 2 

Baker, Henry M., 5 

Balcb, T. W., 1 

Barker, Virginia, 1 

Batchellor, Albert S., 1 

Beck with, A. C., 1 

Bellas, H. H., 1 

Benton, Joseph, 1 

Benton, Josiah II., Jr., 1 
Bisbee, Rev. Marvin D., 4 

Blackstone, II. M., 15 

Blanchard, F. S., 1 

Blan chard, Miss Grace, 1 

Blinn, Elder Elenry C., 3 

Blomberg, Anton, 1 

Blood, Everett, 1 
Bouton, Rev. Tilton C. H., 1 

Brennan, James F., 1 

Brigham, H. H. C., 1 1 

Brown, David H., 1 

Brown, Francis II., r 

Brown, Dr. J. P., 39 

Bryant, Henry YV., 10 

Bullard, E. P., 2 

Burge, C. F., 1 

Caldwell, William H., 5 

Calvin, Samuel, 
Campbell, Alfred II., 
Carpenter, C. C, 
Carr, Laura G., 
Carroll, Lysander IT., 
Carter, Miss A. P., 
Carter, Rev. N. F., 
Carter, Mrs. N. F., 
Chandler, William D., 
Chandler, William E,, 
Charlton, Miss Athel M., 
Cleaves, George P., 
Cobb, Dr. Farrar, 
Colby, Fred M., 
Colby, Plenry 13. , 
Comstock, D. Y., 
Comstock, John M., 
Conn, Dr. Granville P., 
Coppey, R. J., 
Cox, Charles E., 
Cra«-< T T W 
Cummings, I. W., 
Curran, Airs. M. H., 
Currier, A. N., 
Curtis, Rev. John S., 
Cutler, A. M., 
Dabney, Lewis S., 
Dearborn, Clarkson, 
Dewey, Rev. Harry P., 
Dike, Rev. Samuel W., 
Dodge, James H., 
Dow, George F., 
Downing, Lewis, Jr., 
Drummond, Josiah H., 



Dryden, John, 
E.istinan, Samuel C, 
Eaton, Mrs. Ellen L., 
Eaton, John, 
Eaton, Luther P., 
Kldridge, Faith S., 
Elliot, Rev. L. H., 
Emerson, Mrs. Emma F., 
EVans, Ira C, 
Farnsworth, Fred T., 
Farrar, Dr. Isaac, 
Fiske, William P., 
Folsom, Capt. A. A., 
Foster, Rev. Addison P., 
Fowler, Fred II., 
Gallinger, Jacob IL, 
George, John 11., 
Goold, Nathan, 
Gordon, George A., 
Gordon, Miss Lucy A., 
Gove, Mrs. Jesse A., 
Grant, A. IL, 
Green, Dr. Samuel A., 
Grout, Rev. Lewis, 
Haley, Rev. John W., 
Harding, G. M., 
Harvey, Miss Hetta M., 
IJassam, John T., 
Hastings, V. C, 
Hastings, W. H. IL, 
ilaussen, M. II. , 
Hawkes, Dr. J. M., 
Hazard, Dr. John W., 
Hazen, Rev. Henry A., 
Henry, Hugh, 
Herbert, Miss Almy J., 
Hill, Rev. Howard F., 
Hill, Joseph C. A., 
Hitchcock, Charles IL, 
Hoitt, Miss Beulah A., 
Houston, Dr. J. A., 
Hubbard, Martha W\, 
Huidekoper, 1 1. S., 
Huntress, Miss Harriet L. 
Hurd, Charles ()., 


Hurd, Mrs. E. G., 



Hurlin, Rev. William, 



Jackson, Mrs. Helen B., 



Jewell, Miss M. Blanche,- 



Jones, John F., 



Kent, Henry ()., 



Kent, Katharine A., 



Lamb, Fred W., 



Lane, E. P., 



Linehan, John C, 



Little, George T., 


2 5 

Lord, Mrs. Myra P., 


Lovejoy, George E., 


Loyne, Rev. W. A., 


Lyford, James ()., 

• 8 

Lyman, William B., 

1 8 

5 1 

Lytle, John J., 

3 2 


Mann, F. W., 


McClintock, John N., 


McCollester, Rev. Sam'l H. 

> 4 


McFarland, Miss Annie A. 


McFarland, Henry, 

5 2 

McMillan, Conway, 


Mead, Edwin D., 



Means, Emily A., 


Merrill, Charles A., 


Merrill, Fred W., 


Minot, Mrs. James, 


Moore, William E., 


Moore, Rev. William 11., 


Moseley, Edward A., 


Murkland, Rev. Charles S. 



Musgrove, F. A., 



Niles, Nathaniel, 



Noyes, James, 



Odlin, Herbert W., 

I L 


Olin, William N., 


-i ~> 

Parsons, Mrs. J. W., 



Parvin, N. R., 



Patterson, Joab N., 



Patterson, Samuel- F., 



Pearson, Edward N., 



Peters, William R., 
Quartich, Bernard, 



2 I 

Ramsdell, George A., 



Rice, Franklin P., 


Swett, Charles K., 



Richardson, M. D., 


Taylor, Dr. S. M., 

Robinson, Rev. C. F., 


Tenney, Rev. F. P., 

Roller, Robert I.)., 


Terry, James, 


Rowell, R., 


Thomas, Dr. C. M., 


Sanborn, Frank B., 


Tileston, Harvey, 


Sanger, Austin L., 

l 9 

Todd, Mrs. George E., 


Sessions, William R., 


Tolles, Jason E., 


Sheldon, George, 


Tomlinson, Irving C., 


Silsby. George H., 


Waldron, Rev. D. VV., 


Smiley, Albert K., 


Walker, Arthur W., 


Smith, Miss Grace, 


Walker, J. B., 


Smith, W. M., 


Watson, Dr. Irving A., 

Spalding, Miss Dora N., 


Wells, Charles T., 


Sparks, S. C., 


Whitcomb, F. H., 


Stan wood, Arthur G., 


Willey, W. L., 


Stockwell, J. W., 

Winslow, William C, 


Swan, Robert T., 


Woodbury, Mrs. A., 


Swan, W. W., 


Woodman, Mrs. G. H., 


Historical societies have donated as f 

ollows : 

American Antiquarian, 




American Catholic, 


New England Genealogical, 


American Museum, 

New Jersey, 


American Philosophical, 


New York, 




Northern Indiana, 


Essex Institute, 


Ohio Archaeological, 


Free Museum of Science, 


Ohio Church History, 








Rhode Island, 














Manchester Association, 


Worcester Antiquarian, 




Wyoming Association, 




Contributions from educational institutions 

Andover Theo. Seminary, 
Boston University, 
Brown University, 
Colby College, 
Conn. School for Boys, 
Davenport Academy, 



Drew Theo. Seminary, 1 

Harvard University, 2 

Johns Hopkins University, 5 

Mass. Inst, of Technology, 2 

Middlebury College, 1 

Mount Holyoke College, 1 


io 3 

Oberlin College, 
St. Paul's School, 
Tufts College, 
University of California, 
University of Illinois, 
University of Iowa, 
University of Nebraska, 

University of New York, 3 

University of Pennsylvania, 2 
University of Toulouse, 17 
Wellesley College, - 1 

Wesleyan University, 141 

Yale University, 8 

Libraries have contributed as follows 

Cincinnati Public, 1 

Forbes, 1 

Newberry, Chicago, 2 

N. II. Library Commission, 1 
New York Public, 12 

N. II. State, 8 

Peoria Public, Illinois, 6 

Philadelphia Library Co., 2 
Swedenborg Publishing Co., 6 
Syracuse Central, 1 

Vermont State, 5 

We are under obligation to the following miscellaneous in- 
stitutions : 

Adams Nervine Asylum, 

American Congregational Association, 

Appalachian Club, 

Bank Commissioners, 

Barnard Memorial, 

Bellevue Medical College, 

Boston & Maine Railroad, 

Boston Artillery Company, 

Boston Children's Aid Society, 

Boston Children's Hospital, 

Boston City Hospital, 

Boston Dispensary, 

Boston Fraternity of Churches, 

Boston Home for Aged Women, 

Boston Lying-in Hospital, 

Boston Police Board, 

Boston Provident Association, 

Bridgewater State Farm, 

Buffalo Y. M. C. A. Association, 

Chase Home for Children, Portsmouth, 

Chelsea Soldiers' Home, 

Children's Aid Society of New York, 

Cincinnati Widows' Home, 

Civil Service Commission, 

Cleveland Asylum for the Insane, 

Commissioner of Immigration, 

Concord & Montreal ^Railroad, 


















Concord Street Railway, 

Cuban Land Company, 

Danvers Hospital, 

Hartford Deaf and Dumb Institution, 

Home of the Aged, Concord, 

House of the Good Samaritan, 

Illinois Eastern Hospital, 

Illinois School for Feeble-minded, 

Illinois Southern Hospital for Insane, 

Interstate Commerce Commission, 

Keene City Hospital, 

Lafayette Post, 

Lawrence General Hospital, 

Lyman and Industrial School, 

Maine General Hospital, 

Massachusetts Associated Charities, 

Massachusetts General Hospital, 

Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, 

Massachusetts Llospital for Epileptics, 

Massachusetts Infant Asylum, 

Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, 

Massachusetts State Prison, 

Medfield Insane Asylum, 

Nashua Woman's Club, 

New England Baptist Hospital, 

New England Hospital, Boston, 

New Jersey Record Commissioners, 

New Jersey State Asylum, 

New York Seamen's Friend Society, 


Retreat for the Insane, 

Rhode Island Record Commissioners, 


Society of Colonial Wars, 

Superintendent of Documents, 

Taunton Insane Hospital, 

Tewksbury Almshouse, 

Tilton Soldiers' Home, 

Towle Manufacturing Co., 

U. S. Government, * ' 

Wa n de rer s ' H om e, 

Westborough Insane Hospital, 

Worcester Insane Hospital, 

There have been added to the library by purch 
exchange two hundred and twenty-one volumes and pai 



2 5 




3 2 

ase and 



including eleven large genealogies from the W. C. Todd fund, 
making in all thirty-one volumes of genealogies added during 
the year to our large collection. 

Other accessions to the library have been as follows: Seven 
volumes of the New York Independent, nearly complete, from 
Miss Almy J. Herbert; 97 unbound volumes and scattering 
numbers of medical works from the state library; Morning 
Star for 1897 from Miss- Laura Clifford; 6 volumes of 
Portsmouth Oracle and 38 volumes of the Portsmouth 
Journal, from Miss Amanda Lane of Stratham ; Vasscir Mis- 
cellany and documents from Miss Frances M. Abbott; a 
volume of the Christian Endeavor Echo from C. E. Smith ; 
miscellaneous newspapers and magazines from Dr. J. M. 
Hawkes of Lynn, Mass.; Vols. 3 and 4 of Massachusetts 
Ploughman from Clarkson Dearborn ; Congregational ist and 
Outlook for 1899 from Henry A. Kimball; annual reports of 
Woman's Board, 1882-97, and other pamphlets from Mrs. 
Ellen L. Eaton of Plymouth; 56 numbers of Granite Monthly 
and 36 of Church Monthly, besides directories and miscel- 
laneous pamphlets from John H. George ; various magazines 
and other pamphlets from Austin L. Sanger; various almanacs, 
calendars, and publications from J. C. A. Hill ; newspapers and 
programmes of conferences from Rev. S. L. Gerould ; many 
reports, papers, and documents from George II. Silsby ; Baptist 
magazines for 1899 from Frank J. Pillsbury ; North American 
Review from S. C. Eastman ; miscellaneous magazines from Mrs. 
J. C. Thome; North American Review and Atlantic from the 
public library; and 54 almanacs from Mrs. C. F. Barrett. 

Of old manuscripts we have received of morning reports of 
captains of volunteers during the war of 1812 a large package, 
from James Minot ; old records of the Thornton church from 
Gardner Little of Campton ; a portion of a music book from 
Miss S. A. George; lieutenant's commission and other papers 
of John C. Moulton from Mrs. Ida Moukon Holclen of Boston. 

Also a chart of George's Shoal and Bank from Miss Dora 
N. Spaulding, a picture of Rev. David Sutherland of Bath, in 
gilt frame, from Martha A. Tenney of Haverhill, and photo- 
graph of the large land-locked salmon, weighing 13 pounds, 
caught in April in Granite lake, Munsonville, from Clark F. 
Rowell of Keene. 

Of relics, we have received the key to the old Concord 
prison from M. E. Clifford, miscellaneous souvenirs from 
Henry M. Baker, three specimens of cartridges used in the 
Spanish-American War from Rev. H. F. Hill of Concord and 
R. S. Foss of Laconia. semi-centennial card and badge of 



Manchester from Fred W. Lamb, and an Italian coin from S. 
C. Eastman. Also the wicker flask used by Daniel Webster, 
from the Woodbury estate. 

We should also add a box of magazines and pamphlets from 
John Eaton of Washington, old records of the Belknap Minis- 
terial Association, two volumes, and proprietary records of 
Ancient Suncook, deposited by Trueworthy L. Fowler, and the 
Belknap records sent by -Rev. Charles A. G. Thurston, accord- 
ing to advice of members. 

We wish also to put on record here the magnificent copy of 
a French Bible in two large folio volumes with illustrations by 
the celebrated designer, Dore, presented by Hon. E. P. Bullard 
of New York city. 

The Society is a subscriber to the following publications : 

American Historical Review. 
America /i Anthropologist. 
Essex A ntiqu < 7 / ia n . 
William and Mary College Quarterly. 
Mayflower Desccndatit. 

The following are sent gratuitously : 

American Catholic Historical Records. 

American Missionary. 

Granite Monthly. 

Book l\cvicw. 

Iowa Records. 

Life and Light. 

Maine Historical Proceedings. 

N. E. Genealogical and Historical Jvegister. 

Pennsylvania Magazine. 

Rhode Island Publication. 

Sailor s Magazine. 

The Society receives regularly the following papers: 


Exeter Gazette. 
Nashua TelegrapJi. 


Bristol Enterprise. 
Canaan Reporter. 
Contoocook Independent. 
Exeter Gazette. 
Exeter News-Letter. 



Jo u m al-'Pt -an scrip t. 
Littleton Courier. 
Meredith News. 
Mirror and Farmer. 
People and Patriot. 
Plymouth Record. 
/'(>/ is m outh Jo uma 1. 
S&mersworth Free Press. 
Woodsville News. 

Files of the Boston Daily Journal And Daily Advertiser have 
been contributed by members. 

By the generosity of Maj. Henry McFarland seven volumes 
of Concord newspapers have been bound. The value of the 
library to its many patrons would be greatly increased if a 
couple of hundred volumes of newspapers could be speedily 
bound. Age adds to the frequency of reference in the search 
for forgotton lore. 

During the year good progress has been made in the classi- 
fication and cataloguing of our many pamphlets to make them 
easily accessible to patrons. One hundred and eighty boxes 
of catalogues and other documents relating to schools of the 
various grades have thus been put in order. Also ninety of 
sermons arranged according to character, upwards of twenty 
of political documents, and as many of governor's and mayor's 
messages, also forty-five of minutes of religious associations, 
twenty-five of historical pamphlets, twenty-four of biographical, 
and five of genealogical pamphlets. Also one hundred and 
seventy-six boxes of miscellaneous pamphlets, reports of 
various institutions, and the like. Seventy-eight boxes con- 
tributed by Gov. C. II. Bell have been arranged, catalogued, 
and put in permanent shape for reference. Other pamphlets 
are in process of arrangement and final adjustment. 

The library at present is increasing at the rate of more than 
three thousand books and pamphlets per year. There is also 
the possibility of the Sabine library coming to us at no distant 
day. In view of the already crowded state of the library build- 
ing, embarrassing as it does the regular work of classification 
and arrangement, the question of speedy enlargement forces 
itself upon our serious attention. Even if room could be found for 
the Sabine library, it is thought by some, and seemingly with 
good reason, that such additional weight as is inevitable would 
incur the risk of a collapse of the thin walls of the' building. 
Our large collection of historic treasures is altogether too 
valuable to be needlessly endangered. These are days of 
expansion, and I would earnestly suggest the expediency of 



taking speedy action to remedy existing needs. It seems to 
be a fitting time to take a forward step in the march of pro- 
gress as a witness to the public that we are a live organization 
and well worthy of large benefactions from those interested in 
matters of historic interest. Larger and more inviting head- 
quarters would surely furnish special attraction to the general 
public, and lead to a much larger accumulation of valuable 
treasures for the benefit x>f our many patrons. The late 
.generous offer of our worthy president should become an 
additional *■ and emphatic stimulus to provide speedily larger 
and better accommodations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. F. Carter, 


The report of the standing committee was read and ac- 

The report of the committee to call upon Mrs. Sabine with 
reference to the time of delivery of the Sabine library, was 
read and accepted. Mr. Thorne was continued on the com- 
mittee. The report is as follows: 


At the adjourned annual meeting of this Society held March 
14, last, a vote was passed requesting me to act as a committee 
of the Society and to confer with Mrs. Lorenzo Sabine of Dor- 
chester, Mass., in reference to the transfer of the Sabine 
library, if agreeable to her, into the possession of this 

This library, as many know, is by agreement of the heirs 
(made October 12, 1878) to be conveyed to the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society at the decease of Mrs. Sabine. It 
comprises some 5,000 volumes which are upon the shelves in 
the former residence of Mr. Sabine, now rented, in Roxbury, 
Mass., at No. 105 Mt. Pleasant street. A few months previ- 
ously I had visited the library' there and found it deteriorating 
by time and use, and Mrs. Sabine, who is now eighty-seven 
years of age and in delicate health, had ceased taking books 
from the library for some two years. 

Mrs. Sabine was found at her home, No. 16 Victoria street, 
Dorchester, on Thursday, May 24, and kindly received me. 
Her thought was that she would like to be released from the 
care of the library and transfer it to the Society during her 
lifetime. Her daughter, Mrs. McLaren, seemed to doubt if 



fccr mother was strong enough to bear the thought and the care 
ol iis removal. I ventured to say "that the Society would 
Ukc full care, sending a capable man to pack and remove 
Without care or expense on their part." Mrs. Sabine wished to 
think of it further, and also to consult with others, and would 
»nte me soon her decision. I have not yet received any com- 
tounication, but probably shall soon. There is no doubt but the library will come into our hands fully as soon as we 
have room for it and ability to care for it according to the terms 
<;f the agreement. 1 

Your committee does not think accommodations can properly 
he made for it in this building. We do not have any books it 
Would be good policy to dispose of to any extent, neither would 
it be safe to put much, if any, additional weight upon the upper 
Moors of this structure ; but we are called upon to provide 
more room for this coming library, and also our regular in- 
crease of some 3,000 volumes yearly. How can it best be 
done? Undoubtedly in the way our worthy president suggests, 
in his recent letter, generously offering under certain conditions 
$5,000, saying, " If the Society is to be preserved and increase 
it-> usefulness, it seems as if a large fire-proof addition must be 
placed on the land recently purchased. A crisis has evidently 
Come in the history of the Society. How shall it be met?" 
Respectfully submitted, 

John C. Thorn e, 


Concord, June 13, 1900. 

Hon. L. 1). Stevens, for the committee appointed to nominate 
officers for the ensuing year, recommended the following. The 
report was accepted and the secretary empowered to cast one 
vote as the vote of the Society for each of the persons named, 
and the president thereupon declared the officers elected for 
the ensuing year to be as follows : 

William C. Todd, Esq., of Atkinson. 

Vice- Presidents. 
Hon. Albert S. Wait, of Newport, 
Rev. I). C. Roberts, D. D., of Concord. 

« See pages 4S4-4S5, Vol. II, Proceedings of N. II . Historical Society. Agree- 
ment in full. 



Recording Secretary. 
John C. Ordway. 
Corresponding Secretary. 
Judge Charles R. Corning. 

2 Yea surer. 
William P. Fiske, 

Rev. N. F. Carter. 

Eli E. Graves, M. I). 

Standing Committee. 
Jos. C. A. Hill, 
John C. Thorn e, 
Edson C. Eastman. 

Library Committee. 
Amos Hadley, Ph. I)., 
Rev. Charles L. Tap-pan, 
Mrs. Frances C. Stevens, 
Judge Charles R. Corning. 

Publishing Committee. 
Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 
Rev. N. F. Carter, 
John Dowst, Esc,). 

Committee on New Members. 
Rev. N. F. Carter, 
Hon. L. D. Stevens, 
John C. Ordway. 

Committee on Speakers. 
William C. Todd, Esq., 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Maj. Henry McEarland. 



Committee on Naval History of New Hampshire . 

Hon. Albert S. Wait. 
Hon. J. C. A. Wingate. 

The following proposed amendment to the constitution, notice 
<d which was given at the last annual meeting, by Hon. Joseph 
I! Walker, was adopted : 

Unless other-wise ordered by their donors, the several per- 
manent funds of this Society shall bear their names and be 
IllUct; and if at any time the principal of anyone shall be 
impaired, its income shall thereafter be applied to its restora- 
tion, until it shall have been brought back to its established 
i mount. 

The treasurer presented the following communication from 
President Todd : 

Concord, N. H., June 4, 1900. 
William P. Fiske, Esq., Treasurer N. H. Historical Society : 

My Dear Sir: No object in New Hampshire is more worthy 
k\ support than the New Hampshire Historical Society. The 
most distinguished men of the state were active in its forma- 
tion, and have been interested in its success. It was incor- 
porated June 14, 1823, and the first named of its incorporators 
was the eminent lawyer Ichabod Bartlett. * 

The next annual meeting will be June 13, 1900, the anniver- 
sary of its seventy-seventh birthday. 

Its history has been an honorable one. Nearly every promi- 
nent man in the state has taken part in its proceedings; its 
published volumes have been much sought, and its collection 
of rare historical matter is of incalculable value, and could not 
be duplicated. It has received from its friends many gifts, 
much wisdom, with but little money, and is financially poor. 
Tor years its collections were moved from place to place as 
room could be found for them, and had no permanent home 
(ill some generous friends in 1866 purchased the building now 
occupied. This is now full, and the annual increase of books 
and pamphlets is 3,000. The Sabine library of 5,000 volumes 
will soon, also, come into possession of the Society, and there 
is no room for them. It has been suggested that many books 
of little value could be disposed of and thus room provided. 
If such a plan were wise, the relief would only be temporary. 
If the Society is to be preserved and to increase its usefulness, 


it seems as if a large lire-proof addition must be placed on the 
land recently purchased. A crisis has evidently come in the 
history of the Society. How shall it be met ? 

Wisconsin is a new state, but in the first year of its-existence 
a historical society was established, which now has over 1 00,000 
volumes, over 100,000 pamphlets, 10,000 bound volumes of 
newspapers, and is the pride of the state, with a world-wide 
reputation. A new building has been provided for its collec- 
tions and those of the state library, at a cost of $640,000, and 
the state is in future to give it $15,000 annually, instead of 
$5,000, as in the past. 

The Massachusetts Historical society has become rich by 
private munificence, and other state historical societies are 
well supported. The spirit of historical and genealogical re- 
search throughout the country is greater than ever before. 
Shall New Hampshire, one of the oldest and most respected 
states of the Union, prove worthy of its past reputation in all 
educational advance, and sustain its historical society? 

The least sum for a suitable fire-proof addition is $10,000, 
and many thousands more should be provided. If not less 
than $5,000 can be secured from others before November 1, 
1900, I will add five thousand dollars ($5,000). 

Very respectfully yours, 

William C. Todd. 

After the reading of the foregoing, Rev. N. F. Carter offered 
the following resolution : 

Resolved, That this Society highly appreciates the deep in- 
terest of Hon. William C. Todd in its prosperity by his repeated 
benefactions, and hereby tenders him warmest thanks for his 
late generous offer to aid in furnishing larger and securer 
facilities for the accumulating treasures of its library and 
increase its usefulness. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted by a rising vote. 

On motion of Rev. Charles L. Tappan it was voted that 
Mr. John C. Ordway, Rev. N. F. Carter, and John C. Thorne, 
Esq., be requested to recommend to the Society a committee of 
its members to solicit contributions in furtherance of the propo- 
sition contained in the communication of President Todd, and 
to comply with the conditions of his most generous offer. The 
committee reported, and after several changes the committee 
finally selected to make a canvass for funds was as follows: 


Gov. Frank W. Rollins, Chairman. 

William P. Fiske. 

Charles R. Corning. 

Albert S. Wait. 

John Dowst. 

John C. Thorn e. 

John C. Ordway. 

On motion of "William P. Fiske, Esq., 

I'otttl, That the u.^ual annual assessment of $3.00 be levied 
upon members for the ensuing" year. 

On motion of Col. J. Eastman Peck 


Voted, That the secretary, librarian, and treasurer be a com- 
mittee to take into consideration the observance of an annual 
field day and make any necessary arrangements. 

The treasurer presented a communication from the New 
Hampshire Department of the Society of Cincinnati, lately 
revived, requesting this Society to deliver to them the early 
records of the ancient society of which this Society has been 
the custodian for many years. 

The communication was referred to a special committee con- 
sisting of Rev. Charles L. Tappan, Rev. N. F. Carter, and 
Htm. Samuel C. Eastman. 

Voted to adjourn at the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 




Mrs. Almira Rice Tappan, wife of the Rev. Charles Lang'don 
Tappan, a former librarian of this society (1891-1895), died in 
Concord, August S, 1899, in the sixty-sixth year of her ago. 
She was the daughter of Emanuel and Almyra (Sprague) Rice, 
of Natick, R. L, and was born in the latter town August 24, 
1833. She was educated at her home and in boarding school. 
Her marriage took place May 18, 1876, soon after which Mr. 
and Mrs. Tappan purchased in Concord the house which was 
their home during their lives. Both became life members of this 
Society and active'irTits interest; Mrs. Tappan shared with her 
husband a love for' historical and antiquarian research, and the 
Society is under deep and lasting obligations to their mutual 
efforts for the enrichment of its library. 

She was a woman of rare virtues and many accomplishments, 
combining loveliness of person, an amiable disposition, pleasing 
manners, a bright and active mind, great strength of character, 
purity of heart, and all those inherent graces which distinguish 
Christian excellence. Society had few allurements for her, hut 
in her home, with her books and her intimate friends, she 
found the fulfilment of her heart's desires, hew knew of her 
many deeds of kindness, of her quiet generosity that never 
failed to help and relieve every need that came in her way. 
The vicissitudes of life arc! the sufferings of a protracted ill- 
ness she bore with patience and a Christian faith that was 
unfaltering in the sincerity of her trust. The memory of her 
life will long and lovingly abide with those who were permitted 

to know her intimately. 

j. c. o. 

Mrs. Almika (Rick) Tappan 



John A.White was born in Boscawen, N. H., March 31, 1838, 
the eldest of the children of Nathaniel and Armenia"* (Aldrich) 
White. His youth, early and later manhood were spent in 
Concord, which was also his home save for brief absences, 
when he was engaged in business elsewhere. 

Mr. White was educated in private and public schools of 
Concord, with a supplementary course at the New London 
academy. In 1856, in April, when about eighteen years of 
age, — having for a long time entertained a very earnest 
desire to follow the sea, — Mr. White, with his father's consent, 
shipped as a common sailor on the ship Alarjn, Captain 
Matthews in charge, then plying between Boston and San 
Francisco. This experience, lasting a year, and which carried 
him around Cape Horn, was not without value to him and re- 
sulted in such proficiency and friendship for him on the part 
of Captain Matthews that he promised him the privilege of 
running the vessel into Hampton Roads, and also to make him 
his second mate should he see fit to continue his seafaring life. 
A course of study at a nautical school in Boston, to which his 
father had insisted he should submit himself, doubtless had 
much to do with the efficiency thus shown. One year, how- 
ever, satisfied his ambitions for the sea, and after spending two 
years at home, at the age of twenty-one he went to Chicago 
where he engaged in the wooden and willow-ware business. 
This venture was not successful, and in 186 1 Mr. White was 
one among the first in the city of Chicago to enroll himself for 
service for three months in an artillery company. The com- 
pany was stationed at Cairo, but Mr. White's connection with 
it was of short duration, as soon after enlisting he was taken 
seriously ill and so continued for several months, his recovery 
being doubtful for some time. On his recovery he returned 
East and took up his home in Concord, where, until his decease, 
he continued to reside. 

Concord's present system of water-works was preceded by 
one instituted and largely owned by Mr. White's father, and 
consisted of several small reservoirs, advantageously located 

1 16 


on elevated ground, fed by springs of excellent quality, which, 
for the time, served to satisfy the demands put upon them. 
During almost the entire continuance of this system of supply 
Mr. White superintended it, and remained in charge until he 
entered into the management of the then Eagle hotel, the 
successor of the old " Eagle coffee house," and the predeces- 
sor of the present hotel on the same site, which he managed for 
about eighteen years. His position as proprietor of the Eagle 
hotel brought Mr. White into contact with a wide circle of 
men in all callings of life, among whom he was known as a 
man of active habits and most kindly impulses, while his hotel 
was known throughout New England for the excellence of its 
table, the promptness of its service, and above all for its neat- 
ness, quiet, and the enjoyable atmosphere of homelikeness 
that rendered it most pleasing to its transient guests and per- 
manent boarders. While conducting the hotel Mr. White also 
carried on a local industry known as the Concord Machine 
Works, the output of which comprised a line of wood-working 
machinery of excellent quality. 

About 1891, some eight years before his death, Mr. White 
purchased a tract of land in Warren, N. If., on which was an' 
abundance of mica, .and he erected buildings and installed 
machinery to convert it into a useful article of commerce. This 
industry was one in which he took a great deal of interest and 
it is still conducted by a corporation formed for that purpose. 

Mr. White was never in public office, but was a member of 
the staff of Governor Cheney, and was well known by the 
title of Colonel. Unassuming, active, industrious, identified 
with many interests, widely and favorably known to a very 
large circle of business associates, valued as a friend of kindly 
impulses and generous nature by those who knew him as a 
friend, Mr. White passed away November 26, 1S99, almost at 
his desk in his office, busy at letter-writing, death being the 
result of a shock, warnings of the danger of which he had by 
a slight attack six months previously, and from his physician. 
A widow and one son survive. He was elected member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society, October 6, 18S5. 

A. P. R. 




John C. French, son of Enoch and Eliza (Cate) French, and 
grandson of Abram and Hannah (Lane) French of Stratham, 
was born in Pittsfield, N. II., March i, 1832, and there spent 
his boyhood on one of the rocky farms. His opportunities for 
obtaining an education, to which he aspired, were extremely 
limited, but such as he had he diligently improved, supple- 
menting his school privileges with reading at home. By work- 
ing on the farm in summer and teaching in winter he earned 
the money to pay his expenses while attending for a time 
I'ittsneld,Gilmanton, and Pembroke academies. The advance- 
ment and stimulus there received only intensified his desire 
fur a wider knowledge. Home advantages proving insufficient 
to satisfy, when he became of age he made an arrangement 
with J. H. Colton & Co. to solicit orders for their mounted 
maps. The tact and activity he evinced in this work gave such 
satisfaction to his employers that a year later they made him 
boston agent for "Colton's Atlas of the World." Again suc- 
cess crowned- his efforts, selling over 1,200 copies of this ex- 
pensive work. In 1S55 he was appointed general agent of the 
house for New England, and devoted much time in introduc- 
ing Colton's series of geographies into the public schools. 

Later he entered the employ of brown, Taggart & Chase 
and Charles Scribner & Co., and aided in bringing out their 
school publications. Thus he was enabled to gratify his fond- 
ness for travel, observation, and reading, becoming acquainted 
with the leading authors, teachers, publishers, and prominent 
educators, and much of the local history and industries of the 
principal towns of New England. liis experience also gave 
him a thorough knowledge of the art of advertising and put- 
ting books on the market in a way to ensure popular favor. 

In 1S66 he became state agent of the Connecticut Mutual 
Life Insurance company, and took up his residence in Man- 
chester, where he remained till his death, January 8, 1900. 
In 1869, by strenuous endeavors, he succeeded in organizing 
the New Hampshire Fire Insurance company, a stock com- 
pany composed of many eminent business men, who heartily 



endorsed his idea. Mr. French was chosen general agent, and, 
in 1870, on the resignation of Hon. Isaac VV. Smith as secre- 
tary, he was made his successor. His efficiency in, the dis- 
charge of the duties of this office was so manifest in the unpar- 
alleled success of the company, that it led the stockholders to 
tender him a formal vote o( thanks. The assets of the first 
year's business were $134,568 and a surplus of $8,029, an d °f 
the year 1S99, ^3,163, 880. 05 and a net surplus of $946,783.34, 
mainly due to his business sagacity and enterprise. 

On the death of ex-Gov. James A. Weston, in 1S95, Mr. 
French was chosen president, and so continued till his death. 
His guiding hand wrought wonders in shaping this immense 
insurance company. He had a mind that could grasp the 
needs, and skill to meet their demands. To him more than 
to any other man the company owes its remarkable growth 
and prosperity. For a time he edited and published in Man- 
chester a journal devoted to insurance interests. 

Mr. French was decidedly literary in his tastes, and wrote 
for different papers many articles of historic value respecting 
New Hampshire and New Hampshire men. Among them was 
a pamphlet on "Grace Fletcher Webster," wife of Daniel Web- 
ster. He became a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, April 24, 1888. He was at the time of his death presi- 
dent of the Manchester Historic association and was chosen 
a member of the council of the Manchester institute at its 
organization, and was always interested in the motive and 
work of that association, Pie was one of the first honorary 
members of the Manchester 1'ress club, and added valuable 
books to its library. 

He was for many years a trustee of the New Hampshire 
state hospital, director of the Pemigewasset railroad, president 
of the Manchester Shoe company, director of the Merchants' 
National bank, trustee of the Guaranty Savings bank and of 
the Manchester city library, and president of the Franklin 
Street society. He was also a member of Trinity commandery 
of Knights Templar. 

He married Annie M. Philbrick, daughter of L. B. Philbrick 
of Deerheld, in 1858, who survives him. Three children 
blessed their union. 



The demise of Titus Salter Tredick, Esq., one of Ports- 
mouth's most esteemed citizens, occurred on January 27, '1900, 
at Tunbridge Wells, England. 

He was a son of the late Jonathan M. Tredick, for many 
years president of the Rockingham National bank and a promi- 
nent shipowner and merchant, and of Mary Frances, daughter 
of Capt. Titus Salter, also a wealthy shipowner, and a man 
prominent in civic affairs during the first half of the century. 

Mr. Tredick's great-grandfather on the maternal side (of the 
same name as his grandfather, Titus Salter) was a man of 
note and prominence during the Revolutionary War, command- 
ing Fort Washington in 1775 — 1783, leading the party that took 
possession of the powder stored at Fort William and Alary 
and used at Bunker Hill, and captain of the armed ship Hamp- 
den, twenty guns, in the Penobscot expedition. 

This name, "Titus Salter," honored in Revolutionary annals, 
descended to and was worthily borne by the subject of this 
memoir. At the age of eleven Mr. Tredick became a student 
at Phillips Exeter academy, pursuing his studies later at Har- 
vard university, where he graduated at the age of nineteen in 
the class of 1854. That same year he went to India as super- 
cargo on one of his father's ships, to be the representative in 
Calcutta of Lawrence cS^ Stone of Boston. He managed their 
offices so skilfully that he was much commended by Mr. George 
Peabody, the London banker, who was surprised on meeting 
him later to find him so young a man. Mr. Tredick spent 
several years in the East, and witnessed some of the exciting 
events of the Indian mutiny. Returning by way of Europe, he 
was met by' his father, with whom he took an extended tour 
011 the continent. 

In 1872 he married Sarah, daughter of Rear Admiral Theo- 
dorus Bailey, who led the leading divison under Farragut at 
the battle of New Orleans, and was for three years the com- 
mandant of the Portsmouth navy yard. 

Mr. Tredick was greatly attached to his home and country, 
and was a member of the constitutional convention of 1876, 

120 new Hampshire historical society. 

and for a brief period of the New Hampshire legislature. He 
was a staunch supporter of the Republican ticket. Shortly 
after his marriage he retired from active business^ and settled 
down for a part of every year in Portsmouth, where his erect 
and handsome presence became a familiar landmark, recog- 
nized by all as a worthy descendant of that old-time aiistoc- 
racy which for many generations has spread a halo of grace 
and dignity over the elm-bordered streets and hospitable man- 
sions of this historic town by the sea. 

He was a director in the Rockingham National bank and of 
the Portsmouth Athenaeum, and for many years president of 
the Children's home, and a member of other leading financial, 
charitable, and social institutions in his native city. He was 
elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical Society 
June 13, 1S77. 

In later years Mr. Tredick spent a great deal of time abroad, 
and it was while on a visit to his daughter, Mrs. Percival Grif- 
fith of London, England, that he was stricken with the illness 
which caused his death. That Mr. Tredick's social and intel- 
lectual qualities were appreciated in' other cities where he had 
spent brief periods, as well as in his native town, is apparent 
from the fact that he was a member of the Union and Somer- 
set clubs of Boston, the University club of New York, and the 
Metropolitan club of Washington. 

A man of the highest culture, of spotless integrity and moral 
character, revered by all who knew him, he has gone to swell 
the roll-call of those men who, by their influence and example, 
have been worthy members- of their state and country. 

;. s. H. F. 


Dr. Paul Augustine Stackpole, son of Samuel and Rosanna 
Stackpole, was born in Rochester, N. H., February 12, 1814. 
His paternal grandfather was Lieut. Samuel Stackpole, an officer 
of bravery during the Revolution. His maternal grandfather 
was also a Revolutionary soldier. 

Dr. Stackpole'3 father was a farmer and desired that his son 



should follow in his footsteps and succeed to the paternal acres, 
but Paul was anxious for an education and a different calling. 
Securing the advantages of the common school in his native 
town he attended Rochester academy and at seventeen' years 
of age began his first experience in teaching school. lie then 
persuaded his father to allow him to attend Wolfeborough 
academy, boarding himself while there and teaching school the 
two following^winters. His surplus earnings were given to his 
father in an endeavor to soften his parent's heart and obtain per- 
mission to leave the farm, but in vain, for he declined to assist 
him in getting an education. But Paul was persistent, and leaving 
home arrived in Andover with but a dollar or two in his pocket 
and made known his condition and his wants to Principal John- 
son of Phillips academy. He was admitted and worked his 
way through with honor, by teaching and other kinds of honor- 
able work, and left Andover at the conclusion of his course 
with one hundred dollars in his pocket. He then began the 
study of medicine with Dr. Joseph H. Smith and Dr. Noah 
Martin of Dover, and also attended the Boylston Medical 
school in Boston and read medicine with Dr. Bowditch and Dr. 
Perry and was engaged in hospital practice, assisting Dr. Sted- 
man. He attended lectures at Harvard and then entered 
Dartmouth College, where he graduated in 1843, and the degree 
of A. M. was later conferred on him by this college. 

He then settled in Dover, where he practised his profession 
ever after, and always maintained a prominent position among 
his medical brethren. 

Dr. Stackpole was a member of the American Medical asso- 
ciation and was honored with the presidency of the New Hamp- 
shire State Medical society, and the Strafford District Medical 
society. He was also a leading member of the Dover Medical 
association, the Massachusetts Medical society, the Essex 
North District (Mass.) Medical society, the New Hampshire 
Historical society (having been elected June n, 1883), the New 
York Medico Legal society, and others. He was a prominent 
member in both Masonry and Odd Fellowship, being connected 
with Strafford lodge, Orphan council, and Belknap chapter, 
P. & A. M., Wecohamet lodge and Prescott encampment, 


I. O. O. F. Politically he was a Democrat of the old school, 
and in 1874 was one of the founders of the State Press, and for 
a time its editor. In 1845 ^ r - Stackpole united in marriage 
with Elizabeth Garland Hills of Haverhill, Mass., a graduate 
of Bradford' academy and at that time seventeen years of age. 
She died in 1853, leaving thF»e children, — Charlotte Elizabeth, 
deceased, Charles Hobart of Boston, and Dr. Harry Hills of 
Dover. t The Doctor did not marry again. Some live years 
ago he virtually gave up his down-town office and only attended 
to some of his old-time patients from an office at his house. 
On the night of March 28, 1900, as the DocLor was about to 
retire, his foot caught in the carpet at the head of his chamber 
stairs and he was thrown violently the entire length, striking 
the bottom with such force as to break his neck and cause instant 
death. No one was aroused by his fall and in the early morn- 
ing he was found at the foot of the stairs with life extinct, by 
his son, Dr. Harry II. Stackpole. His funeral was from his 
late home, on Saturday, March 31, 1900, and was very largely 
attended. Interment was in the family lot in Pine Hill ceme- 
tery, and the floral tribute was beautiful and contributed with a 
lavish hand, for the Doctor loved flowers and his friends knew 
it. Thus closes the last chapter of this self-made man. 
Rcquicscat in Pace. . 11. 11. s. 


George L. Balcom was the son of Jonas and Mary Balcom, 
and was born in 1819, in Sudbury, Mass. He could trace his 
lineage back to Henry Balcom who came to this country in 
1665, and settled in Charlestown, Mass. 

In 1823, when four years of age, George L. Balcom went 
with his parents to live in Lowell, Mass., and there received 
his early education. His preparatory studies were at West- 
minster academy, whence he entered Harvard college at the 
age of sixteen. Leaving college he engaged for a time in the 
hardware business in Boston, and later in Philadelphia, but 
after a year returned to Massachusetts. Two years later he 
removed to Proctorsville, Vt., and was employed as bookkeeper 

Geo. L. 


2 3 

for the firm of Gilson, Smith & Co., till in 1850 he was admitted 
one of the partners. In 1857 he disposed of his interest there, 
and bought the Sanford & Rossiter mill in Claremont, which 
he operated up to 1899. During this time, in addition to oper- 
ating the Sullivan mill in Claremont, he was proprietor of the 
woolen mill in Proctorsville. 

During his residence in Proctorsville, he represented the 
town in the^ legislature in 1855-57, and Claremont also in 
188384, and was state senator in 1889-90. He was a prom- 
inent churchman, and had been a delegate to the grand con- 
vention of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United 
States since 187 1. He was for many years a trustee of the 
Holderness School for Boys, and became a member of this 
Society June 9, 1875, as a ^ so °f the New England Historic Gen- 
ealogical society in 1S96. In 1884 he was a delegate to the 
National Republican convention in Chicago. In 1S6S he was 
made a Master Mason, receiving his degree in Hiram lodge. 
The same year he made an extended European tour covering 
Great Britain, France, Switzerland, and Italy. He was a close 
observer and learned much of the country and people that he 
visited, and his friends delighted in listening to his relation of 
his travels. 

Mr. Balcom was a man of many virtues and no vices. He 
lived an exemplary life, and is mourned by hundreds of men 
and women who have been blessed by his bounty. His gener- 
osity was of the kind that knew no ostentation. Many a poor 
family have found a generous supply of food sent to their homes 
from the stores and markets, and the donor's name not men- 
tioned and to this day unknown. He was a great lover of 
books, and for years was accumulating volume after volume 
until he possessed one of the largest and finest libraries in the 
state. He was continually looking for some rare book or 
pamphlet, and if discovered he was not content until he pos- 
sessed it. In his declining years his library was his comfort 
and pride. He wished he might stay with it and his home to 
the last, and it seems the Lord heard his prayer. His desire 
was fulfilled and he died as he had wished, in his home sur- 
rounded by his books. 



Mr. Balcom married at Philadelphia; October 20, 1845, Miss 
Anna West of that city, who died in 18S1. His own death 
was in Claremont, May 13, 1900. One son survives him. 

C. 13. s. 


Alexander Hamilton Ladd was born in Portsmouth, N. II., 
July 27, 1815. His father, Alexander Ladd, a public-spirited 
merchant of that town and at one time president of the United 
States bank, was the son of Col. Eliphalet Ladd, also a suc- 
cessful merchant, who came to Portsmouth from Exeter in 
1792. His mother, Maria Tufton Haven, was the daughter 
of Hon. Nathaniel A. Haven, one of Portsmouth's most promi- 
nent men, who for some time represented that district in con- 
gress. On his father's side he was descended from Lieut. 
Daniel Ladd, born in England, who came to Ipswich in 1634 
in the ship Mary and John and from thence removed to 
Haverhill in 1640 ; while on his mother's side he was con- 
nected with many families prominent in the history of this 
state, and was tenth in descent from Capt. John Mason, the 
patentee and founder of New Hampshire. 

Mr. Ladd was educated at Phillips Exeter academy and 
from there went to Dartmouth college, where he remained but 
a year, his tastes leading him to the more active pursuits of a 
business life. While still a very young man he established at 
Portsmouth a factory for refining sperm oil, a business which 
was carried on with great success until the decline of the sperm 
whale fishery rendered it impossible to procure the necessary 
supplies for its further prosecution. Later he became interest- 
ed in the development of the iron industry in the state of 
Maine, an enterprise which was disastrously affected by the 
changes made in the tariff of 1S47. The greater part of his 
active business career was in Galveston, Texas, where he was 
occupied as a cotton buyer and in acting for the Pacific' and 
other of the large New England cotton mills. This business, 
begun in 1850, and interrupted by the War of the Rebellion, was 
resumed in 1865 and continued until 1877. His business 


I2 5 

ability soon brought him reputation and he was recognized as 
*n expert of unfailing accuracy, while his fidelity to interests 
i4 those whom he represented and his sound judgment caused 
him to be entrusted with the weightiest responsibilities. 

Mr. Ladd was married June it, 1840, to Elizabeth Wyer, the 
accomplished daughter of William Jones, Esq., a well-known 
BBtrchant of Portsmouth, and Ann Parry. She died Septem- 
ber 21,1865. From this union were born eight children, five 
of whom survive ■* Mary Tufton Haven, who married Lieut. 
Com. Charles Follen Blake, United States navy ; Ann 
Parry, who married J. Langdon Ward, Esq., of New York; 
William Jones, who married Anna Russell Watson of Milton, 
Mass.; Elizabeth Hamilton, who married Charles E. YVent- 
worth, Esq., of Cambridge, Mass. ; Maria Haven, who married 
Manning Emery, Esq., of Cambridge, Mass. 

In politics Mr. Ladd was originally a Whig. He became a 
Republican when that party came into existence and was a 
most ardent supporter of the government during the War of 
the Rebellion. His oldest son, William J. Ladd, enlisted in the 
Thirteenth New Hampshire regiment, United States volunteers, 
rapidly gained promotion and served with distinction in the 
Army of the Potomac as a staff officer on the staffs of Generals 
Urooks, Stannard, Getty, and Devens ; being severely wounded 
at the capture of Fort Llarrison. 

Mr. Ladd was born in the Livermore House but soon re- 
moved to the Moffatt mansion, where seven generations of his 
ancestors and descendants have resided. This mansion, built 
by his great-great-grandfather, Mr. John Moffatt, in 1764, was 
atone time the residence of General William Whipple, a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, who married a daughter 
of Mr. Moffatt. 

The latter years of Mr. Ladd's life were passed in his an- 
cestral home with frequent visits to the homes of his married 
children. There with his children and grandchildren, some of 
whom always formed a part of his household, he dispensed a 
generous hospitality which will be long remembered by his 
many friends, while his leisure time was occupied in the culti- 
vation of the fruits and flowers of his spacious garden which 
responded so luxuriantly to his care. 



In character Mr. Ladd was forceful and energetic. His 
sympathies were broad and generous. He was a man of the 
highest integrity and all his dealings were marked by the ut- 
most consideration for the rights of others. Combined with 
these qualities he possessed to a marked- degree a capacity for 
social and domestic pleasures and was never so happy as when 
surrounded by his family and friends. His bearing was erect 
and vigorous and his manners dignified and courteous. As has 
been fittingly said of him, his memory abides as a type of that 
gracious product of Old England and New England character 
which joins stern integrity with warm-heartedness and cour- 
teous dignity with unselfish helpfulness to others. He died at 
Portsmouth, May 21, 1900, in the eighty-fifth year of his age. 

w. a. 11., 2d. 


John H. Pearson was born on March 7, 1818, in Sutton, N. H. 
His parents were Thomas Pearson and Abigail Ambrose Pear- 
son. The family consisted of ten children, all of whom de- 
ceased before the subject of this sketch. 

Mr. Pearson was educated in the common schools of the 
vicinity where he lived and when about sixteen years of age 
engaged in the employment of Mr. David Perkins at Henniker. 
About two years afterwards he attended school at the Hopkin- 
ton academy and for a time was a pupil of the late Ex-Gov, 
Moody Currier. His next employment was as a clerk in a 
store at Wilmot, N. IE, by a Mr. Davis, for whom he worked 
some considerable time, both in Wilmot and afterwards in 
Andover. Eater he opened a store for himself in Warner, 
N. II., which he conducted about two and a half years. He 
then disposed of that business and returned to Andover at 
Potter Place, where he engaged in trade for himself. He also 
opened a hotel at that place, which he conducted for some 
little time, along with the trade in which he was engaged. 

While living in Andover he married Miss Mary Ann Butter- 
field, the daughter of Hon. Samuel Putterfield and the sister of 
Mr. William Butterneld, both widely known in this vicinity. 

John II. Pe arson 



Sonic years after the death of his first wife he married Miss 
Jessie Gove, daughter of Coi. Jesse A. Gove, who survived 

Me continued in trade at Potter Place for some three or 
four years and then moved to what is now known as Franklin 
Falls, but then known as Factory Village, where he was en- 
gaged in trade for something over a year, and then moved to 
Huston and established himself in the mercantile business on 
Milk street a few doors south of State street. He conducted 
;i general merchandise business in that place for several years 
and was quite successful. 

His health failed somewhat while in Boston and lie con- 
cluded to dispose of his business there and move back into the 
country, which he did and located in Concord, N. II. After 
a time he recovered his health and engaged in the merchandise 
and grain business, devoting most of his time and means to 
the development of that particular branch of trade, lie was 
first a member of the firm of J. 11. Pearson, Barron & Co., and 
then was associated with the late F. C. Knowlton under the 
name of J. H. Pearson & Co., and their business became very 
extensive and prosperous. 

Mr. Pearson was a very enterprising, not to say venturesome, 
man in trade and did some things which more conservative 
people regarded as taking chances. He is said to have been 
the first man who went from New Hampshire to Chicago for 
the purpose of purchasing grain and established an agency 
there, through which the goods that he dealt in were obtained 
and forwarded. He also arranged for transportation over the 
Northern line and had an establishment at Ogdensburg which 
handled Hour and grain by the wholesale, and which was very 
successful. Finally he closed out that branch of his business 
and gave his attention chiefly to the wholesale trade in flour 
and grain in Concord. In the management of that business 
the firm was very successful and amassed a liberal fortune. 

The business was finally closed and Mr. Pearson directed 
his attention to the management of the Concord railroad, in 
which he had become a very large owner. 

He established The 1'coplc in 1S6S, a newspaper which for 



a number of years was conducted by his son, Col. Charles 
C. Pearson, and was finally consolidated with the New Hamp- 
shire Patriot in 1878, under the name of The Patriot, daily and 
weekly. The paper still remains a prominent journal in Con- 

Mr. Pearson became a very prominent man and for a long 
time exercised a powerful influence in directing the policy of 
the corporations in the state. Primarily, he was opposed to the 
principle of consolidation and believed in the maintenance of 
the local corporations in an independent manner. 

In the well-known railroad controversies in New Hampshire, 
out of which grew extensive litigation, Mr. Pearson was one of 
the foremost parties, and was successful in his contentions. 
He acquired very large interests in many of the railroad corpo- 
rations of the state and through their appreciation and increase 
in value became very wealthy. 

In his later years he yielded somewhat to the policy of the 
times, and perhaps came to understand that the union of short 
lines and small corporations under proper regulations would be 
more serviceable to the interests of the country than in any 
other way. 

His political affiliations were with the Democratic party, and 
he was always a fearless and determined supporter of its prin- 
ciples. His sympathies did not follow the party in its move- 
ment towards the silver interest. He adhered to the policy 
which was founded upon the gold standard. 

He was connected with the National State Capital bank in 
Concord, and for a long time was a member of its board of 
directors. His judgment in matters that pertained to the 
management of that institution was regarded with very great- 
respect by his associates. 

He was elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society October 1, 1885. 

His decease occurred on the third day of October, 1900, and 
his remains are buried in the Minot enclosure in Concord. 

The most notable act of Mr. Pearson's life, and the one 
most far-reaching in its results, was the disposition made by 
him of the bulk of his estate. 


2 9 

After providing for the payment of minor bequests and 
some annuities, charitable and otherwise, his entire fortune 
was left in trust for the benefit of his native state. In his will 
he directs his trustees : 

"To expend, in their discretion, in such sums, at such times, 
and in such manner as may seem to them advisable, the in- 
come .of my said estate remaining after the payment of all 
charges thereon created by and under this will, and all other 
legitimate charges against my said estate, for the benefit of the 
poor and destitute in said state of New Hampshire, and. fur chari- 
table and educational purposes therein." 

The writer believes this to be the broadest, richest, and 
most beneficent bequest ever made by any one for the benefit 
of our dearly beloved New Hampshire. It attests Mr. Pear- 
son's strong affection for her. Not only the present but un- 
born generations will appreciate this noble gift and will revere 
his memory. Such a monument few men have builded. 


Concord, June 12, 1901. 

The seventy-ninth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society at Con- 
cord on Wednesday, June 12, 1901, at 1 1 o'clock in the fore- 
noon, with a very large attendance. 

The meeting was called to order by President Todd, and the 
minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The secretary reported the membership of the Society as 
follows : 

Whole number of members at date of last annual meeting, 172 
New members qualified during the year, 4 

Less loss by death, 

Present membership, the same as one year ago, 




The following is a list of the members who have died during 
the year: 

Rev. James H. Fitts, N'ewfields. 
Judge John P. Hazelton, Suncook. 
Fred G. Hartshorn, Esq., Manchester. 
Joseph C. A. Hill, Esq., Concord. 

The report of the treasurer was presented and accepted, and 
is as follows : 

treasurer s report. 

Receipts credited to general income : 
Income from permanent fund, $804.17 

Income from savings banks, 19.96 

I 3 2 


New members, 
Life membership, 
Books sold, 
Taxes refunded, 
State appropriation, 

Income from Todd fund for purchase of 

1 7 I -45 - 




Expenditures charged to general 

income : 

Printing and binding, 


Fuel and water, 






Salary of librarian, 


Incidental expenses of librarian, 



5 2 -i3 

Books, etc., 




To correct error in last account, 


Permanent fund, 

$1 1,200.00 

Current fund, as of June 13, 1900, 



To new account : 
Permanent fund, 
Current funds, 








To investment, 

Balance expended for 1900, 


By paid for genealogical works, 


<8 21 






Securities in the hcuids of the treasurer: 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s debentures, $500 each, $1,000.00 
Receipt, Johnson Loan and Trust Co., 

3 Concord Land & Water Power Co.'s bonds, $100 

2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. bonds, 4 

per cent., $500 each, 
2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. bonds, 6 

per cent. /$ 1,000 each, 
1 New York & New England R. R. bond, 7 per 

1 Little Rock & Ft. Smith R. R. bond, 7 per cent., 
Mortgage loan, 
5 shares of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. 

13 shares of Concord & Montreal R. R. stock, 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 
Cash on hand, 




















>° 2 5 





1 O 






L 2 

,3 2 ° 


5 shares of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. 

stock, 5 per cent., 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 



I have this day examined the account of Wm. P. Fiske, 
treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society for the year 
ending' June 12, 1901, and find the same correctly cast and 
sustained by satisfactory vouchers. I have also examined the 
securities constituting the funds of the Society, and find them 

John C. Thorne. 

Concord, N. H., June 12, 1901. 

On motion of L. D. Stevens, a committee was appointed to 
nominate a list of officers for the ensuing year. The motion 
prevailed, and the chair appointed Hon. L. D. Stevens, Rev. 
C. L. Tappan, and Isaac A. Hill a committee for that pur- 

The report of the librarian, was presented, and is as follows : 




The past year has been one of noteworthy advancement for 
the library in its accessions and orderly arrangement. The 
value of a library consists not alone in the wealth of its his- 
toric treasures, but as well in their availability for ready use. 
To this end much has been accomplished during the year, so 
that we can say with confidence never since it has approxi- 
mated to its present dimensions has it been so fully accessible 
to its many patrons. That it has not been catalogued in its en- 
tireness, as it should be, is due to the fact that one pair of hands 
is inadequate to the needs. The entire time of one could be 
profitably employed in attending to the ordinary routine work 
and looking out for the advancing of its interests. Much time 
is inevitably consumed in attending to the wants of patrons 
and visitors, which amount to hundreds during the year. The 
specific work done in the line of progress has been what the 
circumstances, in my judgment, seemed most to need. My 
knowledge of the facts would lead me to do the same were it 
to be done again. 

The library contained at the last annual meeting 15,662 
bound volumes. The accessions have been 859, and volumes 
bound 74, making a total at present of 16,595. Pamphlets re- 
ceived have been 1,985. Total accessions for the year of 
2,844, not including periodicals and town reports. 

Donations have been received from the following indi- 
viduals : 

Abbot, Edward A., 
Abbot, Frances M., 
Aiken, Rev. Edwin J., 
Allen, Francis O., 
Allen, Fred. J., 
Amen, Harlan P., 
Amory, Frederic, 
Ayling, Augustus D., 
Baker, Henry M., 
Balch, Thomas W., 
Bachelder, Nahum J., 
Batchellor, Albert S., 
Beckwith, A. C, 
Benton, Joseph, 
Benton, J. H., Jr., 
Bishop, Rev. Edwin W., 
Blanchard, Mrs. George A. 
Blodgett, Mrs. Abner, 


Blomberg, Anton, 



Bowers, I) wight E., 



Bridges, B. F., 



Briggs, L. Vernon, 


Brock, Henry E., 



Brown, Warren, 
Browne, Francis H., 



Bruce, C. E , 



Burn ham, E J., 



Caldwell, William IF, 



Calvin, Samuel, 



Carpenter, Rev. C. C, 



Carroll, Lysander IF, 



Carter, Rev. Clark, 



Carter, Rev. N. F., 

1 01 


Carter, Solon A., 



Chandler, William E., 



Chase, A. IF, 




Cboate, Joseph H., i Henry, Hugh, 6 

(lark, Mrs. J. G., i Herbert, Alma J., i 

Cleaves, George P., i Hill, Joseph C. A., 21 

Clifford, Thomas F., 1 Himes, Rev. W. H., 5 

Cobb, Rev. Win. H., 1 Hoitt, Miss Beulah A., 1 

Cochran, Joseph A., 2 Holmes, Rev. Theodore J., 1 

Cog.-, well, Mrs. B. P., 7 Hoyt, Louis G., 2 

Culhy, Henry B., 1 Ide, Lemuel N., 4 

Com'stock, John M., 1 Jewell, Miss M. Rlanche, 1 

Conn, Dr. Granville P., 2 Johnson, Mrs. Henry, i 33 

Cook, Howard M., 1 Johnson, J. E., 1 

Couch, Mrs. Benjamin PL, 14 Jones, John F., 29 

Cousin, Rev. E. M., 1 Kellev, F. P., 2 

Cr.igg, T. W., 3 Kendall, Miss Sarah W. 3 

Cross, Mrs. Lucy R. H., 1 Kimball, Miss Annah J., 1 

Cruft, George T., 2 Kimball, Hon. Benj. A., 1 

Cudmore, P., 1 Kimball, Henry A., 23 

Cashing, Mrs. F. E., 1 Kimball, Hon. John, 1 

Day, David T., i Kernohan, Captain, 1 

Derby, S. C, 1 Lamb, Fred W., 60 

Dickinson, T. D., 1 Lane, Thomas \V., 1 

Dike, Rev. Samuel W., 1 London Publisher, 1 

Dodge, James PL, 3 Lord, Catharine W., 1 

Dotterer, Henry S., 1 Lovejoy, Mary W., 2 

Drumm, Rev. T. J., i Marsh, Rev. Francis J., 3 

Kmerson, C. F., 2 Mc.Cauley, L. S., 1 

Kashnan, Samuel C, 37 McFarland, Miss Annie A., 3 

Elliot, Rev. L. PL, 29 McMillan, Conway, r 

Held, Marshall, 2 Meseroll, William IP., 278 

Fletcher, VV. I., 2 Morrison, Pvev. Nathan J., 1 

Folger, Allen, 1 Murkland, Charles S., 6 

Folsom, Capt. A. A., 2 Musgrove, R. W., 1 

Fuller, L. K., 10 Myers, Anna E. H., 1 

Gallinger, Hon. Jacob PP., 2 Nudd, Warren 1)., 1 

George, John H., 6 ' Nutter, John P., 1 

Gerould, Rev. Samuel h., 88 Ordvvay, John C, 1 

Gordon, Miss Lucy A., 1 Osgood, Charles W., 2 

Gould, S. C, 58 Page, Charles T., 1 

Grant, A. H., 5 Parker, Isaac, 2 

Green, Mrs. Ella P>., 1 Parvin, Theodore S., 5 

Green, Dr. Samuel A., 82 Patterson, Samuel F., 1 

Grout, Rev. Lewis, 2 Pearson, Edward N., 16 

Ham, Wallace H., 4 Peaslee, J. B., 1 

Haskell, F. W., 1 Perkins, Miss A. J. G., 3 

Hayden, H. E., 3 Perkins, James VV., 15 

■ i 



Pillsbury, Frank J., 

Potter, E. T., 

Prescott, Mrs. E. H., 

Quimby, Charles E., 

Rarnsdellj George A., 

Ramsdell, Mrs. George A. 

Reed, Rev. George H., 

Revell, F. H., 

Rice, Franklin P., 

Rix, Guy S.f 

Roberts, Mrs. Cora A., 

Rogers, James S., 

Rundlett, Louis J., 

Schell, F. Robert, 

Seward, George F., 

Sheldon, George, 

Silsby, George H., 

Smith, Jonathan, 

Spalding, Mrs. Abbie J., 

Spofford, Charles B., 

Staples, Rev. C. J., 

Stockwell, George A., 

Street, Mrs. Mary A., 

Swan, R. T., 

Swett, Charles E., 5 

The following historical societies and associations have made 
donations as follows : 

American Antiquarian, 

American Catholic, 




Eirly Settlers, Ohio, 

Essex Institute, 



Long Island, 


Manchester Institute, 




New Haven Colony, 

New Jersey, 

New London, 

1 1 

Tappan, Rev. Charles L., 



Tarleton, Charles W., 



Thayer, Miss K. M., 



Thompson, Lucien, 



Thorne, John C, 



Todd, Mrs. George E,, 



True, Henry, 



Tuttle, Lucius, 



Virgin, Charles P., 



Wadleigh, Miss Sa; lh, 



Walker, Rev. Mr., 



Watson, Dr. Irving A., 



Weaver, Ethan A., 



Wellman, Rev. Joshua W. 

, 1 


White, Rev. C. L., 



White, Curtis, 



Whitney, Mrs. E. D., 



Williams, B. F., 



Wills, Mrs. P. R., 



Wing, George D.., 



Woodbury, E. R., 



Woodbury, Frank D., 



Wyman, T., 
Wynne, T., 

















New York, 


New York State, 


Northern Indiana, 


Ohio Archaeological, 


Old Residents, Lowell, 





3 1 

Rhode Island, 


Texas State, 




Western Reserve, 


West Virginia, 




Worcester Antiquity, 


Wyoming Commemorative, 


Wyoming Geological, 


The following educational institutions have also con 


Abbott Academy, 


Bangor Theological Seminary, 


Berea College, 


Bethany College, 


Bowdoin College, 


Chardon Academy, 


Cornell University, 


Dartmouth College, 


Drew Theological Seminary, 


Harvard Divinity School, 


Harvard University, 


Johns Hopkins University, 

1 O 

Lawrence Academy, 


Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 


Mt. Holyoke College, 


Oberlin College, 


Ohio State University, 


Royal Academy, Stockholm, 


Sanborn Seminary, 


Tufts College, 


University of California, 


University of Pennsylvania, 


University of Toulouse, 


Wellesley College, 


Wesleyan University, 


Yale University, 


Libraries have made donations as follows: 





Cincinnati Public; i 

Congress, 17 

Forbes, 1 

Library Company, [ 

Los Angeles, 1 

Maine State, 57 

Newberry, 1 

New Hampshire State,- 9 

New York Public, 12 

New York State, 16 

Peoria, 2 

State Department, 2 

Syracuse Public, , 1 

The following have been received from different railroads 

Atchison, Topeka & Sante Fe, 1 

Boston & Maine, 3 

Boston Elevated, 3 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 1 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, - 9 

Cleveland, Cincinnati & St. Lawrence, 12 

Concord & Montreal. 1 

From miscellaneous institutions : 
Adams Nervine Asylum, 
American Board, 
Ameiican Museum, 
American Philosophical Society, 
American Seamen's Friend Society, 
American Unitarian Association, 
Appalachian Club, 

Associated Charities of Massachusetts, 
Benevolent Fraternity of Churches, 
Boston Art Company, 
Boston Children's Aid Society, 
Boston Children's Friend Society, 
Boston City Hospital, 
Boston City Missionary Society, 
Boston City Registrar, 
Boston Home for Aged Women, 
Boston Insane Hospital, 
Boston Provident Association, 
Boston Y. M. C. A., 
Bureau of Ethnology, 
Butler Hospital for the Insane, 
Chicago Relief Society, 


Church Building Society, 2 

Concord Home for the Aged, i 

Concord Orphans' Home, 8 

Cuban Land Co., 3 

Department of Agriculture, 3 

Department of the Interior, 54 

Department of Labor, • 1 

Elliot Hospital, Keene, 1 

Fidelity and Casualty Co., 1 

First Congregational Church, Keene, 2 

Free Museum, 2 

Hospital for Epileptics, 1 

Interstate Commission, 2 

Lawrence General Hospital, 1 

Little Wanderer's Home, 6 

Margaret Pillsbury Hospital, 1 

Massachusetts General Hospital, 2 

Massachusetts Infant Asylum, 1 

Massachusetts State Hospital, 1 

Museum of Natural History, 1 

New England Hospital, 1 

New York Children's Aid Society, r 

Philippine Information Society, 1 

Pocumtuck Association, 2 

Publishers, 1 

Smithsonian, 14 

Soldiers' Home, Massachusetts, 1 

Soldiers' Home, New Hampshire, 5 

Soldiers' Home, Vermont, 1 

State Farm, Massachusetts, 1 

St. Luke's Home, 1 

Superintendent of Coast Survey, j 

Superintendent of Public Documents, 30 

Taunton insane Hospital, 1 

U. S. Government, 134 

War Department, 1 

Washington Home, 7 

Westboro Insane Hospital, i 

Woburn City Clerk, 5 

Woman's Union Missionary Society, 1 

Worcester Insane Hospital, 1 

One hundred and thirty-one volumes and forty pamphlets 
have been added by purchase. 

Other donations have been six volumes of the Farmer's 
Monthly Visitor from George P. Iladley of Goffstown ; several 


volumes of the Independent from Miss Alma }. Herbert ; vari- 
ous journals from Fred VV. Lamb of Manchester; two volumes 
of the Geyers Stationer ixova George II. Silsby ; three volumes 
of different papers from Rev. S. L. Gerould ; a vol-ume of the 
Congregationalist and Outlook from Henry A. Kimball; two 
volume of magazines from Frank J. Pillsbury ; several volumes 
of papers and magazines from Miss Sarah Wadleigh ; the sword 
supposed to belong to Major Andre from Mrs. Ann M. Cilley ; 
a small framed picture of Gov. Wm. Plumer from Mrs. Nancy 
J. Langmaid ; an oil portrait of Prof. Roswell Shi;_tleif of Dart- 
mouth college from Charles P. Chase, executor of the will of 
his daughter, Mrs. Susan H. Brown ; two manuscript letters 
of Daniel Webster from Fred H. Gould; two priming tubes and 
one cartridge, such as used in the Civil War, from William H. 
Davis ; a mortar and pestle, more than two hundred and fifty 
years old, from Miss H. E. Bell of Concord ; an Indian stone 
club found at West Concord, from Asbury F. Tandy of Con- 
cord ; a photograph of the oldest house in Grafton, from Ben- 
jamin F. Williams ; two transfer drafts of the Confederate 
treasury, respectively for $5,000,000 and $4,500,000, treasury 
warrant for $50,000, and a $1,000 bond with complete coupons 
attached, from Allen Folger ; six ancestral deeds, from Rev. 
L. H. Elliot of Waterbury, Vt. ; a certificate of membership of 
Webster Eastman as one of the Vigilance Committee of San 
Francisco, from Mrs. Mary E. Doyen of Concord ; a certificate 
of the enrolment of William Eastman on the Revolutionary 
Pension Roll, dated April 22, 1819, and continuance of the 
same dated September 16, 1S20, from Lowell Eastman, 
of Concord ; also from the same, a kit of burglar's tools used 
in robbing a bank in this building; and from Miss Alice 
Fletcher, the petition of Mrs. Martha Rollins to the General 
Assembly of New Hampshire Province to provide some way 
for the redemption of three children in the captivity of the 
Indians, dated May 7, 1729.- 

The library subscribes for the following publications : 

American Historical Review, 
A n th r op log is t, 
Jlssex A n tiqu 1 7 rh 1 n , 
May Flower Descendant, 
William and Mary College Quarterly. 

It receives gratuitously : 

American Catholic Review, 
Bible Society Record, 
Herd Regisjter, 



Iowa historical Record, 

Life and Light, 

Maine LListorical Quarterly, 

Nature Study, 

N. E. Historical Genealogical Register, 

Pen tisyha j n ia Magaz vie, 

Rhode Lsland Historical Publication, 

Sailor's Magazine, 

Veterans 1 Advocate, 


Of daily newspapers it receives : 
Boston Advertiser, 
Boston Journal, 
Manchester News, 
Nashua Telegraph. 

Of weeklies, several by the courtesy of the Granite Monthly: 

Berlin Lndcpendent, 

Canaan Reporter, 

Ch esh ire Rep ublica n , 

Con cord En terp rise, 

Exeter News-Letter, 

Farmington A 7 ews, 

Gorh a m Mom da iueer, 

Journal-Transcript, Franklin, 

Kearsarge Independent, Warner, 

Laconia Democrat, 

Littleton Courier, 

Me red it .'1 N 70s, 

Mirror and Farmer, 

Morning Star, 

New Hampshire Sentinel, 


J 'etc r ho rough Transcript, 

Pitts field 'times, 

Plymouth Record, 

Portland 1 ran script, 

Portsmouth Journal, 

Somersworth Free Press, 

Wood sv die News. 

Among the more prominent donors of books from outside 

the state we mention notably L. Vermon Briggs of Boston, who 

has contributed several valuable works, Francis 0. Allen of 

Philadelphia, for two large volumes of his History of Enfield, 



Conn., and Marshall Field of Chicago, for the Field Genealogy 
in two large volumes. Some sixteen hundred have visited the 
library during the year. 

In closing I wish to say that experience has emphasized to 
my mind the indispensable need to place the library on the 
permanent basis of orderly condition and orderly arrangement 
it so richly deserves to subserve its best interests : 

First. Of larger accommodations for its valuable and accu- 
mulating historic treasures. As it is now progress is necessar- 
ily slower and greatly hindered for want of ample room to give 
its treasures a permanent resting-place. 

Second. Of $1,000 at the lowest estimate for binding 
newspapers, to make them accessible to its patrons. We have 
a cord or more that are practically useless for this reason. 
Only in this way at present can there be any weeding of dupli- 

Third. Of a room for relics and antiquities where they can 
be arranged in an orderly manner under glass, and accessible 
to the inspection of visitors without danger of loss, thus reliev- 
ing the librarian of the necessity of accompanying them in their 
tour of observation. 

Fourth. The publication of a historical quarterly as soon as 
the necessary preliminaries can be satisfactorily arranged. The 
subject has been often broached in private, and the question 
arises, Has not the time come for a serious consideration of the 
matter as a society ? The advantages of such a step are man- 
ifest, and I need not spend time to discuss them only to say 
it would inevitably bring to the Society for notice many valu- 
able historical and genealogical works which we very much 
desire to possess and have not the money to purchase to any 
<rreat extent. Good editing would be indispensable, but we 
certainly have among our number more than one who would 
not fad to meet the demand. The only objection apparent is 
th.u the money at the outset is essential. From information 
gleaned 1 am reasonably confident that in a little time the 
extra expense would be met by the income accruing from its 
advertisements. Vcrbum sat safiientibus. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

N. F. Carter, 


On motion of Hon. J. B. Walker, the regular order of business 
was suspended in order that the annual address might be given 
at this time, and the president presented the Hon. Gordon 
Woodbury of Manchester, who delivered a very able address 


J 43 

on "The Scotch-Irish and Irish Presbyterian Settlers of New 
Hampshire. " 

The thanks of the Society, on motion of Rev. Alfred L. 
Elwyn of Portsmouth, was tendered the speaker for his in- 
teresting address and valuable contribution to the historical 
literature of the state, and. a copy of the same requested for 
preservation in the archives of the Society. 


The limits of the title you have selected for this ...ddress are 
such that it has been quite difficult for me to confine myself 
strictly to the subject. In the search for literature relating to 
the Scotch- Irish settlement in New Hampshire, I have neces- 
sarily come across material applicable to the larger story of all 
the early settlements on the Atlantic coast. Indeed, the whole 
subject of colonial history is so full of romantic interest and 
attraction, that, absorbed by it, the amateur historian can hard- 
ly resist the tendency to wander at large among these: memorials 
of two hundred years ago, rather than confine himself to any 
particular narrative. 

Among the varied nationalities of Swedes, Dutch, English, 
Spanish, and French, who planted colonies here and whose de- 
scendants constitute the Americans of to-day, there was mixed 
with us in New Hampshire a certain peculiar element not found 
elsewhere in New England in equal degree, or of such striking 
influence upon the development of colony or state. This we 
are accustomed to call the Scotch Irish element. It seems 
strange that so learned and exhaustive a writer as Professor 
Fiske should have entirely overlooked these people in his " be- 
ginnings of New England." Yet such is the fact, and in the 
whole of the long and interesting story which he tells two lines 
will cover that part which refers to the Scotch-Irish. 

The term " Scotch-Irish " suggests some peculiarities of 
origin which lead us into a part, at any rate, of Irish history. 
We cannot go very far into that subject here, however. Enough 
now to say that while Ireland had been partially subdued 
under Elizabeth the embers of discontent constantly smoul- 



dered and no permanent pacification of the country seemed prob- 
able. Lord Bacon, with whom ideas grew plentifully, sug- 
gested to Elizabeth's successor, James, that a settlement of 
English and Scotch husbandmen in Ireland, able to guard as 
well as to till the land, would help secure the interest of the 
crown. Until this was done/ Ireland could not be effectually 
reduced, for as Sir Edward Coke had said, " There was ever a 
back door in the north." The only question was where to 
place them. 

The Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel possessed immense ter- 
ritory in the northern part of the island, comprising some two 
millions of acres, — substantially the whole of the County of 
Ulster. These earls acknowledged the supremacy ol the Crown 
of England, but they possessed territorities so valuable that 
the hungry adventurers, who had come from Scotland with the 
new sovereign, cast longing and envious eyes upon them. The 
same land hunger seems to have characterized the early years 
of the seventeenth century that we notice nowadays. A 
charge of conspiracy was manufactured against them. They 
were declared guilty without trial, were proclaimed traitors, 
and thereupon fled to the continent. Their lands were con- 
fiscated, and the king applied to the city of London to take 
them up. They were well watered, he assured them, plenti- 
fully supplied with fuel and with good store of all the neces- 
saries for man's sustenance, and abundantly yielding timber, 
hides, tallow, canvas, and cordage for the purposes of com- 
merce. The companies of skinners, fishmongers, haberdash- 
ers, vintners, and the like, thereupon became the chartered 
proprietors of these lands under the corporate name of the 
"London Company." Six counties in Ulster were confiscated, 
and not merely the chiefs, but the entire population, dispos- 
sessed. The confiscated territory included the city of Derry, 
the name of which was now changed to Londonderry. 

The immigrants selected for the new colony were of design 
chosen from a different race and a different religion from that 
of the natives whose place they were to take. The new-comers 
were Protestants and Anglo-Saxons, destined to supplant 
Catholics and Celts. Many of the settlers were English, but 




the larger and more influential element came from the Calvin- 
bisof Scotland. To-day the speech of Ulster is rather Scotch 
than English. Authorities seem to differ as to the general 
quality of the settlers. One writer states that, " Although 
arcing those whom Divine Providence did send to Ireland 
there were several persons, eminent for birth, education, and 
ptrts, yet the most part were such as either poverty, scandu- 
lous lives or at the best adventurous seeking of a better accom- 
modation, had forced thither." But the weight of evidence 
measured by the standard of results, proves that these new set- 
tlers must have been of the same character as their descend- 
ants, who have made themselves famous for industry, intelli- 
gence, and energy in whatever part of the new world they chose 
(or their home. For instance, in 1580 the population of Ire- 
land was roughly estimated at half a million. The plantation 
of Ulster was begun twenty-seven years later, in 1607. By 
1^41 the population had grown to a million and a half, of whom 
the Protestants numbered 260,000. In Ulster, where half the 
settlers were Scotch Presbyterians, a complete transformation 
was accomplished. This province, comparatively sterile, had 
been the least advanced and the worst cultivated section of 
the island. It now became one of the most flourishing por- 
tions of the British empire. Not only did the new-comers 
introduce a system of agriculture before unknown, but they 
established manufactures of wool and flax and laid the foun- 
dations of a foreign commerce for Ireland. Then came the 
English revolution of 1649, anc ^ following came the Crom- 
wellian settlement of Ireland, when numbers of veteran soldiers 
of the parliament armies were transported to form a Protes- 
tant settlement on Irish soil. These were, however, planted 
largely in Leir.ster and Munster, whereas our people were 
drawn from the settlement in Ulster. 

Finally came the revolution of 1688, when the last of the 
Stewarts, having abandoned his throne, attempted to regain it 
through the invasion of Ireland with a contingent of French 
regiments loaned him for the purpose by Louis XIV. His 
son-in-law, Dutch William, however, succeeded in defeating the 
enterprise, but he was able to do so, as he himself acknowl- 



edged, mainly through the obstinate resistance which the set- 
tlers of Londonderry made to the advance of the troops of 
James in 1690. The story of their resistance and of the siege 
of Londonderry is perhaps one of the most moving incidents in 
history. I shall not pause here to go into it in detail. But a 
most cursory examination of the facts discloses at once the 
importance, from every point of view of the stand which these 
fierce northern Presbyterians were not only willing but able to 
make under circumstances calculated to discourage the stout- 
est heart. In Scotland there were many sympathizers of 
James. If he could overrun Ireland with his forces his pas- 
sage from there to Scotland would be unimpeded. A strong 
party in Scotland were ready, and afterwards did rise in his 
interest. Nothing remained to delay this now, save the reduc- 
tion of an insignificant town, surrounded by mud walls, in many 
places not ovei four feet high, which stood on the banks of the 
Foyle, and which was garrisoned by the refugees from the 
neighboring farms and by the artisans and mechanics who car- 
ried on their infant commerce. But these men were of that 
stubborn courage which resists conquest to the death and 
whose rugged Scotch resolution, tried in a hundred battles, 
holds a place second to none. The royal troops sat down to 
the siege with impatience, feeling confident that but a short 
time would suffice to remove this obstacle. The siege lasted 
over three months, and at its close, when the royal troops re- 
treated, the resistance of the garrison was still undiminished, 
though hunger, famine, treachery, and the abundant promises of 
pardon and reward held out by James had expended all their 
force. In the glowing pages of Macaulay one reads the story, 
and 1 regret that I cannot longer pause to draw in the colors 
in which he paints the wonderful picture of the grim courage 
and firm insistance upon principle which our ancestors mani- 
fested there. By holding Derry against James, as Eroude has 
said, they saved William of Orange half the trouble of conquer- 
ing the Emerald Isle. 

Such was the record of the Ulster men. They had made of 
the wilderness a garden.' They had baffled the assaults of the 
fanatical Stewart and had stood as a bulwark for English 



liberty when English liberty was assailed. Now came the 
time for their reward. In 1698 such was the effect of the 
competition of the Irish woolen industry, whose seat was at 
Belfast, upon English manufactures that it was claimed that the 
latter were in danger of destruction at the hands of their rival. 
The interference of parliament was invoked, and by a series 
of repressive acts the Irish looms were closed. Not content 
with the destruction of their manufacturing interests, the Eng- 
lish parliament attacked their religion. In 1704 a test act 
was passed for Ireland almost as severe in its provisions 
against the dissenters as against the Catholics, while no tolera- 
tion act as in England mitigated its severities. Under this act 
all persons whether Protestant or not, other than Church of 
England men, were forbidden to hold any office above that 
of petty constable; they were forbidden to keep schools of any 
character; marriages by their ministers were declared invalid 
and the issue of such marriages were declared bastards. Even 
the dead were not exempt, for they were denied burial in the 
very churchyards of the churches their fathers had founded. 
They were indeed still permitted to maintain their own forms 
of worship, but they were compelled to support a minister of 
the Church of England, and a tenth part of all their produce" 
was rigorously exacted for the purpose. Under the first ex- 
citement accompanying the passage of these acts it was hoped 
that the distinguished services which the citizens of London- 
derry had rendered to the cause of Protestantism would 
exempt them from the harshness of its provisions, but when it 
became clear that they had as much to fear from English 
prelacy as from Roman papacy, no further doubt was left in 
their minds as to the course now forced upon them. They 
must abandon the homes which had been theirs and their 
fathers ' fathers for a hundred years, or they must abandon 
their religion. Can one suppose that there was much doubt 
or uncertainty in the minds of the Londonderry men as to the 
course they should take ? 

No one who reads the history of the siege of their city can 
wonder long what their decision would be. Having heard 
favorable reports from a Mr. Holmes, the son of a Presbyterian 




minister of the neighborhood, as to the civil and religious 
freedom enjoyed by the American colonies, some of the resi- 
dents of the towns or parishes of Coleraine, Kilrea-, Antrim, 
Belfast, and Londonderry determined to remove to America. 
In 'order to prepare the way and to secure a favorable recep- 
tion and place of settlement on arrival, they sent the Rev. 
William Boyd of Macasky to Governor Shuteof Massachusetts 
with a memorial or address, the original of which is now in the 
possession of the New Hampshire Historical Society. This 
was in March of the year 17 18. This address is signed by 
three hundred and nineteen names. Thirteen of them make 
their mark, and the others are in fair and vigorous hand. And 
this fact coupled with the terms of description used in the memo- 
rial to the effect that "We whose names are underwritten, In- 
habitants of ye North of Ireland, doe in our own names and in 
the names of many others our neighbors, Gentlemen, Minis- 
ters, Fanners and Tradesmen, etc., etc.," indicates clearly that 
the proposed immigrants were not men of common stamp. 
Nine of the subscribers were ministers of the gospel. Three 
were graduates of the University of Scotland. All but four per 
cent, could write their names, and it is doubtful whether one 
hundred and eighty years ago all but four per cent, of any other 
promiscuous gathering of three hundred and nineteen farmers 
and tradesmen in England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales could 
write their own names. Mr. Boyd received from Governor 
Shute the desired encouragement and communicated it to his 
friends in Ireland. They immediately converted their prop- 
erty into money, embarked in five ships for Boston, and arrived 
there August 4, 1718. 

Nothing definite had been settled between the governor and 
the minister as to the locality of the future residence of the new- 
comers. The treaty of Utrecht between England and France 
in 1 7 13 had given to England "Nova Scotia or Acadia accord- 

ins; to its ancient boundarii 

But what were the "ancient 

boundaries" of Acadia? Uid they include all of New Bruns- 
wick or had France still a large territory on the Atlantic be- 
tween Acadia and Maine? A later treaty settled the question 
finally, but the purpose of Governor Shute in making these 



immigrants welcome undoubtedly was to plant them on the fron- 
tiers of Acadia or Maine as a living bulwark against the restless 
and enterprising French on the north and their savage allies. 

The motives of the Ulstermen in coming to America are 
found stated in a manuscript sermon of the Rev. James 
McGregor, one of the four pastors who accompanied their 
Hocks to America and the first minister of Londonderry. It was 
addressed* to his congregation on the eve of their departure and 
gives the following reasons for the proposed change : "i. To 
avoid oppression and cruel bondage. 2. To shun persecution 
and designed ruin. 3. To withdraw from the communion of 
idolaters. 4. To have an opportunity of worshiping God accord- 
ing to the dictates of conscience and the rules of His inspired 
word." To reduce these generalities to a concrete statement 
would be to state that their motives were to establish homes of 
their own in fee simple, taxable only to support their own forms 
of worship and their strictly local needs — to escape, in short, 
the land lease and the church tithe. On board the* five small 
ships that came to anchor near the little wharf at the foot of 
State street in Boston were about one hundred and twenty 
families ; for they reckoned themselves in families. 

There may have been, there probably were, at least seven 
hundred and fifty passengers in all. They were of all ages, one 
patriarch of ninety-five and many infants in arms. Most of 
them were miserably poor. The Rev. Win. Boyd had stayed all 
summer in Boston and doubtless was there to meet them when 
they landed. Some of the immigrants decided to identify 
themselves with some English settlement already begun. A 
part of the company, therefore, went to Worcester to make 
their homes. Others remained in Boston. Some went to 
Andover, and a considerable number more went temporarily to 
Dracut and Haverhill or other towns upon the Merrimack river 
to await there the turn of events and the permanent establish- 
ment of their own colony, somewhere. 

Pursuant to the plan of Governor Shute that the colony 
should be established in Maine, twenty families were selected. 
These were drawn mainly from the descendants of Scotch cov- 
enanters who had passed over to Ulster later than the mass of 

J 5° 


settlers there, and had kept together in church relations 
as well as in residence more closely even than most of the 
Scotch settlers. Their homes had been in the valley of the 
Bann mostly on the Antrim side of the river. When they de- 
cided to emigrate, their pastor, the Rev. James McGregor, came 
with them. They now desired to form a separate and distinct 
settlement here still under his charge. Their names were 
James McKeen, John Barnett, Archibald Clendennin, John 
Mitchell, James Sterrett, James Anderson, Randall Alexander, 
James Gregg, James Clark, James Nesmith, Allen Anderson, 
Robert Weir, John Morrison, Samuel Allison, Thomas Steele, 
John Stuart. With this end in view, and taking with them 
some three hundred other persons, the little company sailed 
from Boston late in the fall to explore Casco Bay for a home, 
under the promise from Governor Shute that wherever they 
should choose unappropriated lands of the provinces there they 
might establish their settlement without paying for the land. 

They wintered in their vessels in Portland (then Falmouth) 
harbor, and it is a singular fact that in spite of the severity of 
the weather no deaths took place among them. The extent of 
their poverty may be learned from a petition to the general 
court at Boston for relief made by the inhabitants of Falmouth, 
in which they state that there had arrived in their harbor twenty 
families of immigrants from Ireland, descendants of a colony 
organized in Scotland who had settled in the north of Ireland 
about the middle of the seventeenth century. They are 
described as rigid Presbyterians who had lied from Scotland to 
avoid the persecutions of Charles I. They had suffered severely 
during the winter, their provisions had failed, and they were so 
poor that they were not able to buy any. They therefore peti- 
tioned the general court, through the inhabitants of Falmouth, 
for relief. On this petition the court seems to have ordered 
that a hundred bushels of Indian meal be allowed and paid out 
of the treasury for the Irish people mentioned in the petition. 
It is subjoined in a note to this record that James McKeen, 
the grandfather of the -first president of Bowdoin college, was 
of this company, and one of the agents who selected the land 
on which they afterwards settled. 



With the opening of spring the little colony disembarked, 
*rui as they surveyed the rocky and forbidding wilderness 
ifWind them they must have thought with painful recollection 
Of the beautiful country they had left behind ; for a striking 
characteristic of the north of Ireland is the great beauty of the 
landscape and the fertility of the soil. The winters there are 
10 mild that peaches blossom in~ the open air early in March. 
After exploring for some distance the country eastward from 
Cisco Bay and finding no tract of land there that pleased 
them, they turned their course westward ; a portion, however, 
remaining near Wiscasset, among them the father and mother 
of Matthew Thornton, afterwards one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. Undoubtedly while still in 
lk>ston the immigrants had heard of the more- favorable oppor- 
tunity for settlement upon the Merrimack river in southern 
New Hampshire, which at that time was under the jurisdiction 
of the governor of Massachusetts, as was the province of 
Acadia or Maine. They, therefore, sailed directly to the 
mouth of the Merrimack river and anchored at Haverhill, 
where they arrived on the 2d of April, 1719. There they 
heard of a fine tract of land about fifteen miles distant to the 
northward, called Nuffield, on account of the abundance of 
chestnut, walnut, and butternut trees. A party went forward 
to explore, leaving their families behind them at Haverhill. 

They selected a site and built a few temporary huts on a little 
stream called West-running brook, a tributary of Beaver brook 
which flows into the Merrimack river at Lowell. Leaving two or 
three men in charge, the rest returned to Haverhill to bring on 
their families, provisions, and what implements of labor and what 
household utensils they possessed. The Rev. James McGregor 
had not gone with the others from Boston but had passed the 
winter at Dracut, and hearing that the settlement was to be 
started at Nutfield he set out for that place with another com- 
pany of immigrants. He met the first comers at a place called 
Horse-Hill on the 11th of April, 1719. 

The first families, in order to secure the advantages of near 
neighborhood and to be better able to protect themselves 
against the attacks of Indians, planted their log houses on each 



side of West-running brook on lots but thirty rods wide and ex- 
tending back on a north and south line until they included sixty 
acres each. These lots constituted what has ever since been 
known as the Double range. No price was paid for the land 
since it was the free gift of King William through the governor 
of Massachusetts to his loyal subjects of the old country, some 
of them the defenders of his throne at the siege of London- 
derry. The first dwellings were, of course, logs covered with 
bark, but sawmills were soon built, and within a year or two 
frame houses were erected. The settlement was no sooner or- 
ganized than a religious society was formed in order to the full 
and stated enjoyment of those divine ordinances according to 
Presbyterian forms to secure which was the leading object of 
their immigration. They proceeded according to the prescribed 
order (of the Presbyterian church) to present in due form a 
call to the Rev. James McGregor to become their pastor. He 
accepted, and on the day appointed solemnly assumed his 
charge. They with like solemnity and by formal act received 
him as their pastor and spiritual guide. 

The first frame house was built for Mr. McGregor, the second 
by John McMurphy. Two stone garrison houses were also 
built and well prepared to resist the attacks of Indians during 
the first season, and to these the several families retired at night 
whenever special danger was apprehended. But it is remark- 
able that neither in Lovewell's war, nor in either of the two 
subsequent French and Indian wars did any hostile force from 
the northward ever even approach the town. Indian forays from 
the north followed well-established lines ; down Lajte Cham- 
plain to Crown Point or down the Connecticut river to the head 
waters of the Merrimack and thence down ; or down the Con- 
necticut river to western Massachusetts, or eastward from the 
lakes of Maine through Durham and Exeter. But while the 
Indians seem to have come frequently to the settlements on the 
west side of the river, by some strange chance Londonderry 
was never even menaced. No satisfactory reason for this can 
be given, but it is a singular fact that the governor of Canada, 
Marquis of Vaudreuil, 'had been a schoolmate at St. Omer 
with the Rev. James McGregor, and that a correspondence was 

mr. woodbury's address. 153 

long maintained between them. Upon the margin of the 'manu- 
script of one of his sermons appears a list of the titles by 
which the French governor would be addressed. And it is 
quite possible that through these means the priests we're in- 
structed to charge their Indians not to injure any of these people 
at Londonderry for they were different from the English. At 
any rate, the warriors were assured beforehand that no bounty 
would be paid for such scalps, and no sins pardoned to those 
who killed them. 

The settlement had not long been planted before a friendly 
Indian, taking Mr. McGregor to a high hill, pointed in the 
direction of a tall pine some nine miles distant, and told him 
that there was a famous fishing place. By the help of his 
compass the pastor, with a few settlers, was able to mark out 
a course to Amoskeag Falls, which the Indians were accus- 
tomed to frequent twice a year for a supply of salmon and 
shad, with which the river then abounded. 

To secure a valid title to their lands was a task of no small 
difficulty. The civil and military jurisdiction of Governor 
Shute over the territory in question was undisputed, nor could 
the validity of the grant in the King's name be called in ques- 
tion ; but our fathers were not content with this and sought a 
title direct from the Indian chiefs who claimed to own the land. 
In 1629 the Rev. John Wheelright of Newburyport had obtained 
by fair purchase from the four principal Sagamores all the 
territory lying between the river Piscataqua and the river Mer- 
rimack. His grandson had now inherited his rights, and to a 
committee from the Londonderry men he gave a deed of land 
ten miles square corresponding to the grant of Governor Shute. 
This he did partly at the instance of Lieutenant-Governor 
Wentworth, and in return the Londonderry men gave them 
certain lots of land which have proven among the best in the 
town. The title to the land, however, was claimed under sev- 
eral conflicting deeds, and in September of the first year of 
their arrival the settlers petitioned the governor and general 
court at Portsmouth, reciting that some men from Newbury 
and from Salem had forbidden them to clear or improve the 
land they were occupying except upon terms. They also state 

J 54 


that their settlement was undoubtedly within the province of 
New Hampshire, and they therefore prayed to be erected into 
a township ten miles square, vested with the usual town privi- 
leges, and having the power to elect town officers and to make 
town laws. They were well satisfied that their claim to title 
in the land was indisputable, and they were well able to main- 
tain it, but they desired a political existence and the rights of 
citizens as -well. The original of this petition is also among 
the collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society, and 
will well repay reading, as an example of sharp, clean-cut state- 
ment and of terse, vigorous English. 

In answer to the petition the town was incorporated on June 
17, 1722, containing ten square miles, but with the bounds so 
distorted as to include the fishing station on the Merrimack at 
Amoskeag Falls. This portion afterwards was called Derry- 
field, and later Manchester. The name of the town upon its 
incorporation was changed from Nutfield to Londonderry, as 
a reminder of the principal city of the old country from which 
they had com'e and in memory of the siege and defense of the 
Ulster town, in which some of -them had taken part in person. 

The settlement grew in numbers and in importance from its 
beginning. New buildings were erected and new lots made. 
The first series of lots were upon what is called now the English 
Range, so named because a few heads of families of English 
settlers from Massachusetts had come up to cast in their lot 
with the Scotch-Irish. Farther west the High Range was laid 
out. As the accounts of the settlement and of the privileges 
enjoyed reached their friends and neighbors in Ireland some 
of them determined to come over and join the community. In 
order to bear the expense of transporting themselves and 
their families some bound themselves to a term of labor after 

For a time the settlers necessarily endured many privations 
and hardships. Their habitations were not only rude but 
their food was meager in kind and quantity. Having no beasts 
of burden, their goods were transported on men's shoulders 
from Haverhill or Dracut. "But hard labor and homely fare 
contributed much, no doubt, to that robust health and great 


Strength and longevity which always distinguished them. As 
Dr. Belknap, in his "History of New Hampshire," says: 
*• Being a peculiarly industrious, frugal, hardy, intelligent, and 
well-principled people, they proved a valuable acquisition in 
the province to which they had removed, contributing much 
by their habits of industry tojts welfare." Until their arrival 
potatoes had been unknown in New England. A few of the 
j»ettlers bad-passed the winter of 1718-19 in Andover, wait- 
ing until the location at Londonderry should be made. On 
their departure they left with their host, a Mr. Walker, a few 
of the strange roots which they had brought with them for 
seed. These were planted, came up, nourished well, blos- 
somed, and produced balls, which the family supposed were 
the fruit to be eaten. They cooked them in various ways, but 
found them very unpalatable and unfit for food. Nex~ spring 
while plowing their gardens they discovered the merits of the 
gift that had been made them, and we no doubt have learned 
from them to call potatoes "Irish potatoes" because of their 
introduction by these settlers. 

The characteristic manufacture of the settlers was the spin- 
ning of flax and the weaving of it into linen. The small spin- 
ning wheel turned by the foot they were the first to introduce 
into this country. And of such superior quality was the linen 
thread and fabrics manufactured in Londonderry that they 
commanded not only a more ready sale but a higher price 
than those produced elsewhere. This is evidenced by a vote 
of the town in 1748 directing the selectmen to purchase seals 
and seal all the linens made in Londonderry, and that John 
McMurphy and John Wallace be sealers and inspectors of the 
hollands and linens so made or to be made in the town. This 
seal or stamp contained the words " Londonderry in New 
Hampshire," and was affixed at the end of the piece of cloth 
so as to prevent fraudulent imitations. It was also voted to 
petition the general court for a special act to guard against 
fraud in this particular matter. When the settlers first landed 
in Boston, in 1718, the little wheels which spun their linen 
thread attracted so much attention that an exhibition was 
given of the operation of the machines by the women. This 



took place on Boston common, and according to Drake's 
"Boston," interested the whole town, — the women in particu- 
lar. Spinning and weaving were not practised by the women 
alone. At first the labor was performed by men, and was 
regarded among the more respectable employments, the art 
being held in high repute and carried by many of these people 
to a degree of perfection then unequaled in this country. 
For an instance of this the following fact affords an illustra- 
tion : John Montgomery immigrated to this town in 1747, and 
established himself as a weaver. He married the daughter of 
Col. George Knox, who had lived some years in the family of 
the Rev. Mr. McGregor, to whom she was related. He subse- 
quently removed to Andover, Mass. During the Revolu- 
tionary War Mr. Montgomery received from congress forty 
pounds and a diamond ring as a premium for linen woven for 
Washington and officers of his army. 

Another indirect advantage arising from the development 
of this branch of manufacture is Pinkerton academy, for the 
two brothers, Jphn and James Pinkerton, devoted a large por- 
tion of the fortune which they accumulated from the manufac- 
ture and sale of linen to the foundation of a religious and 
literary institution which should bear their name. All articles 
of clothing were in those days of domestic manufacture. 
Wool and ilax were carded, spun, woven, colored, and made 
into garments at home, and so habits of industry must have of 
necessity characterized the life of the early settlers to a 
remarkable degree. 

In the charter of the town it was provided that on every 
Wednesday of the week forever the inhabitants may keep, 
hold, and enjoy a market for buying and selling of wares, 
goods, and merchandise, and various kinds of creatures, 
endowed with the usual privileges, profits, and immunities as 
other market towns ; and fully hold, possess, and enjoy two 
fairs annually forever. This institution of the town fair was 
continued until 1850, when that part of the charter of the 
town authorizing the holding of fairs was repealed, the reason 
being that the increase of intemperance and disorder conse- 
quent on its holding had rendered it a public nuisance. 


All was not harmony in the infant settlement. As the 
town thrived and grew the original congregation became 
very large. Parson McGregor died in 1729. As a youth 
he had taken part in the famous siege of Londonderry, 
and had himself discharged the large guns from the tower of 
the church which announced to the starving garrison the 
approach of the relief ships up the Foyle. The Rev. Matthew 
Clark came over from Ireland to succeed him, although he 
was then seventy years of age. lie had been an officer in 
King William's army, and had participated actively in the 
siege, receiving a wound in the head which never healed, 
and which was covered with a patch. It is related of him 
that while sitting as a moderator of the Presbytery the mar- 
tial music of a train band passing made him incapable for 
a time of attending to his duties, and his reply to the repeated 
calls of his brethren was, " Nae business while I hear the tuck 
of the drum." He died at the age of seventy-six, and at his 
special request was borne to his grave by those only who had 
been his fellow soldiers in the siege of Londonderry. 

The records of the church in Londonderry commence in 
1723, and contain the story usually found in such records. 
As the congregation increased in wealth and prosperity, so 
likewise jealousy among its members increased. There took 
place the inevitable division and subsequent rivalry between 
two churches. A more complete account of the details of 
these divisions can be found in the history of the town of 
Londonderry, but the limits of this address do not permit of 
their statement here. Put from the church records we can 
readily learn what manner of men these settlers were. So far 
as their physical natures went they had received a splendid 
outfit for the race of life. Large of frame, strong, sinewy, and 
enduring men and women, both inured to an almost tireless 
physical industry. 

The intricacies of theological argument carried on for a 
generation had so sharpened their intellectual faculties as to 
render them no mean antagonists in debate. The Calvinistic 
doctrines of their faith tended to produce a stern, uncompro- 
mising turn of mind well calculated to sustain men and women 



under the bitter hardships of frontier life in the wilderness. 
The type of Calvinism, too, to which they were attached, had 
not been softened into Congregationalism or into the Ar- 
minian sects. They never brought themselves to believe that , 
the just were saved by faith alone, but nourished their chil- 
dren on the strong meat of the doctrine of election. The 
Westminster Catechism and the Bible were their principal 
literature, and daily reading in one and catechism in the 
other was a characteristic of their lives. In their own eyes 
they were the elect of God, the chosen ones of Israel, saved as 
a brand from the burning to preserve in this wilderness the 
faith once delivered to the fathers and tested by them through 
repeated trials. Their sternness and the intensity with which 
they insisted upon their form of church government naturally 
excited at first prejudice, and then hate, among their neigh- 
bors of the English stock. The natural result of this was to 
throw them more and more upon each other in inter-marriage, 
in a community of interest and of feeling. They did not 
coalesce readily with other strains of blood or other sects of 
Christians, and so they tended to keep up acquaintance in 
families fro'm generation to generation. Consequently the 
very traits and peculiarities which they originally possessed 
have tended to persevere in them to the present time. 

They were commonly called "Irish." A formal act of the 
general court of Massachusetts denominated them " Poor Irish 
people"; and a little later the general court of New Hamp- 
shire defined them as "A company of Irish at Nutfield." 
This they seem to have resented, for there is extant a letter of 
the Rev. James McGregor dated in 1720 which says, "We are 
surprised to hear ourselves termed Irish people when we so 
frequently ventured our all for the British crown and liberties 
against the Irish papists, and gave all tests of our loyalty 
which the government of Ireland required, and are always 
ready to do the same when required." It is indisputable that 
the English contemporaries of these early Scotch-Irish settlers 
came to regard them with utter loathing and disdain, and 
in part for good reason. 

So eager were our fathers in their devotion to the spirit that 



it would, perhaps, be fair to say that they too much neglected 
the things of the flesh. At any rate, ablution of the whole 
body even once a year, or even once for a lifetime, was a thing 
practically unknown among the first immigrants. A washbowl 
and pitcher formed no part of a common housekeeping outfit. 
Their dread of water was not confined to its external applica- 
cation. It was discriminated against as a beverage also. 
Account for it- as we may, whether on the ground of 
high latitude, Celtic restlessness, strenuous poverty, what not, 
new rum had altogether too potent an influence over the 
lives of our fathers. It was always so. It is so now, 
and no one can give a satisfactory reason why. The love of 
liquor was a national trait of the Scotch and it persists among 
the Scotch to the present day. Marriage ceremonies, wakes, 
and funerals were frequently productive of the most painful 
scenes and most serious consequences. 

The early customs in these respects, however, did not differ 
materially among the Scotch-Irish from the practice obtaining 
among other settlers. Where these settlers did differ, however, 
was in the form of church government to which they adhered. 
They were rigid Presbyterians, and by Presbyterianism we 
should clearly understand a form of church government, and not 
a series of theological doctrines. Accompanying this form of 
church government but not an essential part of it, is a series 
of theological doctrines embodied in the Westminster Confes- 
sion of Faith. Their principal characteristics I have already 
alluded to, and I need not amplify them here. Enough to say 
that belief in these doctrines seems to have produced a race 
of men, both in the old country and in the new, peculiar, virile, 
strong of mind and body, unyielding, more than usually intel- 
ligent, and who have been distinguished among their fellows in 
all generations for a certain fierce energy and stern determina- 
tion to succeed at all hazards. 

From this settlement sprung other settlements. The son of 
the colonist, feeling the same restless feeling which had led his 
father so far across the ocean, shouldered his ax and his riiie, 
took his sweetheart by the hand and tramped forward to clear 
new places for civilization, for us, his fortunate descendants. 



During the quarter century preceding the Revolution ten dis- 
tinct settlements were made by immigrants from Londonderry, 
all of which became towns of influence and importance in New 
Hampshire. The towns of Windham, Bedford, Goffstown, 
Antrim, Milford, Peterborough, Acworth, and Pelham were all 
settled in this way, and though their early history does not dis- 
close so many traces of the peculiarities found in the early 
settlers of Londonderry, yet the men they contributed to the 
public affairs of their times is a sufficient indication of the stock 
from which they sprung. 

The roll of the descendants of the Londonderry Scotch-Irish 
is a long and honorable one. Neither the Crown nor the col- 
onies ever appealed to these brave people in vain for help in 
the old French wars. Not a trail to Ticonderoga or Crown 
Point but was tramped over and over again by the firm set feet 
of these New Hampshire Presbyterians. They were at the 
"bloody morning scout" with Colonel Williams in 1755. They 
were with Stark and Lord Howe in the terrible defeat at Ticon- 
deroga. Many of them toiled at the great fort at Crown Point 
whose ruins astonish us to-day, and many of them stood on the 
Plains of Abraham with General Wolfe when he finally termi- 
nated French control of this continent and gave it permanently 
to English-speaking peoples. Countless skirmishes and battles 
testified to that stern joy that warriors feel which characterized 
these backwoodsmen on the day of battle. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution these men hurried to the 
front rank. John Stark, whose grandfather, Archibald Stark, 
was a Glasgow Scotchman transplanted to Antrim, on his way 
to Londonderry, hurried in his shirt sleeves to Bunker Hill, 
taking with him his neighbors and relatives, many of whom 
enlisted in the Continental line to serve throughout the war. 
Seventy volunteers from Londonderry went with him to Ben- 
nington ; and on his staff served Robert McGregor, grandson of 
the first pastor. Col. George Reed, another native of Londonderry, 
was at Bunker Hill, Long Island, White Plains, Trenton, Brandy- 
wine, Charleston, Saratoga, and Stillwater; served throughout 
the campaigns of Valley Forge in 1778, and was in chief com- 
mand of the army at Albany during the last summer of the war. 


General Washington commissioned him a brigadier-general. 
McCIeary and Gregg, two good Scotch-Irish names from Lon- 
donderry, were colonels in the Continental army. From a 
return of the number of inhabitants in the several towns of 
New Hampshire, with the number of soldiers, firearms, ammu- 
nition, etc., taken by order of the Committee of Public Safety 
at the outbreak of the Revolution, it appears that in London- 
derry there were 404 males from the age of sixteen to fifty, and 
of these, sixty-six were in the army, a larger number than from 
any other town in the state save one, Amherst, which sent 
eighty-one; Portsmouth sent fifty. James Miller, whose famous 
" I'll try, sir," has made his name a household word, was a 
Scotch-Irishman from Peterborough by way of Londonderry. 
Matthew Thornton was one of the three signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence from the colony of New Hampshire. 
His father and mother had come from Ireland with the first 
settlers, and after passing the winter in Falmouth harbor 
returned and settled in Londonderry after a short stay at Wis- 
t asset. Here the young man rose through various grades until 
at his death he had received all the honors it was in the power 
of his fellow-citizens to bestow and his name has gone down to 
immortality, not alone as having signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, but as having done so under peculiar circumstances. 
When he was commissioned to Philadelphia he started on horse- 
back at once, but such was the state of travel that he could not 
reach the scene of the convention until after the Declaration 
had been signed and promulgated. It would have been entirely 
easy for him to evade signature and so escape the penalties of 
treason denounced by the Crown against all who had signed 
that document. This he refused to do, but determined to affix 
his name no matter what the consequences. 

The Bell family, well known to us in New Hampshire, origi- 
nated in Londonderry, and the uniform record of ability and 
character and high public service which they present is known 
to us all. Perhaps no one man in all this country exercised so 
great an influence in forming public opinion during the years 
immediately preceding the War of the Rebellion as Horace 
Greeley. The influence of his writings and of his personality 
1 1 



I think it is fair to say outweighed in importance any other one 
influence of his time. 'He did more to bring the plain every-day 
common people to a realization of the political truths which 
men of perhaps greater intellectual weight than himself at first 
discovered and made known. He brought up to them the intel- 
ligent, conscientious support which was necessary to the suc- 
cessful accomplishment of their ideals. He was a Scotch- 
Irishman by^descent, his mother belonging to the family of one 
of the earliest settlers in Londonderry. 

Many family names once common there are now extinct. 
Times indeed do change and men change with them, — but 
truths, never. From these early settlers and their example we 
learn the lesson of patient endurance, of stern, silent, uncom- 
promising insistence of duty as men know it, of entire willing- 
ness to promptly sacrifice any and all ties of home and country 
and family affection at the demand of conscience, to endure 
hunger, cold, privation, and want of every description in order 
to worship God according to the dictates of conscience. 

The committee previously appointed to nominate a list of 
officers for the ensuing year reported the following, when it 
was voted to accept the report and authorize the secretary to 
cast one vote for the several persons named, whereupon the 
president declared the same to be the officers for the ensuing 
year, viz. : 

- Hon. William C. Todd, of Atkinson. 


Hon. Albert S. Wait, of Newport. 

Rev. Daniel C. Roberts, D. 1)., of Concord. 

Recording Secretary. 
John C. Ordway, of Concord. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Hun. Charles R. Corning, of Concord. 


William P. Fiske, Esq. 

Rev. Nathan F. Carter. 

Eli E. Graves, M. D., of Boscawen. 

Standing Committee. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
Edson C. Eastman. 

Library Committee. 

Prof. Amos Hadley, 

Rev. C. L. Tappan, 

Mrs. Frances C. Stevens. 

1 \t blish ing Ct ) m m it tee . 

Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, Concord. 
Rev. Nathan F. Carter, Concord. 
John Dowst, Esq., Manchester. 

Committee on New Members. 

Rev. N. F. Carter, 
Isaac Andrew Hill, 
John C. Ordway. 

Committee on Speakers. 

Hon. William C. Todd, 
Hon. Charles R. Corning, 
Rev. Howard F. Hill. 

Committee on New HampsJiirc Naval History. 

Hon. Albert S. Wait, of Newport. 
Hon. J. C. A. Wingate, of Stratham. 



The standing committee, through its chairman, Mr. Thornc, 
made report that they had caused to be made needed repairs 
to the Bradley Monument and grounds, including the re- 
lettering of the inscriptions, the painting of the fence, etc., and 
the report was duly accepted. 

The committee on the proposed Naval History of New 
Hampshire reported verbally, through its chairman, Mr. Wait 
of Newport, and, on motion of Judge Dana, the committee was 
given further time. 

The special committee appointed one year ago to solicit 
funds for the erection of a new building, or the enlargement of 
the Society's present building, in time to secure a gift of five 
thousand dollars ($5,000) tendered by President Todd, pro- 
vided a like sum could be raised from the friends and mem- 
bers of the Society, reported that in July last about three hun- 
dred letters were sent to members and friends, followed by 
personal solicitation. The result was a very generous response, 
and the needed sum to secure the contribution of Mr. Todd 
was obtained. At the present time the sum of $9,275 is on 
deposit in the New Hampshire Savings bank, and the balance 
will probably be paid in on or before July 1. The list of the 
contributors is as follows : 

John Kimball, Concord, 
Joseph Stickney, New York, 
Mrs. John J. Bell, Exeter, 
Edward Tuck, Paris, 
Benj. A. Kimball, Concord, 
Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy, Concord, 
Chas. L. Tappan, Concord, 
Frank W. Rollins, Concord, 
John C. Thome, Concord, 
Henry McFaiiand, Concord, 
George M. Kimball, Concord, 
Wm. E. Chandler, Concord, 
Arthur C. Bradley, Newport, 
Elisha R. Brown, Dover, 
Henry M. Baker, Bow, 
C. B. Bouton, Chicago, 








>6 5 

N. S. Bouton, Chicago, $100 


Enoch Bullard, New York, 

Mrs. Isabel Anderson, Brookline, ioo 

John Hay, Washington, i oo 

Jeremiah Smith, Cambridge, ioo 

Isaac B. Dodge, Amherst, ioo 

J. Albert Walker, Portsmouth, ioo 

Mrs'. Fred'k Smyth, Manchester, ioo 

Friends, Concord, ioo 

Mrs. Mary E. Bell, Exeter, 50 

John B. Smith, Hillsborough, 50 

Alvah W. Sulloway, Franklin Falls, 50 

Mrs. Hannah M. Corbin, Newport, 50 

Samuel C. Eastman, Concord, 50 

Warren F. Daniell, Franklin Falls, 50 

Isaac A. Hill, Concord, 50 

Joseph H. Coit, D. D., Concord, 50 

William P. Fiske, Concord, 50 

Friend (M. C. H. S.), Concord, 50 

Mrs. Susan P. Jewell, Boston, 50 

Charles R. Corning, Concord, 50 

Colonial Dames of America, by Mrs. Richter, 

Portsmouth, 50 

George A. Fern aid, 50 

Albert Wallace, Rochester, 35 

Mrs. Abbie P. Minot, Concord, 30 

A. B. Woodworth, Concord, 25 

Sherman L. Whipple, Boston, 25 

Sumner Wallace, Rochester, 25 

Prentise Kent, Boston, 25 

George A. Went worth, Exeter, 25 

Miss Nellie SecMey, \ ,,, , . 

° J ' > Washington, 
Miss Isabelle Sedgley, ) 

-Miss Susan G. Perkins, Concord, 25 

Jos. C. A. Hill, Concord, 25 

Win. F, Thayer, Concord, 25 

Frank S. Streeter, Concord, 25 

Charles P. Bancroft, Concord, 25 




John C. Ordway, Concord, 

Charles T. Means, Manchester, 

Joseph B. Walker, Concord, 

George L. Stratton, Concord, 

Daughters American Revolution, by Miss 

Huntress, treasurer; 
N. F. Carter, Concord, 
Mrs. (Charlotte A. Blake, Concord, 
E. P. Kimball, Portsmouth, 
Mrs. J. L. B. Fogg, Manchester, 
Friend (F. A. M.), Exeter, 
Ebenezer Ferrin, Manchester, 
Frank Proctor, Franklin Falls, 
John Dowst, Manchester, 
Mrs. A. S. White, Concord, 
Miss M. A. Downing, Concord, 
Isaac N. Abbott, Concord, 
George P. Little, Pembroke, 
Mrs. Pauline L. Evans, 
Mrs. Roselle M. Day, 
Friend, Concord, 
Henry Robinson, Concord, 
Frank W. Hackett, Washington, 
W. F. Richards, Newport, 
John T. Perry, Exeter, 
S. G. Griffin, Keene, 
Lucius Waterman, Claremont, 
A. S. Batchellor, Littleton, 
Chas. S. Knox, Concord, 
Mrs. Ella II. J. Hill, Concord, 
J. Milnor Coit, Concord, 
John M. Mitchell, Concord, 
H. H. Dudley, Concord, 
Henry W. Stevens,. Concord, 
J. E. Fernald, Concord, 
Mrs. Mary O. Long, Exeter, 
Clarence E. Carr, Andover, 
A. L. Elwyn, Portsmouth, 

2 5 
2 5 
2 5 

2 5 
2 5 
2 S 
2 5 
2 5 
2 5 
2 5 

l S 
l S 
1 o 



A. H. Locke, Washington, $5 

George A. Ramsdell, Nashua, 5 

Mrs. Mary C. B. Walker, Concord, 5 

W. W. Niles, Concord, " 5 

E. A. Renouf, Keene, 5 

E. B. Pike, Haverhill, 5 

Ernest A. Barney, Canaan, 5 

Miss Dora D. Davis, Tilton, 5 

Arthur T. Cass, Tilton, 5 

Mrs. M. A. Bostwick, Newport, 5 

Louis C. Merrill, Concord, 5 

1). H. Goodell, Antrim, 5 

W. D. Thompson, Concord, 5 

On motion of Hon. A. S. Batchellor of Littleton, it was 

looted, That William C. Todd, Benjamin A. Kimball, Samuel 
C. Eastman, Joseph B. Walker, and Virgil C. Gilman, be a 
committee to take into consideration the subject of new or 
enlarged accommodations for the library and rooms of the 
Society, with authority to report at a subsequent meeting. 

The committee on new members presented the following list 
of persons for active membership : 

Arthur EI. Chase, James O. Lyford, Henry W. Stevens, 
Mrs. Ellen Tuck Stevens, and Joseph T. Walker, all of Con- 
cord, all of whom were duly elected by ballot. 

Mr. L. Vernon Briggs of Boston was elected a correspond- 
ing member. 

The special committee appointed at the last annual meeting 
to consider a communication from the New Hampshire Society 
of the Cincinnati, requesting that the records formerly the 
property of the original society be given into the custody of 
the present revived society, reported as follows : 

The New Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati was formed 
in 1783. There were at no time more than twenty-five mem- 
bers, and during the greater part of its existence a very small 
^number. It was composed of officers of the Revolutionary 
army, who had served for three years or more, and the oldest 
sons of the members were qualified to take their father's place 
on his death. 



The constitution of the National Society was amended by 
striking out the succession of the eldest son, and in some 
other ways, and also in regard to the custody of funds. To 
these amendments the New Hampshire Society never assented, 
although they continued to send delegates to the meeting of 
the National Society. 

It appears from the records that sometimes the eldest son 
took the place of his father by attending a meeting without 
any vote on the part of the Society, as in the case of Bradbury 
Cilley, the eldest son of Col. Joseph Cilley, and in other cases 
the eldest son was declared by a vote to be a member, as in 
the case of Capt. John Sullivan, son of Capt. Ebenezer 

After the beginning of the present century there was seldom 
more than four members present at the annual meeting, and 
often only two. The last meeting was held in 1823, when 
only two members were present. 

The records were presented to the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society by John W. Gookin, the son of Daniel Gookin, 
the last of the original members, who had then been dead 
about twelve years. The society had then become extinct by 
the death of all of the members, according to the statement of 
Mr. Gookin. 

In 1896 a society was formed by heirs of original members 
and called the New Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati, 
which has been recognized by the General Society at a triennial 
meeting, and incorporated under the laws of the state of New 
Hampshire. This society, by its president, secretary, and a 
committee, has requested that the records of the original 
society, now in the possession of the New Hampshire Histor- 
ical Society, be given to it. 

These records have been printed by the Rev. Mr. Tappan, 
and copies have been furnished by him to the Society of the 

There does not seem to be any special reason why the cus- 
tody of the original book should not remain with the Historical 
Society. On the other hand it would seem that the chances 
of its destruction would be less if it remained in the safe of 
the Society, than they would be if it was placed in the custody 
of the new organization. . It does not seem to the committee 
th^t it can be properly said, as stated by the communication 
from the New Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati, that the 
original record is the property of that society. 

They therefore recommend that a copy of this report be 
sent to the president of the New Hampshire Society of the 

7~&ay^i/i/ /3^/it </ ; 

YtZ ?;i 


Cincinnati with the suggestion that the conclusion embodies 
ibc views of the members of the Historical Society. 

C. L. Tap pan, 
N. F. Carter, 
Samuel C. Eastman, 

Voted to accept the report of the committee. 

On -motion of Hon. L. D. Stevens (after some discussion in 
which the mover, Mr. Wm. P. Fiske, Ex-Gov. N. G. Ordway, 
Rev. N. F, Carter, A. S. Batchellor, and others participated) it 

Voted, That Prof. C. H. Van Tyne of Philadelphia and the 
McClure Publishing Company have permission to publish the 
" Webster Letters " given to the Society by Hon. Peter Harvey. 
the transcription to be done under such regulations, to ensure 
the proper use of the originals, as may be prescribed by the 
committee of the library. 

On motion of Mr. Wm. P. Fiske, 

Voted, That the usual tax of three dollars be levied upon 
the members of the Society for the year ensuing. 

On motion of the same gentleman, 

Voted, That the treasurer be and is hereby authorized to sign 
power of attorney in the transfer of certificates of five (5) shares 
of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. stock for new bonds. 

On motion of Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 

Voted, That Rev. I). C. Roberts, D. D, Rev. Howard F. 
Hill, and Capt. O. G. Hammond be a committee to take into 
consideration the subject of aid and cooperation with the New 
Hampshire Association of Military Chaplains, and report at a 
subsequent meeting. 


Voted, That Charles R. Walker, M. D., Col. J. A. Greene, 
M. D., and Eli E. Graves, M. D., be a committee to take into 
consideration the subject of aid to and cooperation with the 
New Hampshire Association of Military Surgeons in the under- 
taking of that part of the military history of the state, and re- 
port at a subsequent meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Fiske, 



Voted, That John C. Thorne, Thomas D. Luce, and William 
P. Fiske be a committee to consider the desirability of observ- 
ing' the annual field-day the present summer, and if thought 
best to do so to select the time and place and make all neces- 
sary arrangements therefor. 

On motion of Judge Dana, 

Voted, That the early publication of another volume of the 
Proceedings of the Society be referred to the publishing com- 

Voted, 1.40 p. m., to adjourn to the call of the president. 

A true copy, attest : 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, October 9, 1901. 

The first adjourned seventy-ninth annual meeting and field- 
day of the New Hampshire Historical Society was observed at 
Hopkinton, Wednesday, October 9, 1901. 

The members of the Society and their friends to the number 
of about forty-five left Concord about nine o'clock in the fore- 
noon by barges and other conveyances. They were received 
at Dimond hill, near the Hopkinton town line, by Mr. C. C. 
Lord, the historian of the town, who led the way and pointed 
out to the visitors the historic sites on the approach to the vil- 
lage. Among the latter were the early home of the late Rt. 
Rev. Carlton Chase, first Episcopal bishop of the diocese of 
New Hampshire ; the home of the late Capt. Daniel Chase, 
where the first Hopkinton church bell, cast in 181 1 at the 
foundry of Paul Revere, was suspended on the elm trees and 
rung for the first time in honor of the Chases, who contributed 
liberally for its purchase ; the home of Capt. Jonathan Straw, a 
Revolutionary soldier of Iiopkinton ; Wolf meadow, at the foot 
of the hill and opposite the Whittier sawmill, noted for the 
prevalence of wolves in the early days; the ancient tavern, 
now s the property of G. K. Goodrich ; the Story house, the first 
framed house built in Hopkinton ; the birthplace of Grace 
Fletcher, the first wife of Daniel Webster; the home of Capt. 


I 7 I 

Joshua Bailey, who led a company to Bennington in 1777 ; the 
site of the first grist-mill, built by Nathaniel Clement about 
1765 ; the site of Kimball's garrison, 1744, and other places. 

The party next visited the rooms and museum of the New 
Hampshire Antiquarian Society, where they were received by 
II . G. Chase, Esq., president, and Miss Sarah U. Kimball, the 
curator, and other ladies and gentlemen of Hopkinton. Visits 
were also made to the old cemetery, St. Andrew's Episcopal 
church, and the Perkins Inn, where dinner was served. 

After dinner a short business meeting was held and the fol- 
lowing persons elected active members of the Society : 

James E. Randlett, Charles S. Parker, Concord. 
C. N. Wells, Somersworth. 
George Wentworth, Exeter. 

Mr. Charles C. Lord, of Hopkinton, was tendered a vote of 
thanks for his services, and elected a corresponding member of 
the Society. 

Short speeches were made by President Todd, C. C. Lord, 
II. G. Chase, Rev. Louis Ellms, and Rev. J. W. Tingleyof Hop- 
kinton, and Hon. J. B. Walker and Howard M. Cook of Con- 
cord, after which adjournment was taken to the call of the 

Late in the afternoon a brief visit was made to Putney hill, 
the ancient center of the town, and the tavern site of Elder 
Joseph Putney, a Revolutionary soldier ; the site of Putney's 
fort; the first parsonage built by the town for Rev. James 
Scales, the first minister ordained in 1757, and other historic 
points, with which the observations of the day were closed, 
and the party turned homeward, reaching Concord at 6 p. m. 

The day was warm and sunny, an ideal one for the purpose, 
and the excursion proved a very pleasant one to all in attend- 

John C. Ordway, 



The following act was passed by the legislature in 1901 : 

An Act to Provide for the Better Preservation of Check-lists 

Used at Presidential Elections. 
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Court convened: 

Section i. Supervisors .of towns and corresponding officers 
of cities shall, on or before January 1 succeeding each presi- 
dential election hereafter, send to the New Hampshire Histor- 
ical Society and to the state library each a copy of the check- 
list used in said presidential election duly and properly certi- 
fied by such supervisors. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect oh its passage. 

Approved March 7, 1901. 



Rev. James Hill Fitts, son of John and Abigail (Lane) Fitts, 
was a native of Candia, having been born there March 3, 1825. 
His preparatory studies were at Pembroke academy and the 
Normal institutes at Merrimack and Lancaster, Mass. For a 
time he taught in the public schools of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, and Massachusetts, and Ashby academy. He graduated 
at Bangor Theological seminary in 185S, and from 1858-62 
supplied the church at Boxboro, Mass. Meanwhile he was 
ordained an evangelist at Candia, Nov. 2, 1859. He was 
installed pastor at West Boylston, Mass., Sept. 3, 1862, and 
dismissed in 1870. In June, 1871, lie was installed at Tops- 
field, Mass., and so continued till April, 1880, when he left for 
his new field at South Newmarket, since changed to Newfields, 
where he began service April iS, and so continued, to the 
great satisfaction of his people, till his death, Nov. 22, 1900. 

He was always interested in all historical matters, and as 
early as 1867 became a member of the New England Historic 
Genealogical society. He was elected a member of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society June 14, 1882, and ever after, 
from time to time, rendered valuable service in contributions 
to its library and in other ways. In 1895 he represented New- 
fields in the legislature. He was an honored trustee of the 
Newfields library, and was untiring in his efforts to advance 
its interests. He was also deeply interested in schools, and 
did much for their encouragement and efficiency. He was 
scribe of the Piscataqua Ministerial Association for thirteen 
years, and was greatly beloved by his brethren in the ministry 
and as well by many in the neighboring churches. 

Mr. Fitts was gifted with superior intellectual endowments, 

i 7 4 


and grew a character conspicuous for its manly and sterling 
Christian qualities. Personally he was quiet, unassuming, 
approachable, social, and good company. He had a fine vein 
of humor, and could greatly enjoy joke and repartee. He was 
a diligent student, and untiring in his researches in his special 
lines. As a result he published a history of the Fitts family, 
and two volumes of the Lane family, though assisted in the 
compilation »of the first volume by Rev. Jacob Chapman. A 
third volume is in press and will be shortly issued. At the 
centennial of the Congregational church in his native town in 
1876 he gave the historical address, as also at the rededication 
of the brick meeting-house in West Boylston, Mass., in 1890. 
He also collected much valuable historical material of New- 
fields and vicinity, which may be available and helpful to some 
future historian. 

As a pastor he was conscientious and faithful in his service, 
commanding the respect and esteem of all, and never compro- 
mising the sacredness of his holy office. His memory is cher- 
ished as a precious legacy. 

He married Mary Celina, daughter of Coffin Moore and 
Dolly (Pillsbury) French of Candia, who survives him. 

N. F. C. 


John B. Haselton, son of Ira and Abigail (Gray) (Kimball) 
Haselton, was born in Portsmouth, Feb. 4, 1839, and there 
received his early education, fitting for college at the private 
school of the late William C. Harris. For three years he was 
a student in Dartmouth college, but graduated at Bowdoin 
college in 1857. He afterwards studied law at Portsmouth, 
Pittsburg, Pa., and Saco, Me., and was admitted to the bar in 
York county, Me. He began the practice of law in Worcester 
county, Mass., but early in the Civil War he entered the United 
States navy as an acting assistant paymaster, and served in 
the Western Gulf squadron under Admiral Farragut. 

He resigned his position in the navy in 1863, and after liv- 
ing several vears in New York city, Chicago, 111., and Ports- 



mouth, he went to Suncook in 1869, entered upon the practice 
of his profession, and so continued till his death. He was 
justice of the police court of Pembroke for more than twenty 
years, and represented the town in the legislature in 1875. 
He moved his residence to Allenstown in 1877. He was chair- 
man of the school board and of the board of selectmen of 

He married Hannah Pearson, daughter of Calvin Gage, Esq., 
late of PenacOok, Oct. n, 1877, by whom he had two sons, 
Gage and Roger Hasey. 

He became a member of this Society June 9, 1892. He is 
supposed to have been lost overboard on a steamer plying 
between Portland and Boston and drowned on the night of 
Jan. 14, 1 90 1. n. f. c. 


Fred Gilman Hartshorn was born at Greenfield, Sept. 22, 
1864, and was the son of Samuel Gilmore and Myra Stearns 
(Mooar) Hartshorn. He received his education in the school 
at Greenfield and at Peterborough academy. 

He came to Manchester when nineteen years of age, and 
was employed by Higgins Bros., also by W. P. Goodman, the 
well-known book, periodical, and stationery merchant. In 
1895 he became manager of the New England department of 
the United States Savings and Loan company of St. Paul, 
which position he held at the time of his death. 

Mr. Hartshorn was a thirty-second degree Mason, being a 
member of Washington lodge. He was also a member of the 
Sons of the American Revolution. 

He became a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society March 20, 1895. 

He was an active and highly esteemed member of the First 
Congregational church, and a director in the Young Men's 
Christian Association. Pie was a man of fine presence, affable 
and genial, and made many friends. He was well known in 
business and society circles, and was highly respected for his 
many virtues. 



June 30, 1896, he was united in marriage to Minnie Lincoln 
(Heath) Tasker, by whom he is survived. 

His death occurred suddenly from apoplexy Feb. 26, 1901. 

M. S. II . 


Joseph C. 4 A. Hill was born in Harvard, Mass., Jan. 21, 1821. 
He was the son of John and Betsey (Chaffin) Hill. He came 
to Concord at the age of twenty, and entered the employ of 
Franklin Evans, then engaged in the grocery business, and 
later became partner, under the firm name of Evans & Hill, 
and so continued until he went to California in 1864. Early 
after his arrival in Concord he identified himself with the Uni- 
tarian church, became a teacher in the Sunday-school, and was 
soon made superintendent, a position he occupied till his de- 
parture for the Pacific coast, to represent at San Francisco the 
firm of L. Downing & Sons. There he early connected him- 
self with the church to which Rev. Thomas Starr King had 
ministered, but whose pulpit had just become vacant by the 
death of Mr. King, Mr. Hill arriving in season to attend the 
funeral. Here, again, he took up Sunday-school work, and 
was soon made superintendent, holding the office as long as 
he remained in California. The death of Lewis Downing, Sr., 
called him back to Concord and to the Downing homestead, 
which he ever after occupied. This was the early home of 
his wife, Miss Ellen Downing, daughter of Lewis and Lucy 
(YVheelock) Downing, whom he married Sept. 25, 1850, and 
there they celebrated their golden wedding Sept. 25, 1900. 

His love for books and pictures led him to gather a library 
which includes many finely illustrated volumes. He became 
a member of the New Hampshire Historical Society June 10, 
1863, and ever took a deep interest in its advancement; was 
for many years chairman of the standing committee, and had 
the general oversight of the improvements made in the Soci- 
ety's building in 1895. 

He was also prominently identified with the Centennial 
Home for the Aged from its beginning, was its treasurer, had 


J. C. A. llnx. 


the oversight of its business management, and was untiring in 
his endeavors to promote its interests. During a quarter of a 
century he had the great pleasure of seeing its funds increase 
from $110 to a permanent endowment of $100,000. " lie was 
always a welcome visitor at the home to all its inmates, and 
his death will long be sincerely mourned. 

He was a trustee of the Margaret Pillsbury General Hospital 
from its organization till a short time before his death, when 
he felt obliged to retire on account of his failing health. 

He was also deeply interested in the prosperity of Proctor 
academy at Andover, was president of its board of trustees, 
and for seventeen successive years presented the diplomas to 
the graduating class. 

For many years he was a member of the school board of 
Union district, and was zealous in his endeavors to advance 
the best interests of the schools under his care. His presence 
in the school-room was always met with hearty greetings. 

He was among the most prominent members of the Unita- 
rian church, and ever active in consulting for its welfare and 
growth. His faith was a positive factor of his life, and moved 
him to many public and private acts of philanthropy. Many 
will long remember him for his deeds of kindness. Not only 
the church but the community deeply deplore his loss. 

As a citizen he was public spirited, highly respected, and 
influential, ready for every good work of reform looking to the 
progress and improvement of the public interests. The voters 
of ward six honored him with two terms in the legislature. 
He also held the office for a time of county commissioner. 

As a man he was one whom it was always a pleasure to 
meet. His noteworthy characteristics were his politeness and 
uniform cheerfulness, ever having in his hearty greetings a 
kind word and smile for all. His cordiality was transparent, 
and his enthusiastic sociality rendered him an agreeable com- 
panion and his presence always welcome. In the varied rela- 
tionships of life, in his immediate family, and among his 
friends and neighbors, in city and country, in social and church 
circles, his death, which occurred March 14. 1901, is deeply 

N. V. C. 


Concord, June n, 1902. 

'The eightieth annual meeting of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society was held in the rooms of the Society at Concord 
on Wednesday, June n, 1902, at 1 1 o'clock in the forenoon. 
Nearly fifty members were present. 

The meeting was called to order by President Todd, who 
delivered a brief address upon the necessity of a new and 
larger building for the use of the Society. 

The records of the last meeting, on motion of Hon. L. D. 
Stevens, were approved without reading. 

Amos Hadley, Esq., moved that a committee of three be 
appointed to nominate officers for the ensuing year. The 
motion prevailed, and the chair appointed Mr. Hadley, Hon. 
L. 1). Stevens, and John C. Thorne, Esq., a committee for that 
purpose. * 

The report of the secretary as to membership was as fol- 
lows : 

Whole number of members at date of last annual meeting, 172 
New members qualified during the year, 6 

Total, 178 

Less number of members dying during the year, 9 

Resigned, 2 

1 67 

Names of members who have died during the year : 

Maj. Lewis Downing, Jr., Concord, died Aug. 29, 1901 
Hon. Moses Humphrey, Concord, died Aug. 20, 1901. 


Ex-Gov. Charles A. Busiel, Laconia, died Aug. 29, 1901. 
John T. Perry, A. M., Exeter, died Nov. 29, 1901. 
Hon. Charles G. Means, Manchester, died Jan. 25, 1902. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan, Concord, died Feb. 23, 1902. 
Rev. Moses T. Runnels, Charlestown, died March 27, 1902. 
Farwell P. Holden, Esq., Penacook, died March 28, 1902. 
Plon. John W. Noyes, Chester, died May 10, 1902. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, the order of business 
was suspended for the delivery of the annual address, which 
was given by John Scales, A. M., of Dover. Subject, " Master 
John Sullivan and Family of Somersworth and Berwick." 



Thomas Coffin Amory begins his biography of his grand- 
father, Gov. James Sullivan, as follows : 

James, the fourth son of Master Sullivan, was born in Ber- 
wick, Me., 2 2d April, 1744. The cellar of the house occupied 
by his parents is easily distinguished by some portions of its 
walls still remaining in a field near Salmon Falls river, and 
within half a mile of Great Falls village. The barn which 
served to store away their harvests for the long winters of New 
England climate has only quite recently (1858) been destroyed 
by fire. Near by, but separated from the old dwelling by a 
public road, laid out in comparatively modern times across the 
farm, is the ancient cemetery, where Master Sullivan and 
Margery his wife, when their long protracted lives were over, 
were laid to their last repose amid the scenes of their humble 
labors and of the pleasures and various vicissitudes of more 
than half a century. 

The above is incorrect in one particular : Gov. James Sullivan 
was not born in Berwick, Me. ; he was born in Somersworth, 
N. H., then a parish 'in Dover. Mr. Amory made the mis- 
statement because he had not all the facts at hand in regard 
to the question. That particular part of Somersworth in which 
Master Sullivan lived is now in the town of Rollinsford, hav- 
ing been set off from Somersworth in 1S49, and * s now tne 
village at Rollinsford Junction. This village is one mile 


from Salmon Falls village and one mile from South Ber_ 
wick village, at the lower fall where the fresh water meets 
the tide water; this is the ancient Quamphegan, and the point 
where the river changes its name to Newichawannick, which it 
holds till it gets to Dover Point, where it joins the Pascataqua, 
r»ix miles from Quamphegan. The settlers on Dover Neck did 
not use the Indian name Newichawannick, but called it Fore 
river, and the river on the west side of the Neck they called 
Hack river. 

The Somersworth village in thedays of Master Sullivan was 
much larger than the modern village of Rollinsford Junction ; 
this is distant about four miles from the depot in the city of 
Somersworth. For more than a century it was the home of 
several of the leading men of New Hampshire. It was the 
home of Master Sullivan from 1723 to 1754. Here his chil- 
dren were born ; here he did the most important part of his 
teaching; here he educated his sons to be governors and gen- 
erals and leaders in the Revolution, and leaders after the 
American government was formed. They were important fac- 
tors in forming the state governments of New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts. At this village school of Master Sullivan the 
sons of many other men were taught in a way that fitted them 
to enter Harvard college, and fitted them to be leaders in the 
great struggle for independence. Here Master Sullivan not 
only kept school, but was also the scribe and counselor for 
his neighbors and fellow-citizens. He was a fine penman, and 
wrote wills, deeds, mortgages, and such other legal documents 
as the needs of the parish demanded. Here he served in the 
local military company; here he swept the parish meeting- 
house and rang the bell for services on the Lord's clay ; here 
he sat under the ministrations of Rev. James Pike, who was 
the faithful and able pastor of this parish for more than sixty 

The farm which Mr. Amory speaks of in Berwick was pur- 
chased by Master Sullivan in August, 1753. He bought it of 
Mr. Samuel Lord, and there is no record that he bought any 
land anywhere before that date. It is on a beautiful elevation 
which overlooks the city of Somersworth, a mile away, across 


the Salmon Falls river. Much of the land is now cut up into 
streets and house lots in the fast-growing village of Berwick. 
A garden occupies the spot where Master Sullivan's house 
stood ; a street crosses the spot where he and his good wife 
were buried. Their remains were removed to the Sullivan 
cemetery in Durham, and now repose near the grave of their 
illustrious son, Gen. John Sullivan. 

It is not known precisely when he moved his family to Ber- 
wick, but probably in 1754, and there they resided more than 
forty years. In Berwick he was a farmer, as well as a school- 
master and scrivener for his townsmen. Tradition says that 
his wife was the better farmer of the two. He was so fond of 
his books that the weeds oftentimes got the better of his crops. 
His wife Margery cared nothing for books, and delighted in 
out-door work. 

The town of South Berwick was set off from Berwick in 
1814; the First parish is at South Berwick, and on the 5 th of 
the present month celebrated its two hundredth anniversary 
with an elaborate and interesting service. Jn 1754 the pres- 
ent Berwick was established as the North parish, on petition 
of thirty-nine free holders (landowners). This petition for an 
enabling act to choose parish officers was granted by Governor 
Shirley and the council April 17, 1754, the house concurring 
on the next day. One of the thirty-nine signers to that peti- 
tion was Master John Sullivan. He helped organize the parish 
and owned a pew in the meeting-house ; later two of his sons 
owned pews there. 

Because Master Sullivan spent the last forty years of his life 
in this parish of Berwick, the writers of cyclopedias, biographi- 
cal dictionaries, and biographies of his sons have taken it for 
granted that he always lived there, hence say his sons were 
born there. If Master Sullivan's sons were like the ordinary 
sons of men, nobody would care or take the trouble to inquire 
whether they were born in Maine or New Hampshire. They 
are not like ordinary sons ; they are extraordinary, and that is 
why New Hampshire should claim the honor which is its due, 
just as we delight to boast that Webster and Chase, and a 
host of distinguished men, are the sons of New Hampshire. 


The Sullivan family is one of the most notable families in the 
history of New England. There were five sons and one 
daughter. I will give a brief summary of their lives. 

I. Benjamin was born in 1736; he received a thorough 
education from his father ; he enlisted in the British navy and 
rose to be an officer, when most young men would be only ordi- 
nary seamen ; he was tall, handsome and brilliant, and walked 
the decks a§ one who was born to command. Unfortunately, 
he and his ship, with all on board, were lost at sea just previous 
to the Revolution. 

II. Daniel, the second son, was born in 1738; after being 
carefully educated by his father he engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness in Berwick and was very successful; about 1770 he was 
leader of a company of gentlemen who founded a town at the 
head of Frenchman's Bay in eastern Maine ; this town is 
called Sullivan in his honor. When the Revolutionary war 
commenced he organized and commanded a company which 
did valiant service for the patriot cause ; he was leader in the 
defense of Castine against the attacks of the British navy. 
Captain Sullivan was so conspicuous and efficient in the de- 
fense that the officers of the fleet marked him for special re- 
venge ; one ship went up from Mt. Desert to the head of 
Frenchman's Bay specially to capture the captain ; a sortie of 
marines at midnight went to his house, when all the family 
were asleep, caught the captain, drove his family out of doors 
and burned the house and contents ; the British officer offered 
to release him if he would swear allegiance to the King; the 
captain positively refused to accept freedom on such condi- 
tion ; he was then carried to New York city and confined in a 
prison ship several months ; he was then exchanged but died 
on his way home, from disease contracted while in prison. He 
has the reputation of being a man of extraordinary ability, 
both as a military leader and a business man. Before the war 
he had acquired large possessions in land, lumber, and saw- 

III. John, the third son, was born in 1740 ; after thorough 
training by his father, he studied law with Judge Livermore in 
Portsmouth ; he commenced practice of the law in Berwick in 



1 761, and was married about that time. He removed to Dur- 
ham in j 763, much against the wishes of some of the good 
people in that town, who feared a lawyer would make trouble. 
General Sullivan was the first lawyer the town ever had ; but 
the people soon learned to love and respect him ; although his 
office was in Durham, his practice soon extended throughout 
Rockingham and Strafford counties in New Hampshire and 
York county in Maine ; his success was remarkable ; before 
1775 he was acknowledged as leader at the bar in all of those 
counties, where John Adams, the second president of the 
United States, ^vas for several years one of his competitors ; 
not only was he a great lawyer but he also engaged extensively 
in business, owning several mills and much real estate ; at the 
opening of the war it was estimated he was worth ,£4.0,000 ; 
most men with such holdings would have hesitated much be- 
fore rebelling against the King of England ; John Sullivan did 
not hesitate ; he took the lead and was commander of the 
expedition which committed the first overt act of war in the 
Revolution, by capturing and removing the gun powder from 
Fort William and Mary at New Castle, December 14, 1774; of 
course you all know the story; the hundred barrels of powder 
were taken up the river to Durham and hid in various places; 
a larger part was placed in the cellar of the old church near 
General Sullivan's residence; the monument to his memory 
now stands on the spot. Some of that powder was used at 
the battle of Bunker Hill ; all of it was used in the Revolu- 
tionary war, except a small bottleful which Maj. John De- 
meritt of Madbury now has, being handed down to him as an 
inheritance from his ancestors ; this capture of the powder 
was four months before the Lexington and Concord affair. 

While attending to his law business, and his sawmills and 
lumbering, he had taken a hand in the local military affairs, 
and in 1774 was Major of the regiment of militia in his section 
of the province ; Governor Wentworth could not persuade him 
to hold it after the little affair at Fort William and Mary ; he 
was delegate in the first continental congress in 1775; he 
was appointed brigadier-general in the Continental army in 
1775 ; a major-general in 1776; commanded the New Hamp- 



♦hire troops at Germantow.n and Brandywine ; commander in 
chief in the Rhode Island campaign in 1778; commander in 
chief in the great and hazardous expedition against the Six 
Nations in 1779, which resulted in the overthrow of the* most 
complete organization of the Indians ever effected on this 
continent. To commemorate this great service of General Sul- 
livan the state of New York has erected costly tablets on the 
>pots where the most important encounters took place. 

This was General Sullivan's closing service in the military 
operations of the war. I think he should he ranked second 
only to Greene and Washington as a military leader. His 
services in civil affairs which immediately followed were quite 
a;> valuable and important as his military service. In 1780 he 
drafted the bill, which the legislature adopted, to regulate the 
militia ; in 1781 he was delegate in the National Congress; in 
1782, '83, and '84 he was attorney-general of New Hamp- 
shire; he was president of the state in 1786, '87, and 'S9 ; he 
was the Federal candidate in 17S8 but was defeated 
by John Langdon, the Republican candidate; Sullivan 
had defeated Langdon in the two years previous, and in the 
year following ; Sullivan was a Washington federalist; he was 
presidential elector when Washington was elected the first 
time; he was president of the convention that adopted the 
Federal constitution, June 21, 1788, which was the act that 
established the Federal union ; the vote stood 57 in favor to 
42 against adoption ; it was largely through the influence of 
General Sullivan that the 57 votes were secured and the Fed- 
eral union was formed. 

September 26, 1789, President Washington appointed him 
V. S. district judge for New Hampshire, and he entered upon 
the duties of that office December 15 of that year; he re- 
mained in office until his. death, January 23, 1795, being nearly 
fifty-five years old, having been born on the 17 th of February, 
1740. A better American, a more capable, a more useful, or 
a more fearless citizen than John Sullivan New Hampshire 
never had. 

In this connection it may be well to say a few words about 
his descendants, to show how strong was the hereditary force 


that came down from Master Sullivan. General Sullivan's son 
John was a prominent and able lawyer in one of the Southern 
states, but died young. His son George was attorney-general 
of New Hampshire twenty years. His grandson, John, son of 
George, was attorney-general ten years or more, and his grand 
nephew, John S. Wells, held the same office several years. 
They were all able attorneys, and no family in the state has 
the equa[ °^ tn ^ s illustrious record. 

IV. James, the fourth son of Master Sullivan, was born in 
Somersworth in May, 1744, and died in Boston, December 10, 
1808. He was thoroughly educated by his father, quite the 
equal of a Harvard graduate of that period ; he studied law 
with his brother John ; opened an office at Saco about 1767 
and practised his profession there until about 1780; he was 
very successful, and with his brother John did the larger 
part of the law business in York county. When he was twenty- 
six years old he was appointed attorney-general for the dis- 
trict of Maine and held the office until the Revolution began ; 
he was delegate in the first continental congress, when he 
was thirty years old ; when he was thirty-one he was appointed 
judge of admiralty ; the next year he was promoted to a seat 
on the bench of the supreme court, which office he held several 
years; he removed to Boston in 1782. While he was in 
Maine, John Adams, who used to go down there once or twice 
a year to attend court at Saco and Portland, said that he 
always found the Sullivans in possession of all the best and 
most important cases. 

In 1783, '84, and '85 he was delegate in the continental 
congress, and also was representative from Boston in the 
Massachusetts general court ; he was member of the executive 
council in 1787 ; judge of probate from 1788 to 1790; attor- 
ney-general from 1790 to 1807 ; in 1804 he was presidential 
elector, casting his vote for Thomas Jefferson, of whom he was 
a great admirer. The Federalist abused him fearfully for so 
voting. He was governor of Massachusetts in 1807 and 1808, 
dying a short time before his term expired. Notwithstanding 
he gave ''So much time to official business, he was one of the 
founders of the Massachusetts Historical Society and its presi- 


dent many years ; he wrote and published a history of Maine ; 
he published numerous pamphlets on various questions that 
concerned current business affairs ; he was a clear and forci- 
ble writer and an eloquent advocate ; he delivered innumerable 
addresses on public occasions and stood in the front rank of 
literary men and the legal fraternity of Boston. 

V. Mary Sullivan was the fifth child of this remarkable 
family; she was born in 1752 ; her father as carefully educated 
her as he did his sons ; she was tall and handsome like her 
father and inherited his fondness for books ; she was brilliant 
and attractive mentally and socially ; like her father she was a 
successful teacher several years, at a time when most women 
thought they were highly accomplished if they could write 
their own names. She married Mr. Theophilus Hardy and 
resided in Durham near her brother John. To them were 
born several daughters; one of these, a very gifted woman, 
married Edward Wells, Esq., and they also resided in Durham, 
which was then one of the liveliest business centers of the 
state. They had a large family of children, and several of the 
sons manifested those strong traits of intellectual power of 
their Sullivan ancestors ; one son, Samuel Wells, was governor 
of Maine two years, 1858 and 1859 ; another son, John Sulli- 
van Wells, whom many of you may remember, lacked only fifty 
votes of being elected governor of New Hampshire in 1856, 
the Know-Nothing tidal wave being a little too much for him 
to overcome ; he was attorney-general several years ; United 
States senator ; speaker of the house in the New Hampshire 
legislature, and also president of the senate. He was an able 
lawyer, a brilliant and fascinating public speaker and one of 
the most popular men in his party and he was generally popu- 
lar with all parties. Another brother, Joseph Bartlett Wells, 
was a distinguished lawyer in Illinois, where he was attorney- 
general several years, and was lieutenant-governor at the time 
of his death ; had he lived he would undoubtedly have been 
governor of the state. A fourth brother was consul at Ber- 
muda several years and died there. These were great-giand- 
sons of Master John Sullivan. 

VI. Ebenezer was the sixth child and youngest son of Mas- 


ter Sullivan and his wife Margery; he was born in 1753, and 
died in 1797. He was educated by his father, and studied 
law with his brother John. Before he could get established in 
his profession the Revolution commenced, and he engaged 
earnestly in the cause of the colonies ; starting as a private, he 
rose to be captain of a company and did valiant service. He 
was taken prisoner, and narrowly escaped being burned at the 
stake by the Indians. After the war he married and resided 
at South Berwick, and engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion, lie was the leader at the bar in York county, a thor- 
ough lawyer and a powerful advocate. He was a tall, hand- 
some, powerfully-built man, whose presence was commanding 
wherever he stood. Such were the children of Master Sullivan. 
What say you, Mr. President, are these boys worthy for the 
New Hampshire Historical Society to claim them as sons of 
New Hampshire ? 

Seven cities claimed the honor of being the birthplace of 
Homer. Other great men in later times have honored the 
cities where they were born by their great deeds ; should not 
New Hampshire feel everlastingly honored by having such a 
family born within its borders ? I will take it for granted that 
you will answer all my questions in the affirmative. Then 
what proof have I that they were born in New Hampshire and 
not in Maine? I will tell you shortly. 

On page 356 of " McClintock's History of New Hampshire" 
Fred Myron Colby has the following concerning Master John 
Sullivan : 

The grandfather of the New Hampshire Sullivans was Major 
Philip O'Sullivan of Ardea, an officer of the Irish army during 
the siege of Limerick. His son John, born at Limerick in 1692, 
■was one of the company that in 1723 emigrated from Ireland 
and settled the town of Belfast in Maine. At this place he 
hired a sawmill and went to work. Two or three years after- 
ward another vessel of Irish emigrants landed at Belfast. On 
board was a blooming young damsel, who, after the custom of 
those days, had agreed with the shipmaster to be bound out at 
service in the colonies in payment of her passage across the 
Atlantic. She was bright and witty, with a mind of a rough 
but noble cast. During the passage over a fellow-passenger 
jocosely asked her what she expected to do when she arrived 



in the colonies. " Do ? " answered she with true Celtic wit, 
"why, raise governors for thim." Sullivan saw the girl as she 
fended* and struck with her beauty, made a bargain with the 
Captain, paying her passage in shingles. He wooed and won 
her, and the Irish girl entered upon her initiatory steps to 
nuke good her declaration. Immediately after his marriage 
O735) Mr. Sullivan settled on a farm in Berwick, and began 
clearing it for the plow. 

Following this is a statement that John was the oldest son 
of this couple, and a lot more of fictitiously interesting biogra- 
phy of the general. Now what are the facts ? 

Master Sullivan landed in York, Me., from Limerick, Ire- 
land, in the winter of 1723 ; he hadn't a cent to pay the, cap- 
tain for his passage across the Atlantic. After working at 
farming a week or so he got weary of it, and applied to llev. 
Dr. Moody, pastor of Scotland parish, to help him. He made 
his application in a letter written in seven languages, so the 
doctor might know he was an educated man. The worthy 
doctor was favorably impressed, and loaned him the money to 
pay his fare and then helped him to a school in Dover. May 
_»o, 1723, * Master " Sullefund " was chosen one of the two 
teachers of the town of Dover, at ,£30 salary per year. Just 
where he kept that school is not stated in the record, but it 
undoubtedly was in that part of Dover then called the " Sum- 
mer parish," from the fact that meetings were held in a barn 
there during the summer and fall by Parson Gushing, then 
pastor of the First parish. These summer meetings were held 

1 At A meeting of the Select men in Dover the 20 th of May 1723 ordered 
that 2 Schoolmasters be Procured for the Towne of Dover for the year 
Kstiing and that ther Sallery Exceed not ,£30 Payment a Peece and to 
attend the Directtions of the Select men for the Servis of the Towne in 
Kqui'll Pro-potion. 

Test Thomas Tebets, Towne Clark 

At the Same time Mr. Sullefund Exseps to Sarve the Towne above*' 1 as 
Scoole master three months Sertin and begins his Servis y e 2.1 th Day of 
May 1723, and also y e S d Sullefund Promised the Selectmen if he left them 
Soonner he would give them a month notis to Provide themselves with a 
nother, and the Select men was also to give him a month notis if they Dis- 
liked him. 

Test. Thomas Tebbets, Towne Clark. 

Dover Town Records, A. D. 17^3. 


tq accommodate the people who objected to walking or riding 
five or six miles to attend meetings at Cochecho, where now is 
the center of the city of Dover. As this is the place where 
Master Sullivan spent thirty years of his life, I may as well 
explain further in regard to this name, Somersworth, which is 
unique in the history of towns and cities in the United States, 
no other place in the country having that name. The people 
had become familiar to having the village called the "Summer 
parish," so in 1730 when this district was separated from the 
First parish as a distinct parish, it was the most natural thing 
for the leaders, who were educated men, to retain the familiar 
name, and they did it by changing "parish" to "worth/'" and 
they had " Summersworth." The word "worth" is the old 
English termination for names of places, so Summer parish 
and Summersworth mean precisely the same thing. You will 
notice that the present spelling is Somersworth. The ancient 
spelling of the parish was Summersworth, and when the citi- 
zens petitioned for an act of incorporation as a town they 
asked to have it spelled that way, but when they got their 
charter they found that the clerk of the General Court, or 
somebody else, had changed "Sum" to "Som," so they let it 
go that way. This change in orthography made no change in 
the meaning of the name. According to Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
whose large dictionary was published in 1755, the year after 
this town was chartered, " Sumer " is Saxon and "Somer" is 
Dutch for the English word "Summer." 

Before Summersworth was made a separate parish the town 
of Dover looked after the schools ; but after it became a parish 
the people managed their own schools by votes in parish meet- 
ings. July 2, 1734, the parish "Voted that Hercules Mooney 
be the schoolmaster here for one month (viz) from July 4 th to 
Aug 1 4 th , 1734 next ensuing at three pounds fifteen shillings 
per month." 

"Voted that Capt. Thomas Wallingford and Mr. Philip 
Stackpole be the men that Joyn with the Selectmen at the 
months end above to agree with Mr. Mooney or any other 
suitable person to keep school in this Parish for the Residue 
of this Sumer and autum." 


In 1735 it was " Voted ' that Mr. Jon° Scrugham be school 
master for one month in this Parish at the Descression of the 
Selectmen." Also, " Voted that there be thirty pounds raised 
to Defray the Charge of a school this sumer and autum." 

In 1737 the parish "Voted sixty pounds for a school mas- 

" Voted that Mr. John Sullivan be the schoolmaster for the 
ensuing year." „ 

" Voted that John Sullivan to sweep and take care of ye 
meeting house & to have thirty shillings." 

From that date to 1752 no schoolmaster is named, but from 
year to year the parish would vote to have a school and leave 
the matter with the selectmen to hire a teacher. As they had 
voted Master Sullivan in once, it was taken for granted that 
he would be the teacher. April 6, 1752, "Voted Mr. Joseph 
Tate twenty three pounds old tenor to keep ye Parish School 
one month." The record does not show that Master Sullivan 
kept the parish school after Mr. Tate began work there. 

Master Sullivan was married to Margery Browne in 1735. 
Soon after that he commenced to sign his name as witness to 
documents as "John Sullivan of Summersworth." Their third 
child, John, was born in 1740. In 1787, when he was the 
Federalist candidate for governor, then called president, his 
opponents charged him as guilty of being born in Berwick, 
Me., hence was not eligible for the office. 

The New Hampshire Gazette, March 10, 1787, replied to this 
as follows : 

Surely the collector of intelligence has not consulted all the 
people in this state, or he would have found out that President 
Sullivan w r as born in Somersworth, in the county of Strafford. 

In the summer of 1743 Master Sullivan and his wife had a 
falling out, and he went off to Boston to remain till her temper 
cooled. She repented of her cruel treatment, and published 
the following advertisement in the Boston Evening Post, July 
25, 1743, from which I copied it in the Boston public library. 
It shows conclusively that Summersworth was Master Sulli- 
van's home in 1743 : 

192 new hampshire historical society. 

My Dear and Loving Husband : 

Your abrupt departure from me, and forsaking of me your 
wife and tender babes, which I now humbly acknowledge and 
confess, I was greatly if not wholly the cause by my too rash 
and unadvised speech and behaviour towards you ; for which 
I now in this public manner humbly ask your forgiveness, and 
hereby promise upon your return to amend and reform and by 
my future loving and obedient carriage toward you, endeavor 
to make an atonement for my past evil deeds, and manifest to 
you and to the whole world, that I can become a new woman, 
and will prove to you a loving, dutiful and tender wife. 

If you do not regard what I have above written, I pray you 
harken to what your pupil, Joshua Gilpatrick, hath below sent 
you, as also *he lamentations and cries of your poor chil- 
dren, especially the eldest (Benjamin) who though but seven 
years old, all rational people really conclude that unless you 
speedily return will end in his death ; and the moans of your 
other children (Daniel and John) are enough to affect any 
human heart. 

And why, my dear husband, should a few angry and unkind 
words from an angry and foolish wife [for which I am now- 
paying full dear, having neither eat, drank nor slept in quiet, 
and am already reduced almost to a skeleton, that unless you 
favor me with your company will bereave me of my life] make 
you thus forsake me and your children? How can you thus, 
for so slender a cause as a few rash words from a simple and 
weak woman, cause you to part from your tender babes, who 
are your own flesh and blood ? Pray meditate on what I now 
send and reprieve your poor wife and eldest son, who take 
your departure so heavily, from a lingering though certain 
death, by your coming home to them again, as speedily as you 
can, where you shall be kindly received, and in a most submis- 
sive manner by your wife who is ready at your desire to lay 
herself at your feet for her past miscarriage, and am with my 
and your children's kind love to you, your loving wife. 

Margery Sullivan. 


The Hon. Thomas Wallingford, who resided in Summers- 
worth and lived near Master Sullivan, was captain of the com 
pany of militia in that parish in 1746, and probably several 
years before. The late Rev. Dr. A. H. Quint had the muster 
roll of this company, and I presume his widow now has it. 


Dr. Quint published it in his " Historical Memoranda," and it 
can be found on page 377 of the book of this memoranda that 
I recently published. In this list of soldiers appears Master 
Sullivan's name, although the clerk of the company spells it 
"John Sullevant." Of course he was an old resident there, or 
he would not have been enrolled as a soldier. 

Another witness, and I leave this part of my subject. Mr. 
Michael Reade of Dover was born in the same year as General 
Sullivan, and lived to be more than eighty years old. He 
went to school to Master Sullivan and knew him and the boys 
well, hence, of course, knew where they lived. This Michael 
Reade's son Michael was born in 1775, and lived to be more 
than eighty years old. He knew Master Sullivan, saw him 
many times, and his father told him much about the old mas- 
ter ; among other things, that he lived in Summersworth many 
years before he removed to Berwick and united farming with 
school teaching. The younger Michael Reade was living 
when Dr. Quint wrote much of his "Historical Memoranda," 
and furnished the doctor many facts about many topics, and 
one was that his father always said General Sullivan and his 
brothers were born in Summersworth. 

I will give a brief summary of the points: May 20, 1723, 
the town of Dover voted to hire him to teach school one year 
and give him £30. Jan. 10, 1737, he wrote and witnessed a 
deed, Tebbets to Tebbets, and signed as of Summersworth. 
Dec. 15, 1737, the parish of Summersworth voted to hire him 
to keep school one year, and also sweep the meeting-house. 
The New Hampshire Gazette says he lived in Summersworth 
when his son John was born in 1740. His wife Margery says 
their home was in Summersworth when she advertised for him 
to come home in 1743. Capt. Thomas Wallingford says he 
was a citizen of Summersworth in 1746. And last, but not 
least, Michael Reade told Dr. Quint the boys were all born in 

On the other hand, there is nothing in the Berwick records, 
parish or town, which even mentions Master Sullivan before 
1753. Aug. 12 of that year he bought his farm in Berwick of 
Samuel Lord; and after that his name frequently appears. 



Master Sullivan and his wife Margery were a remarkable 
couple. They are two of the interesting characters in Sarah 
Orne Jewett's story, "The Tory Lover," recently published, 
which, of course, you have all read, or will read. 

Master Sullivan was born in Limerick, Ireland, in 1691, 
during the siege of the city by King William's forces. His 
wife, Margery Browne, was born in Cork, Ireland, in 17 14. 
In 1723 they both set sail from Limerick in the same ship for 
New England. The captain intended to land at Newburyport, 
but owing to stress of weather he was compelled to land at 
York Harbor, Me. In his old age, when he and his wife were 
calling at a neighbor's, they got to talking about his younger 
days,- and he told the following story, which was recorded by 
the person who heard it. Master Sullivan said, in the pres- 
ence of his wife : 

I sailed from Limerick, Ireland, for New England in 1723; 
owing to stress of weather the vessel was obliged to land at 
York, Maine. On the voyage my attention was called to a 
pretty girl of nine or ten years, Margery Browne, who after- 
wards became my wife. As my mother had absolutely refused 
to furnish me the means for paying transportation, and I had 
not means otherwise, I was obliged to enter into -an agreement 
with the captain to earn the money for my passage. 

After I landed at York, for a while I lived on the 
Mclntire farm in Scotland parish. Unaccustomed to farm 
labor, and growing weary of manual occupation, 1 applied to 
Rev. Dr. Moody, pastor of the parish, for assistance. I made 
my application in a letter written in seven languages, so that 
he might see I was a scholar. He became interested in my 
behalf, and being conversant with my ability to teach lie 
loaned me the money with which to pay the captain the amount 
1 owed for my passage. Thus set free from the Mclntires, 1 
was assisted to open a school and earn money to repay Dr. 

Later in life, when he was past fourscore years old, he made 
another statement in regard to himself, at the request of his 
daughter-in-law, wife of General Sullivan. He wrote it with 
his own hand and gave it to the general's wife. She gave it to 
her daughter, wife of Judge Steele; from Mrs. Steele it passed 
to her son and grandson ; by the latter it was given to Thomas 



Coffin Amory, who published it in his biography of Gov. James 
Sullivan. It is as follows : 

I am the son of Major Philip O'Sullivan of Ardea, in county 
of Kerry, Ireland. His father was Owen O'Sullivan, original 
descendant from the second son of Daniel O'Sullivan, called 
lord of Bear Haven. His father married Mary, daughter of 
Col. Owen McSweeney of Musgray, arid sister of Capt. Edmund 
McSweeney, a man noted for his anecdotes and witty say- 

I have heard that my grandfather had four countesses for 
his mother and grandmothers. How true this is, or who they 
were, I know not. My father died of an ulcer raised in his 
breast, occasioned by a wound he received in France in a duel 
with a French officer. My ancestors were short lived; they 
either died in their bloom or went out of the country. I never 
heard that any of the mankind arrived at sixty, and I do not 
remember but one alive when I left home. 

My mother's name was Joan McCarthy, daughter of Dermod 
McCarthy of Killoween. She had three brothers and one sis- 
ter. Her mother's name I forget, but she was daughter of 
McCarthy Reagh of Carbury. Her oldest brother, Col. Flor- 
ence, alias McFinnin, and his two brothers, Capt. Charles and 
Capt. Owen, went in defense of the nation against Orange. 
Owen was killed in a battle at Aughrim. Florence had a son, 
who retains the title of McFinnin. I can just remember 
Charles. He had a charge in his face at the siege of Cork, 
lie left two sons, Derby and Owen. Derby married with 
Kllena O'Sullivan of the Sullivans of Bannam. His brother 
married Honora Mahoney of Drommore. My mother's sister 
was married to Dermod, eldest son of Daniel O'Sullivan, lord 
of Dunkerron. Her son Cornelius, as I understand, was 
with the Pretender (Charles Edward) in Scotland in 1745. 

This is all I can say about my origin, but shall conclude 
with a Latin sentence . 

Si Adam sit pater cunctorum, mater et Eve; 
Cur nun sunt homines nobilitate pares? 
N011 pater aut mater dant nobis nobilitatem, 
Seel moribus et'vita nobilitatur homo. 

All this condensed into a paragraph is that in Master Sulli- 
van's veins llowed the blood of the Norman Butlers and Fitz- 
geralds who went over from England to Ireland, when the 
Irish were first conquered by the English, and in time they 



became more Irish than the original race ; that is, they fought 
the English government more fiercely than the Irish themselves 
did. Master Sullivan's sons won in America what many gene- 
rations of their brave ancestors had failed to win in Ireland. 

As has already been stated, Master Sullivan was bom in 
Limerick during the siege in 1691. Limerick, however, was 
not captured; a truce" took place, and a treaty was formed. 
This treaty did not last long, and a large number of Irish were 
compelled to take refuge in France. Among these were Major 
Philip O'Sullivan and his family. 

This family remained in France several years. Major Sulli- 
van died there, as has been stated ; his wife and children 
remained till peace reigned in Ireland to the extent that she 
was allowed to return and take possession of her large estates. 
While in France she carefully educated her son John, and, 
unwittingly, prepared him to be the future schoolmaster of 
New Hampshire. It was there that Master Sullivan learned 
his French so thoroughly that when he was past ninety years 
of age he wrote a letter in excellent French to his son, the 

When his mother returned to Ireland her son was a young 
man, and I suppose passed his time as other young Irishmen 
did who were in the front rank of society in the city of Limer- 
ick. At length a difference of opinion arose between Madam 
O'Sullivan and her son ; he fell in love with a young woman, 
who probably could not tell who her grandmother was. This 
displeased his mother very much. Madam was very haughty 
and aristocratic; she was proud of her ancestry and of her 
son's ancestry. She could not endure the thought of his mar- 
rying a girl of low ancestry ; she opposed the match. I sup- 
pose that made Master Sullivan's love burn more fiercely. 
After the affair had drifted along quite a while Madam forbid 
her son, peremptorily, to have anything more to do with the 
girl, and gave him two weeks in which to break the engage- 
ment; if he did not do it inside of that time, she would disin- 
herit him. Per contra, Master Sullivan told his mother he 
would give her two weeks in which to consent to the marriage ; 
if she did not consent inside of that time, he would leave Ire- 


Und forever, and neither she or the girl should ever hear more 
of him. They were both of the same grit; neither would 
yield, and the result was he sailed for America and in due time 
landed at York, Me. Hut the thought of that girl he had left 
behind him in Ireland haunted him for many years, and it was 
not till he was forty-four years old that he again entertained 
the thought of marriage. His mother afterwards repented of 
her stern act and made search for years for her runaway son, 
but she never found any trace of him. 

Hamlet says in the great drama that bears his name: 

"... Rashly. 

And praised be rashness for it, let us know 
Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well, 
When our deep plots do pall; and that should teach us 
There's a divinity that shapes our ends, 
Rough hew them how we will." 

Suppose Master Sullivan had obeyed his mother's wishes 
and remained in Ireland, or suppose Providence had not con- 
cealed him from his mother's search after she repented of her 
rash act, and he had been found and induced to return to Ire- 
land, what a difference there would have been in the manage- 
ment of affairs and the history of New Hampshire ! 

Margery Browne was born in Cork, Ireland, in 1714; she 
died in Berwick, Me., in 1801. Nothing is known of her 
ancestry, but the name is essentially English, hence we may 
conclude that her parents, or their ancestors, crossed over from 
England and settled in Ireland. She came to this country in 
the same ship with Master Sullivan ; she was nine years old 
and he was thirty-two ; they never had met before boarding 
the ship. Why a girl of nine years should start on such a 
voyage alone is a mystery that will never be solved. Her 
parents may have started with her and died on the way, or she 
may have taken a freak and stowed herself away among the 
freight and kept concealed till the ship was well at sea. What- 
ever may have been the cause of departure, she had no money 
to pay her passage, so the captain had to sell her service at 
auction in Portsmouth to get his pay. The tradition is that 
she was so young and so small that nobody would bid for her: 



services. At last Master Sullivan consented to raise the sum 
the captain wanted for her passage. It is said that he finally 
paid it in shingles, which he cut himself in the forest and car- 
ried to Portsmouth in a boat. 

It is not known where she spent the twelve years from 17^3 
to 1735, but probably in York, as a house girl on some farm. 
Master Sullivan does not appear to have taken any interest in 
her till a short time previous to their marriage, when he heard 
that the young men of York were falling in love with her and 
one had gone so far as to propose. He went over from Sum- 
mersworth to York to see about it. He found a keen-witted, 
handsome, and attractive young woman ; the thought of the 
girl he had left in Ireland twelve years ago began to fade from 
his mind. She was equally impressed with his line appear- 
ance ; the result was she told the other young men they need 
not call any more. Master Sullivan and Margery Browne were 
married soon after. 

She is described by those who saw her in the prime of 
womanhood as short of stature, beautiful in form, face, and 
manners. She was a great worker, quick tempered, and quick 
to repent of what she did wrong in her madness. Her tongue 
was equal to her temper. If tradition can be relied on, she 
could have given Xantippe several points to start with and 
then have won easily in a scolding match, although Socrates' 
wife has the standard reputation of being the greatest scold 
the human race has yet produced. Margery Sullivan did nut 
scold all the time ; it happened occasionally, like volcanic 
eruptions, when she could not hold in any longer. 

Gov. Samuel Wells of Maine wrote to a friend as follows 
about his great-grandmother. 

Master Sullivan's wife was as well known as he was, and 
when reference was t made to her distinguished sons she was 
more frequently alluded to. She has been uniformly repre- 
sented as a woman of considerable native strength of mind, 
yet entirely uncultivated, having the strong passions common 
to her country women, of which some are good and some are 
bad, wholly unsubdued by habit. These marked traits of 
character show a wider contrast between her and her two dis- 
tinguished sons than between them and their father, and fur- 


nish a theme for remark, with anecdotes not a few, brought up 
whenever allusion was made to the family. That she was a 
masculine, energetic woman, with the resolution of a man, there 
s no doubt. That she performed out-door labor in the field, 
suitable only to men, in order that her husband might not be 
diverted from his occupation of teaching, was recently told me 
as coming from herself, in the presence of my informant, one 
of the few who now (1855) survive to remember her. 

Attorney-General "John Sullivan of Exeter gave the following 
description of his great-grandfather, Master Sullivan. lie 
says : 

1 have been told he was a tall, spare man, very mild and 
gentle, thoughtful and studious, an excellent scholar, but averse 
to bodily exercise, lie was exclusively a teacher. 

An aged lady, who remembered seeing him when he was 
more than a century old, told me her recollection of him, as 
she saw him at his house one day, was that of a tall, venerable 
old man in a dressing gown, seated at a table reading a Bible; 
he wore his hair long on his shoulders. 

From what his great-grandson says, and from what I gather 
from other sources, I draw the conclusion that Master Sullivan 
was a tall, fine-looking man, who had a lofty and fine spirit- 
lie had an excellent education in his youth, which he enlarged 
and improved in his later years, making him one of the best 
scholars in New England in the eighteenth century. He evi- 
dently was not satisfied with his lot in life, but never com- 
plained. The magnificent success of his sons was the source 
of great pleasure .to him in his old age. He probably was the 
teacher of more men who took a distinguished part in the Rev- 
olution than any other one teacher in New England, and in 
that way he exercised a powerful influence in shaping the turn 
of events in that great contest. 

Master Sullivan died the first of June, 1796, aged one hun- 
dred and live years ; his remains were interred in a field on 
the hillside, about fifty rods from where his house stood in 
Berwick. His wife died in 1801, and was interred at the same 
spot. Soon after her death Gov. James Sullivan had a stone, 
with suitable inscription, erected there; some years later their 



great-grandson, Governor Wells of Maine, had' the spot enclosed 
with a substantial iron fence. Thus it remained till October, 
1877, when Mr. Ricker, the present owner of the land, got per- 
mission to remove the remains to the Sullivan cemetery in 
Durham, as he wanted to run a new street through his land 
directly over the grave. 

The head of the old grave is now marked by a cherry tree, 
which stands by the sidewalk. When Mr. Ricker and Mr. 
Stillings, who lives near there, opened the grave, they found 
the skull perfect, also the hair and some of the large bones of 
Master Sullivan ; over the forehead a root of the cherry tree 
had grown so that it half encircled the skull, and had to be 
cut before the bones could be removed. The skull was very 
large, with a high forehead, and the hair was long and perfect, 
being a dark brown mixed with slight sprinkle of gray. The 
remains had been interred there eighty-one years. 

When Master Sullivan died, some one, presumably his pas- 
tor, Rev. Matthew Merriam, wrote an obituary of him, which 
was published in a Portsmouth paper, The Oracle of the Day t 
His death occurred on Saturday, June 3, 1796, and the article 
is in the publication of the week following. 

The article is quite long, hence I will give only the substance 
of it here. The writer says he was extraordinary in his acquire* 
ments as a student, his brilliancy of mind, his power as a 
teacher, and in his inlluence over the community in which he 
lived. He taught school till he was ninety years old and then 
retired, lamenting he could no longer be useful to his fellow- 
men. He still continued his studies, reading his Bible, his 
Homer, and his Horace with as keen a relish as he did a half 
a century before. He wrote a good hand till he was one hun- 
dred and two years old ; he continued his reading till he was 
one hundred and four, when his eyesight failed, but his mental 
powers remained perfect till seven days before his death, when 
his speech failed, but he seemed to understand what was said 
to him till the last hour, when he closed his eyes as in sleep, 
and his noble soul took its flight. 

His health had been remarkably good throughout his long 
life of more than a century; he was a stranger to pain till a 


few months before death, when he became subject to cramps 
and nervous troubles which caused him great distress. 

lie was active in out-of-door exercise after he had passed 
the century mark; he would yoke and unyoke his oxen, drive- 
them to the blacksmith shop and get them shod, and work 
them about the farm ; he was able to cut wood for his house- 
hold fires, and do chores of various sort. 

Thus Master Sullivan appeared to his pastor, who had 
known him for forty years and more. Thus I deposit in the 
archives of the New Hampshire Historical Society my pen 
picture of New Hampshire's grandest old schoolmaster. 

On motion of Mr. Fiske, it was voted that the thanks of the 
Society be presented to Mr. Scales for his admirable address, 
and a copy be requested for preservation. 

The reports of the treasurer and librarian were read and 


Receipts credited to general income : 

Income from permanent fund, 

^5 6 3-99 

New members, 




Pooks sold, 

3 6 - l 5 

State appropriation, 


Income from Todd fund for purchase 





Expenditures charged to general income : 

Printing and binding, 


Printing of proceedings, 


Fuel and water, 

3-5 -°.° 


J 9-35 







Salary of librarian, 


Incidental expenses of librarian, 




Pooks, etc., 





Excess of expenditures over receipts, 




Permanent fund, $11,420.00 

Current funds, as of June 12, 1901, 900.82 

To new account: 

Permanent fund, • $11,500.00 

Current funds, 786.89 



The Wm. C. Todd Fund. 

To investment, $1,000.00 

balance expended for 1901, 4.96 

income, 48.90 
balance in exchange of 5 shares of 

C. B. & Q. stock, 500.00 

By paid for genealogical works, 




Wm. p Fiske, treasurer, in account with building fund, 
charges himself with the following receipts: 

Subscription of Wm. C. Todd, $5,000.00 

Other subscriptions, 4,955.00 

Interest received, 335-^9 

The funds are invested as follows : 

Deposited in the New Hampshire Sav 

ings bank, 






Balance of unpaid subscriptions considered good, $25. 


2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s debentures, $500 each, $1,000.00 

Receipt, Johnson Loan & Trust Co., 600.00 
2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. bonds, 4 per 

cent., $500 each, 1,000.00 
2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. bonds, 6 

per cent., $1,000 each, 2,000.00 

1 New York & New England R. R. bond, 7 per cent., 1,000.00 

1 Little Rock & Ft. Smith R. R. bond, 7 per cent., 1,000.00 

Mortgage loan, 1,025.00 


3 shares of Concord Electric Co.'s common stock, $300.00 
^ shares of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R, 

stock, 500.00 

13 shares of Concord & Montreal R. R. stock, 2,268.50 


Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 1,512.18 

Cash on hand, 81.21 

The Wm. C. Todd Fund. 


1 Northern Pacific Great Northern R. R. bond, 

4 per cent., $1,000.00 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings bank, 500.00 


I have this day examined the account of Wm. P. Fiske, 
treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society for the year 
ending June 11, 1902, and find the same correctly cast and 
sustained by satisfactory vouchers. I have also examined the 
securities constituting the funds of the Society, and find them 

John C. Thorne, 

For Standing Co?mnittee. 
Concord, N. H., June 1 1, 1902. 

librarian's report. 

Concord, N. H., June 10, 1902. 

To the Members of the New Hampshire Historical Society: 

In presenting his annual report your librarian can testify to 
a material advance in putting into available shape the valuable 
treasures of the Society's library. , It would have been notably 
greater but for the publication of more than three hundred and 
fifty pages to complete the third volume of the Society's Pro- 
ceedings. Much time was necessarily consumed in furnishing 
copy, supervising its passage through the press, preparing in- 
dexes, and distributing among exchanging societies and libra- 
ries. An increasing correspondence with all parts of the 
country from Maine to California and Washington also seri- 
ously interferes with rapidity of progress. In a word, the mere 
routine work needful for the proper administration of its affairs 
looking to its enlargement could profitably employ the entire 
time of one. In the circumstances, however, all has been 



done that could reasonably be expected. On the completion 
of the anticipated new building, providing an ample and per- 
manent resting-place for book and pamphlet, a new face can 
speedily be put upon the general appearance of the library, 
making it every way more satisfactory for the vision and use 
of its friends and patrons. It seems incumbent on every 
member to do his utmost to hasten such a day. The end is a 
worthy one, and, accomplished, will better ensure the safe 
keeping of our valuable stores, and in the eyes of the general 
public give character to the Society's activities and intelligent 
judgment. It is the great need, and indispensable to the high- 
est success in attracting donations and enlarging its sphere of 

The accessions to the library during the year, exclusive of 
town reports and certain periodicals, have been 1,735 pam- 
phlets and 498 bound volumes, making a total of 2,233. One 
hundred and fifty-one volumes have been bound. At the 
date of making the last previous report the library con- 
tained 16,595 bound volumes. Adding to these the accessions 
and binding during the year, we have 17,093 bound volumes 
in our possession. 

Donations have been received from the following individ- 
uals : 

Abbott, Frances M., 
Adams, George S., 
Aiken, Rev E. J., 
Aldrich, Charles, 
Allen, Charles D., 
Allen, F. W., 
Amen, Harlan P., 
Baker, Henry M., 
Barnwell, James C, 
Barrett, Jay S., 
Barrett, Nonas S., 
Bachelder, Nahum J. 
Batchellor, A. S., 
Baxter, Charles J., 
Bayley, Rev. F. T., 
Benton, Joseph, 
Bergen, James J., 
Berry, John M., 
Bettle, William, 
Blomberg, Anton, 
Bourne, J., 
Bradford, Amory H., 
Bridges, B. F.,' 
Briggs, Frank O., 


L. V 







Brigham, George W. 
Brigham, Johnson, 
Brooks, F. A , 
Brown, D. Arthur, 
Brown, D. H., 
Biown, Francis H., 
Brown, George W., 
Browne, J. T., 
Buchanan, Henry C. 
Buckl, Henry I., 
Caldwell, W. H., 
Calvin, Samuel, 
Carter, Miss A. F., 
Carter, Rev. Clark, 
Carter, Rev. N. F., 
Carter, Mrs. N. F., 
Carter, Solon A., 
Chamberlin, D. H., 
Chase, L. B., 
Clark, Rev. F. G.. 
Clark, John, 
Cleaves, George P., 
Cobb, Rev. W. H., 

18 15 



Cue Inn 11, Joseph A., 
Colby, Henry B., 
Comstoek, J. M.» 
Conn, Dr. Granville P., 
Cook, Howard M., 
Cousins, Rev. E. M., 
Cross, George N., 
Cudmore, P., 
Cm run, Mrs. Mary H., 
Curtis; Rev. John S., 
DcCosta, \V. T., k 
Depew, Chauncey M., 
Dike, Rev. Samuel W., 
Dodge, James H., 
Donnelly, Richard A., 
Dow, George F., 
Downing, Lewis, Jr., 
Downing, Miss Mary E 
Drummond, Josiah H., 
Duren, Dea. E. P., 
Dye, Franklin, 
Eastman, Samuel C, 
Elliott, Rev. L. PL, 
Ellms, Rev. Louis, 
Emerson, C. F., 
Evans, Dr. I). D., 
Eyler, Myrtle P., 
Fernow, P. F., 
Ferree, Barr, 
Fiske, William P., 
Fitts, Mrs. J. IP, 
Folsom, Capt. A. A., 
Foster, A. IE, 
Gallinger, Jacob IE, 
Gerould, Rev. S. L., 
Gibbs, William D., 
Oilman, Daniel C, 
Godfrey, E. L. P., 
Gordon, Miss Lucy A., 
Gould, Sylvester C, 
Green, Mrs. Ella P., 
Green, James M., 
Green, Dr. S. A., 
Hackett, Frank W., 
Hancock, William S., 
Hastings, V. C, 
Hazen, Mrs. H. A., 
Herbert, Alma J., 
Hewett, Frank S. 5 
Himes, Rev. W. L., 

1 Hobbs, William J., 

2 Hoitt, Miss Peulah, 

1 Howe, Miss S. A., 

1 Humphreys, PI. 11 ., 

79 Inman, J. M., 

2 Ives, Rev. Joel S., 

2 Jameson, Rev. E. O., 

1 Jesse, R. IE, 

2 Johnson, F. C, 

1 Johnson., John F., 

] Kendall, Miss Sarah A., 

1 Kent, John F., 

1 Ladd. Maria F., 

1 Lane, Thomas W., 

1 Linehan, John C, 

1 Lippincottt & Co., 
1 Logan, W. S., 

2 Lord, Charles C, 

1 Lovtejoy, Mary W., 

21 Lytle, John J., 

1 Malone, Thomas IP, 

1 5 Marsh, Rev. F. J., 

1 McDufF, Isabella S., 

r McFarland, Miss Annie A 

2 2 McGann, Edward W., 
1 McGuire, Irvine E.. 

1 McLean, Boyd, 

4 McMillan, Conway,, 

1 McMurphy, Dr. N. W., 
19 Meseroll, W. F. 

1 Mills, William C, 

2 Moore, Samuel S., 

1 Moore, Rev. Wm. IP, 

2 1 Moulton, Edward A., 
2 337 Murkland, Rev. C. S., 

2 Murray, Thomas IP, 
1 Noble, John, 

1 Ogdfn, I. N., 

1 Ogden, Jeremiah P., 

135 Oliphant, Alexander C, 

7 ■• Ordway, John C, 

3 Parvin, Newton R., 
23 Patterson, Samuel P., 

1 Pearson, Edward N., 

1 Peaslee, John P., 

1 Peck, Thomas P., 

1 Pillsbury, Frank )., 

22 Powderly, T. V., 

1 Pratt, Col. R. IE, 

r 170 Prescott, I. W., 


2 06 


Preston, Frank W., 
Ouimby, Fred E., 
Reed, Rev. George H., 
Rix, Guy S., 
Rolfe, Abial W., 
Ross, Rev. J. A., 
Salter, William, 
Sargent, Rev. O. C., 
Sleeper, Dea. J. T., 
Smiley, Albert K., 
Smock, J. C. 
Smyth, David M., 
Stainsbury, William, 
Stearns, Ezra S., 
Stearns, Henry P., 
Steward, J. F., 
Stockwell, Richard W., 
Swain, George P>., 
Swan, Robert T., 
Swett, Charles E., 
Thayer, Miss Kate M., 
Thompson, Lucien, 
Tileston, Harvey, 
Tillinghast, C. P., 
Todd, Mrs. George E., 
Todd, William C., 
Treat, John H., 
Tyler, Lyon G. 
Usher, Thomas B., 
Wadlin, Horace G., 
Waldron, Rev. D. W., 
Walker, Isaac, 
Webster, Dr. C. B., 
Wells, F. P., 
Whitcomb, F. H., 
White, C. L., 
White, J. DuPratt, 
White, J. T. & Co., 
Wolcott, C. D., 
Woodbury, E. R., 
Woodbury, Frank D., 
, Woodbury, Gordon, 
Worcester, George A., 
Wright, Carroll D., 



















New Haven, 
New Jersey, 


New London, 


New York, 






Texas State, 





West Virginia, 





From libraries : 






Maine State, 


Michigan State, 




New Hampshire State 



New York Public, 
New York State, 








From historical societies 

American Catholic, 

California Genealogical, 


Connecticut, 1 

From other societies 

American Antiquarian, 
American Philosophical, 
Bureau of Ethnology, 
Canadian Antiquarian, 
Mayflower Descendants, 
Ohio Philosophical, 
Worcester Antiquity, 
Wyoming Commemora- 
tive Association, 


tions : 

educational institu- 

Abbott Academy, 
Amherst College, 
Andover Theological 



Augustana College, 
Bangor Theological 

Boston University, 
Bowdoin College, 
Brown University, 
Colby College, 
Dartmouth College, 
Drew Theological Semi- 
Harvard College, 
Johns Hopkins Univer- 
Middlebury College, 
Mount Holyoke Col- 
Oberlin College, 
Ohio State University, 
School for the Deaf, 
St. Paul's School, 
Toronto University. 
Tufts College, 
University of California, 
University of Pennsylva- 



University of Toulouse, 


Wellesley College, 


Wesleyan University, 


Wisconsin University, 

> 1 

Yale University, 


From other sources : 

Adams Nervine Associ- 



American Congregation- 

al Association, 


American Museum of 

Natural History, 


Appalachian Club, 


Associated Charities, 


Atchison & Santa Fe 



N. II.' Bank Commis- 



Barnard Memorial, 


Benevolent Fraternity, 


Boston City Hospital, 


Boston Insane Hospital, 


Boston Provident Asso- 



Bunker Hill Monument 

Association, 1 

Butler Hospital, 1 

Chicago, R. I. & P. 

Railroad, 1 

Children's Aid Society, 1 

City of Cambridge, 1 

Commissioner of Edu- 
cation, 1 

Congregational Publish- 
ing Society, 2 

Congregational Sunday- 
school Society, 4 

Elliot Hospital, 

First Methodist Church, 1 

Free Trade League, 

Granite Monthly, 

Historical Record, 

Interstate Commerce 

Commission, 1 

Lake Shore Railroad, 

Library Bureau, 

Library Company, 

Little Wanderer's Home, 

Maine Eye and Ear In- 

Maine General Hospital, 

Margaret Pillsbury Hos- 

Mass. General Hospital, 

Mass. Hospital for Epi- 

Mass. Labor Bureau, 

Mass. Soldiers' Home, 

Mass. State Hospital, 

Museum of Science, 

National Museum, 

New England Hospital 
for Women, 

Northampton I n s a n e 

Orphans' Home, 

Philippine Information 


Purchased, 66 

Retreat for the Insane, 

R. I. Record Commis- 






I. Society oi 




St. Luke's Home, 

Superintendent of Doc- 

Superintendent of State 

Taunton Insane Hospi- 

U. S. Government, 

i U. S. Civil Service Com- 
7 War Department, 
Weather Bureau, 
i Wisconsin Hospital loi 

i Woman's Union Mis- 
8 110 sionary Society, 

The following monthly and quarterly publications are regu 
larly received at the library, ten of the newspapers by the cour- 
tesy of Plenry B. Colby : 

Ashland Citizen. 
Berlin Independent. 
Bristol Enterprise. 
Canaan Reporter. 
Cheshire Republican. 

Exeter News-Letter. s 
Ft i 1 7/2 ington News. 
Gorham Mountaineer, 
y ou rnal-Tran script. 
Kearsarge Independent. 
Littleton Courier. 
Meredith News. 
Mirror and Earmer. 
Morning Star. 
New Hampshire .Patriot. 
New Hampshire Sentinel. 
Peterboro ugh 7 ) -a use rip t. 
Plymouth Record. 
Portland 1 ra //script. 
Porlsmou tli 'Jour /nil. 
Somersworth Free Press. 
Suncook Journal. 
Valley Times, 
Woodsville News. 


Boston Adi 'ertiser. 

Boston journal. 
Munches ter Nen > s . 
Nashua Telegrapli. 


The following periodicals are also received : 

American Catholic Historical Record. 
American Historical Magazine. 
American Historical Review. 
American Missionary. 
Annals of Iowa. 
Bible Society Record. 
Church Building Quarterly. 
Dedh'am Register. 
Esse, x A ntiq u a ; 7 an . 
Granite Monthly. 
Home Missionary. 
Iowa Historical Record. 
'Johns Hopkins University Publications. 
Life and Light. 
McClure's Magazine, 
Missionary Herald. 

New England Historical Genealogical Register. 
New York Public Library Bulletin. 
Pennsylvania Magazine. 

Rhode Island Historical Society Publications. 
Sailor's Magazine. 
Texas State Association Quarterly. 
Transallegheny Magazine. 
William and Mary Quarterly. 

Among the miscellaneous donations to the library the most 
notable is the reception by the will of the late Elizabeth F. 
Harvey, widow of Peter Harvey of Boston, through her execu- 
tor, Richard Stone of Boston, of the large and elegant oil por- 
traits of Hon. Daniel Webster and Peter Harvey, painted by 
the famous artist, Joseph Ames, a son of New Hampshire, and 
also a valuable addition to the "Webster Papers" already in 
possession of the Society. Col. Robert H. Rolfe of Havana, 
Cuba, has added to our relics a large conch shell with sponge 
uniquely attached, a loaded shell taken from the Spanish tor- 
pedo-boat I'luton, a brace of Mauser rifle cartridges, a 1-pound 
shrapnel ball, and two Cuban school diplomas, with medals. 
L. Vernon Briggs of Boston has contributed several specimens 
of minerals, shell, sandal wood from China, and old coins of the 
United States, Mexico, France, Germany, and Canada. Mrs. 
John D. Ordway of West Hampstead has sent us four fine pho- 
tographs of the old meeting-house in Saiadown, built in 1774; 
John J. Johnson of Amesbury, Mass., a photograph of a paper 


of Capt. John Wadleigh, dated July 4, 1706; Harvey Tileston 
of Pepperell, Mass., a picture of the home of Prescott, the his- 
torian ; and the First Methodist church, a picture of the Meth- 
odist bishops. Fourteen autograph letters of New Hampshire 
lawyers and judges offering congratulations to Hon. Harry 
Hibbard on his appointment to the justiceship of the supreme 
court in 1870, were received from Richard YV. Flale, Esq., of 
Boston ; from Mrs. Ella Breed' Green of Alstead, the wills of 
John Fairbanks of Wrentham, Mass., and of Sarah Pond of 
Franklin, Mass., dated respectively July 26, 1754, and June 
29, 1787. 

Also received from Judge Jeremiah Smith of the Harvard 
Law School, letters of Parson Rowland and others of Exeter, 
and from Rev. E. P. Tenney of Cambridge, Mass., the manu- 
script constitution of the Maternal Association of the West 
Parish, Concord, and from Miss Isabel C. Wingate of Exeter, 
fifty-three marriage licenses issued by Gov. Penning Wentworth 
to parties who were united in marriage by Rev. Paine Wingate 
of Stratham during the years from 1744 to 1765. 

Miscellaneous newspapers, periodicals, pamphlets, etc., were 
received from Miss Frances M. Abbott, Miss Grace Blanchard, 
Ffoward M. Cook, Samuel C. Eastman, William P. Fiske, Rev. 
S. L. Gerould of Hollis, John B. George, Miss Alma J. Herbert, 
Flenry A. Kimball, Charles C. Lord, Miss Mary W. Lovejoy, 
Mrs. Mary E. Moor of Goffstown, Rev. C. S. Murkland of Dur- 
ham, Charles T. Page, Frank J. Pillsbury, Rev. C. L. Tappan, 
and Joseph B. Walker. 

Miss Eva March Tappan has also contributed a typewritten 
genealogy of the Tappan family, and Mrs. Carrie S. Runnels 
Jardine of Charlestown, a typewritten sketch of Rev. Laban 
Ainsworth of Jaffrey, by his grandson, Francis J. Parker, and 
the Ancient and Honorable- Artillery Co. of Boston, Vol. IV, 
completing its,history. 

During the year the genealogical division of the library has 
been catalogued for library use, and, as well, uncounted pamph- 
lets. It may not, perhaps, be generally known that the 
library of congress is engaged in printing a card catalogue of 
books in its possession, and during the coming five years 
expect to complete it, and offer to furnish subscribing libraries 
throughout the country such duplicate cards as they may need 
for their literary treasures at but a trifling expense above the 
cost of the cards and printing. After correspondence with the 
librarian of congress on the subject, I am satisfied it will be 
the most economical and best way to card catalogue this 
library, and would so recommend. Many of the largest libra- 


ries of the country are already availing themselves of the privi- 

I would also recommend that measures be taken, as is 
now the fact in Massachusetts, to secure the copying of- the 
inscriptions on the stones of all the oldest burying grounds of 
the state. It is a well-known fact that time is fast effacing the 
inscriptions of many a stone, and unless these transcriptions 
are soon made, they will be wholly obliterated and forever lost to 
future genealogists. If members will take it upon them to see 
that this is done in their own towns, they will do valuable work 
for future generations. This Society now has those of the Old 
North cemetery of this city, and they are often consulted, indi- 
cating thus their great value. If it could possess all through- 
out the state, there could be no mistaking the increased rich- 
ness of the library's collections. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

N. F. Carter, 


The report of the necrologist and the report of the standing 
committee were accepted and ordered to be placed on file. 
The following new members were elected : 

Hon. T. Nelson Hastings, Walpole. 

Hon. Edwin G. Eastman, Exeter. 

Hon. Robert N. Chamberlain, Berlin. 

Hon. James W. Remick, Littleton. 

Rev. Frederick G. Chutter, Littleton. 

Edward Payson Kimball, Esq., Portsmouth. 

William F. Richards, Esq., Newport. 

James H. Fassett, Esq., Nashua. 

Frank Proctor, Esq., Franklin. 

D. Arthur Brown, Esq., Penacook. 

Miss Susan G. Perkins, Concord. 

Miss Mary C. Eastman, Concord. 

Mrs. Sarah Adams Ordway, Concord. 

Mrs. Mary G. Thorne, Concord. 

Mrs. Jessie Gove Killeen, Concord. 

Miss Mary B. Noyes, Chester. 

Hon. Jacob H. Gallinger, Concord. 

Hon. Albert B. Woodworth, Concord. 

Gen. Frank S. Streeter, Concord. 


Judge Reuben E. Walker, Concord. 
Hon. Hugh Henry, Concord. 
Rev. George Harlow Reed, Concord. 
George C. Roy, Esq., Concord. 
Adam P. Holden, Esq., Concord. 
John F. Webster, Esq., Concord. 
Willis G. C. Kimball, Esq., Concord. 

Corresponding member: 

Frank P. Wells, Newbury, Vt. 
Honorary members : 

Hon. N. Sherman Bouton, Chicago, 111. 

Hon. Henry Chamberlain, Three Oaks, Mich. 

Mr. Hadley, for the special committee appointed to recom- 
mend a list of officers, presented the following, and they were 
formally elected by ballot as the officers of the Society for the 
ensuing year : 

Hon. William C. Todd. 

Albert S. Wait, 
Rev. Daniel C. Roberts, D. D. 

Recording Secretary, 
John C. Ordwav. 

Corresponding Secreia ry. 
Charles R. Corning. 

William P. Fiske. 

Rev. N. F. Carter. 

Dr. Eli E. Graves. 


Standing Co?nmittee. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
Edson C. Eastman. 

Library Committee. 

Amos Hadley, 

.Mrs. Frances C. Stevens, 

Henry McFarland. 

Mr. McFarland subsequently resigned, and Rev. George H. 
Reed was elected to fill the vacancy. 

Publishing Com??iittee. 

Samuel C. Eastman, 
Nathan F. Carter, 
John Dowst. 

Committee on A T cw A/embers. 

Nathan F. Carter, 
J. Eastman Pecker, 
John C. Ordway. 

Committee on Speakers. 

William C. Todd, 
Joseph B. Walker, 
Lyman D. Stevens. 

Committee on Naval History of New Hampshire. 

Albert S. Wait, 
Joseph C. A. Wingate, 
Charles R. Corning. 

On motion of Hon. John Kimball, 

Voted, That the publication committee be requested to con- 
tinue the publication of the Society's Proceedings, bringing the 
same down to date. 

On motion of Isaac Andrew Hill, Esq., 

: v 2i4 


Voted, That the librarian be given a vacation of three weeks. 

On motion of Mr. Wait, 

Voted, That the usual annual assessment of $3 be levied on 
the members of the Society. 

On motion of Mr. J. B, Walker, 

Voted, That the communications of McClure & Co., Claude 
H. Van Tyne, and Little, Brown & Co., be referred to a special 
committee of three, with full powers, namely, Hon. Lyman 1). 
Stevens, Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, Hon. Henry W. Stevens. 

On motion of William P. Fiske, Esq., 

Voted, That the advisability of copyrighting the portrait of 
Webster, presented to the Society by the late Mrs. Peter Har- 
vey, be referred to the standing committee. 

On motion of Isaac A. Hill, 

Voted, That beginning with December next, if deemed advis- 
able, a meeting be held each month till the annual meeting, 
and that the president, secretary, and librarian be a committee 
of arrangements therefor. 

Voted, To adjourn to Monday, June 16, at eleven o'clock in 
the forenoon. 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, June 16, 1902. 

The first adjourned eightieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the Society's rooms 
at Concord, on Monday, June 16, 1902, at eleven o'clock in 
the forenoon. 

In the absence of President Todd, the Rev. D. C. Roberts, 
D. D., vice-president, called the meeting to order. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, of the special committee on the sub- 
ject of the enlargement of the present building or the erection 
of a new one for the use of the Society, presented the report 
of said committee, which, on motion of John C. Thorne, Esq., 
was accepted. 

On a motion to adopt the committee's recommendations, a 


discussion arose, after which the motion was withdrawn, and 
Hon. Henry M. Baker offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted : 

Resolved, That the report of the committee submitted to-day 
be laid upon the table, printed, and a copy thereof be mailed 
to each member of the Society, with a notice that it will be 
taken up for action at a meeting of the Society to be held on 
the second Tuesday of January, 1903. 

Hon. L. D. Stevens presented a preliminary report of the 
committee to whom was referred the communications from 
Messrs. McClure, Van Tyne, and Little, Brown & Co., with 
reference to printing the Webster letters, which report was 

Hon. Charles H. Carpenter of Chichester was elected an 
active member of the Society. 

On motion of John C. Thorne, amended by Col. J. E. Pecker, 
Messrs. John C. Ordway, William P. Fiske, and John C. Thorne 
were appointed a committee on field-day, with discretionary 

The resignation of Col. J. E. Pecker as a member of the 
committee on new members was accepted, and Isaac A. Hill, 
Esq., chosen to fill the vacancy. 

On motion of Mr. J. C. Thorne, 

Voted, That the addresses given at annual meetings shall be 
delivered in the afternoon or evening, as the committee may 
arrange with the speaker of the occasion. 

Adjourned, subject to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. H., Dec. 10, 1902. 

The second adjourned eightieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society at Concord, Wednesday, Dec. 10, 1902, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon. 


The meeting was called to order by the secretary, and Hon. 
L. D. Stevens chosen president//^ tan. 

Rev. D. C. Knowles of Tilton was presented by the presi- 
dent, and gave an address on " The Life and Character of the 
Late Methodist Bishop Osman Cleander Baker," who died in 
Concord in 187 1, at the conclusion of which the thanks of the 
Society were tendered the speaker, and a copy of the address 
requested for preservation in the archives of the Society. 


Osman Cleander Baker was born in Marlow, N. H., July 30, 
1812. He was the son of Dr. Isaac and Abigail Baker, who 
were highly respected in the community for their piety, genuine 
culture, and deep interest in the public good. Both were de- 
vout members of the Methodist Episcopal church. The family 
was not wealthy, even for those days of small fortunes, but was 
thrifty, economical, and possessed of a quiet refinement that 
gave it a marked influence in the social life of the town. 

Osman was the youngest of the children, having two brothers 
and two sisters older than himself. He was a modest, bashful 
child, gentle in disposition, disinclined to rough, active sports, 
yet manly and courageous where duty called. Plis early edu- 
cation was received in the common school of his native town 
until he was fifteen years of age, when he was sent for brief 
periods to the Chesterfield academy. 

In 1826 his parents united with the Methodist church, which 
fact brought them into an intimate friendship with the Rev. 
Dr. Wilbur Fisk, who at that time was a shining light in that 
denomination. Soon after this acquaintance was made Dr. 
Fisk was called to the presidency of Wilbraham academy, and 
it was natural that his intimacy with the family should suggest 
that Osman, then seventeen years of age, should be sent to 
that institution. It was fortunate for the young man that he 
fell thus early under the educational supervision of one of the 
noblest characters of New England. 

A schoolmate at Wilbraham, speaking of Bishop Baker as he 
knew him, says : " He was a retiring and amiable youth, of 



soft speech and gentle ways, not specially social and communi- 
cative, save to a select few, with whom, however, he was not 
backward to converse of his youthful sentiments, trials, and 
sorrows. His health was not firm and perfect, and a secret 
infirmity attached itself to him in those days, and which in fact 
was chronic, adhering to him through life, and very possibly 
contributing to his early decline. Few doubtless suspected 
any such disability as they have looked upon the apparently 
robust form and the countenance so bland and fresh of his 
mature manhood." 

On the 14th day of March, 1828, during a remarkable relig- 
ious interest in the school, young Baker decided to surrender 
his life to the Lord Jesus. His religious experience was clear 
and positive. It seemed, said one who was present, like "a 
sudden uprising from darkness to light, from tears to smiles, 
from depression and distress to joy unspeakable." 

Dr. John W. Merrill, a fellow-student, and a lifelong co-la- 
borer, says : " I saw him in his room after this wonderful tran- 
sition in his spiritual life, and his countenance was as radiant 
as that of a happy child. He said little, but smiles of perfect 
gladness greeted all his schoolmates." He was baptized on 
the 13th of April by Dr. Fisk, and the next day was received 
as a probationer in the Methodist church. This religious 
experience threw him into the fellowship of a very remarkable 
band of young men, who were students at that time at Wilbra- 
ham. Several of these subsequently became eminent minis- 
ters. None of them are now living. Dr. John W. Merrill, 
already referred to, who resided in Concord, N. H., was the 
last of the number to pass away, at the advanced age of ninety- 
three years. 

In this choice society young Baker was accustomed to sally 
forth on excursions in the mountain neighborhoods for the pur- 
pose of holding religious services in schoolhouses for the bene- 
fit of the rural population. 

On June 21, 1829, he received from his church the privilege 
of speaking as an exhorter, and on Sept. 9th of the same year 
he entered the pulpit in his native town to speak formally for 
the first time on religious themes. Referring to the occasion, 



he says in his diary: "I went with trembling steps; but had 
considerable liberty in exhorting and praying." 

Dec. 25, 1829, he was recommended for a license to preach, 
and Jan. 1, 1830, was duly licensed by the authorities of his 

It was an unspeakable privilege for the young man during 
this formative period of his life that he had placed before him as 
a model such a man as Dr. Fisk, one of the noblest spirits of the 
last century. 

He was a rare educator and counselor for young men. He 
called together a class of the brightest minds of the school for 
theological conversations, became their leader and most inti- 
mate friend, and with fatherly solicitude fashioned their ideals 
of life. Young Baker joined this class, and with a personal 
admiration for his teacher, born of a pure spirit and youthful 
enthusiasms, drank in the richest inspirations from this great 
soul. The interest was heartily reciprocated, and Fisk watched 
the progress of the pupil, loved him, and gave him the best of 
his own life. 

In the fall of 1830 Dr. Fisk resigned his position at Wilbra- 
ham and entered upon his duties as president of Wesleyan 
university, an institution located at Middletown, Conn. It 
was a new college, its doors being opened for the first time for 
students in 1830. 

It was an easy transition for young Baker to enter college 
along with his old instructor, and accordingly we find him 
numbered with its first class. His diary gives us the following 
data: "Oct. 6, 1830. Started in the stage this morning at 
half past six o'clock, with Bro. Patten, for Middletown, Conn., 
by the request of my parents and friends and the candid advice 
of the preachers and my brethren, and the corresponding feel- 
ings of my own heart. I have started for the college grove." 

After three years of close and delightful application to his 
studies at Wesleyan his health gave way, and he was compelled 
temporarily to relinquish his college course. This great trial 
brought him face to face with the serious problems of life, and 
stamped an impress of soberness on his spirit. However, he 
managed subsequently to complete his course, and in 1837 he 




received the honorary degree of A. M. in token of his scholarly 

In the fall of 1834 a new seminary was opened in Newbury, 
Vt., and Mr. Baker was selected as one of its faculty. A friend 
and fellow teacher in the institution with him says : " He had 
come up to the stature and aspect of a portly and handsome 
man, his general appearance being much as it was along his 
subsequent and mature years. He stood at six feet, his face 
full and florid, his eyes protected by spectacles, his hair black, 
his bearing gentle and sober, and characterized by a calm dig- 
nity joined with a pleasant and unaffected urbanity." 

For five years he filled the position of teacher in this school. 
He brought to his tasks a devotion that made him at once a 
master of his pupils. In whatever department he was called 
to teach he made a full preparation for his class, and went 
before it only when surcharged with facts and illustrations that 
captivated the attention of his scholars. This habit of consci- 
entious application to his duties clung to him in whatever field 
of toil he entered. 

During these years of teaching he very modestly declined to 
divide his attention by preaching, and consequently seldom 
appeared before an audience. He adopted the apostolic 
motto, "This one thing I do," and conscientiously confined 
himself to the work of the class-room. 

When these five years of faithful service had passed, he was 
elected to the presidency of the institution, and for five years 
more held that responsible position. These were years of 
testing. Every endowment of the man was called into highest 
exercise. His new responsibilities brought him into greater 
publicity and developed powers hitherto untried. But he 
acquitted himself right manfully, gained the respect and love 
of his pupils and patrons, and proved himself a disciplinarian 
of a high order. 

While he held this position he imitated the example of his 
great model, Wilbur Fisk, and gathered the young men prepar- 
ing for the ministry into a special class for theological instruc- 
tion. This class became the nucleus of the first theological 
seminary in the Methodist Episcopal Church, so that the whole 



system of theological education in Methodism may be said to 
have been initiated at Wilbraham academy by Wilbur Fisk, 
and subsequently developed into a full-fledged, institution 
under the guidance of Bishop Baker. 

While principal of Newbury seminary Mr. Baker, in 1839, 
united with the New Hampshire conference on trial. 

In 1844, after ten years of faithful school service as teacher 
and principal, he resigned his position and entered the ministry 
as an itinerant, receiving an appointment at Rochester, N. II. 
The next year he was stationed at St. Paul's church, Manches- 
ter, N. II,., and the year following, by the unanimous and 
urgent request of the preachers, he was appointed presiding 
elder of Dover district. Before the year expired he was elected 
professor in the Biblical institute just located at Concord, 
N. H. This separate and independent institution was the out- 
growth of his class at Newbury, and it was natural that its 
originator and teacher should be called back to its peculiar 
field of instruction. 

Mr. Baker hesitated. He was supremely happy in his work 
in the conference, his ministers clung to him with rare devo- 
tion, and he was loth to give up the pulpit for the class-room. 
One of the board of trustees that elected him said : " Professor 
Baker has done more to organize and give shape to this new 
institution than any other man, and he is now looked to as one 
of the chief men to fashion its future." Plied with such argu- 
ments he could not resist the call of duty, and he accepted 
the trust. 

In this school he found a field for the highest exercise of his 
special gifts. He had passed the period of a novitiate, and 
brought to his new duties a fully developed genius for teach- 
ing. All the riches of a well-trained intellect were called into 
requisition, and his accumulated stores of learning were drawn 
upon without stint. He held the department of -homiletics* 
and aside from regular recitations he gave his pupils individual 
attention in the preparation of sermons, criticising in detail 
everything pertaining to their perfection. " In these exercises 
he breathed hope and courage into the timid, took the conceit 
out of the vain, rounded off the rough corners of the unpol- 


ished, and tore out by the root those unconscious bad habits 
of the otherwise promising ones, which hindered their rising to 
a higher plane of popular usefulness. These criticisms were 
always in the most gentle spirit, and in respectful language, 
but with most unbending fidelity. Surprise and grief some- 
times followed, but tears of joy and gratitude were the final 
results." He prepared and delivered to each class a course of 
lectures on " Clerical Manners and Habits," which are an 
exhaustive statement of some of the formal vices of the pulpit. 
They are preeminenly practical, and call attention to these 
minor defects of public speakers, which militate against their 

He also made a special study of the peculiar principles, pol- 
ity, and genius of Methodism, which resulted in after years in 
a standard work on Methodist organization and law. 

In 1850, on the retirement of Dr. Dempster from the presi- 
dency of the school, he was elected to that position. In this 
enlarged opportunity for service he was found to be equally 
well equipped. This constant experience of meeting the re- 
quirements of every position to which he was called led his 
brethren to select him as a delegate to the General Conference 
which met in Boston, May i, 1852. According to the unwrit- 
ten law of Methodism, the first person elected, or if two or 
more are elected on the first ballot, the one having the highest 
vote is regarded as leading his delegation, and is thereby hon- 
ored with peculiar privileges. Bishop Baker was chosen by 
his brethren to this position of honor, which marked him as 
the most prominent delegate from his conference. Already it 
had been whispered abroad that if any general superintend- 
ents, as the bishops are officially known, were to be elected, 
the name of Osman C. Baker would be presented as the candi- 
date of New England. His dignity, urbanity, well-poised men- 
tal and spiritual powers, tested through long years of success- 
ful activity both in schools and pulpits and in other ecclesias- 
cal relations, had so commanded the respect and admiration of 
those who knew him best that they naturally suggested him as 
a suitable person for the highest office in the gift of the church. 
His election took place on the first ballot, with three others, 



Scott, Simpson, and Ames, all of whom subsequently won a 
national reputation for vigor of understanding and power in 
the pulpit. 

It is said by those who were nearest to the bishop that his 
election was a great surprise. His distrust of his own gifts 
and native shrinking from glaring publicity led him to question 
the wisdom of his brethren and the propriety of immediate 
resignation of the honor. One of his most intimate friends 
asserts that before he accepted ordination he asked for a pri- 
vate interview, and during a long and lonely walk together 
sought counsel as to his duty. He states that he was only 
convinced that he ought to accept the office after much prayer- 
ful solicitude. 

Soon after his ordination as Bishop, according to the cus- 
toms of the body, he was called to preside over its delibera- 
tions for a day. This is always a severe test of self-possession. 
The Conference is one of the largest deliberative assemblies in 
the world, and often contains some of the most expert parlia- 
mentarians, who demand the highest excellence in a presiding 
officer. To one so modest as Bishop Baker, so retiring in dis- 
position and free from self-complacency, the task must have 
been an ordeal of a crucial character. 

But, says one writing of the occasion, "This new and modest 
Bishop walked up amid his fresh and untried obligations and 
labors with a firm and deliberate step. No shrinking or tremor 
was visible. He seemed to be at once familiar with the new 
situation, and conscious of ample strength to occupy and honor 
it. Pie had all the seeming of perfect self-possession ; and, 
though the youngest Bishop, we believe, that ever stood before 
such a Conference, there was an apparent familiarity with all 
the rules governing the presiding officer, and a promptness in 
their observance, accompanied with a propriety and dignity of 
bearing and demeanor such as surprised his friends, and con* 
firmed their assurance of his capability for his new position 
and obligations." 

Doubtless this self-possession was the product of long and 
diligent study of parliamentary law. Without any expectation 
of the public demands to be made upon him, with a simple 



student's love of knowledge, he had made himself familiar with 
the principles that govern deliberate assemblies. Indeed he 
had given to the Church a hand-book on parliamentary law 
which indicates his interest in this subject. It also reveals 
his judicial cast of mind and readiness to master intricate 
principles of law and order. When the test came, therefore, 
he was not found wanting, but presided like one long used to 
command order in legislative assemblies. 

An unknown writer, present at the first annual Conference 
over which he presided, speaks thus of him in the Zion's Herald: 
"He is so calm and dignified, so deliberate and judicious that 
you would not think him new were you unacquainted with the 
fact. Indeed, there is hardly friction enough about him to 
make you feel that he has not yet been used. You insensibly 
forget to extend that kind of sympathy which you suppose all 
beginners have a right to claim. As you sit in the Conference^ 
remembering that he was not a Bishop a month ago, you expect, 
and even desire, the novelty of an occasional blunder. You 
have now waited session after session for a single mistake that 
may comfort you, and all is still marked by consummate wisdom 
and prudence, and you exclaim, how perfectly adapted to his 
office !" 

For fourteen years Bishop Baker performed the onerous du- 
ties of a general superintendent in the Church, traveling, as is 
the custom, far and wide in the prosecution of his work, giv- 
ing the highest satisfaction in the exercise of his appointing 
power and in supervising the various interests committed to 
his care. 

In June, 1866, he held a Conference in Empire City, Col- 
orado. His only means of reaching that point was by stage for 
more than five hundred miles, over lofty altitudes whose dimin- 
ished atmospheric pressure tested his physical powers to the 
utmost. The poor fare by the way with the lack of refreshing 
rest, and consequent exhaustion, brought on an attack of par- 
tial paralysis, which particularly affected the vocal organs. 

Having completed his official duties and with a full knowl- 
edge of the serious nature of his disabilities, he turned his face 
homeward over the same difficult route, the only way open to 


him to return. How he succeeded in preserving life until he 
reached his home is inexplicable. Once again at home he 
found rest, medical treatment, and the ministries of love which 
partially restored him to health. But his life-work" was almost 
completed. The hardships endured on that double journey 
had shattered the tenement of the soul too severely to permit 
energetic toil thereafter. Although he occasionally met a Con- 
ference and performed a few official duties after this attack, yet 
he never recovered his vigor sufficiently to warrant the renewal 
of past labors. 

He lingered about five years in impaired health, but with his 
intellectual faculties unclouded. He attended the smaller con- 
ventions of ministers, mingled quite freely in the various gath- 
erings of the home church, and peacefully and hopefully awaited 
the call to a richer inheritance. 

On the 20th of December, 187 1, he quietly passed away, ex- 
pressing to his wife his perfect resignation to the will of God, 
and his entire trust in the Lord Jesus as an all-sufficient 

His funeral at Concord was largely attended by citizens and 
ministerial friends, and his career of honor and usefulness set 
forth by those who had loved him in life and sorrowed deeply 
at his departure. 

In a few weeks his oldest daughter, Mrs. E. F. Pitcher, wife 
of Rev. E. F. Pitcher, joined him in the land of spirits, bring- 
ing a double affliction to his family. 

Soon after leaving Wesleyan university, in 1833, Bishop 
Baker was united in marriage to Miss Mehitabel Perley, of 
Lempster, N. H., a lady of excellent family, herself a person of 
superior education and culture. Five children were born to 
them, three of whom died in early life. Two daughters grew 
to womanhood, the elder, Mrs. Pitcher, just referred to as dying 
shortly after her father, and Nellie, now Mrs. S. C. Morrill, 
who still resides in Concord, in the old home made memorable 
by so many holy associations. Six grandchildren remain, — 
Mrs. Grace Odlin, daughter of Mrs. Pitcher, and the five chil- 
dren of Mrs. Morrill. The widow died May 8, 1890, and lies 
buried by her husband's side in the Concord cemetery. 


Bishop Baker's family life combined all the requisites of a 
Christian home. It was a happy union of two lives welded 
together by a supreme affection for a common Saviour and 
Lord, by mutual tastes, purposes, and sympathies, and the un- 
sparing love of devoted and dutiful daughters. The sorrows of 
a threefold bereavment had only sweetened its fellowship. 

It was a home enriched by~an unfailing hospitality. Bishop 
Baker had a wide circle of friends, and he loved to greet them 
in his domestic circle. His social life was not fed with idle 
gossip, for which he had no relish, but with the great subjects 
that always charm and interest great souls. He loved to hold 
intimate converse on the interests of education, the manifold 
movements of society, ecclesiastical politics, and the kindred 
forces of Christian civilization. These were the topics that held 
first place at table and fireside. All whose hearts had affini- 
ties for such themes were welcome to his home and found rich 
inspiration in his conversation. 

Bishop Baker was justly regarded ,by those who knew him 
best as a wise counselor in practical affairs. His advice was 
often sought by his ministerial associates in the investment of 
money, and none had reason to distrust the conservative wisdom 
of his judgment. This ability led his neighbors to utilize his 
business gifts in the management of moneyed institutions, and 
he was given office in one or more of the banks of the city of 
Concord where for years he was so well known. 

His intellectual powers were distinguished for clearness and 
precision. He saw intuitively the central facts and basic prin- 
ciples of every subject he took in hand. Whatever the nature 
of the topic, theology, business, social problems, or distributing 
appointments, he did not permit his mind to be confused with 
minor details, but penetrated at once to the main issues. This 
mental habit gave such a poise to his faculties that he was en- 
abled to draw his conclusions with almost unerring wisdom. 
Hence the profound confidence men placed in his decisions. 
They felt he was absolutely honest in his views, and that his 
opinions were the inductions of a clear vision. In other words, 
he was a man of sound judgment in all lines of thought, prac- 
tical and speculative. 


It was a distinguishing peculiarity of his mind that his powers 
of thought outran his power of speech. He saw a truth or 
fact before he could give it utterance. His speech was slow 
and measured but exceedingly exact. He seldom recalled a 
word or changed the form of an expression. His impulses 
were so controlled that they did not confuse thought and 
language, and apparently he never spoke without first selecting 
the one word that embodied his idea. 

And yet he was not wanting in feeling. His heart was as 
sensitive as a woman's. One who knew him intimately said of 
him: " His love and sympathy, his sorrow and disappointment, 
were as quickly apparent as his far-reaching perception. If he 
ever exhibited anger we never saw or heard of it. Sudden 
and unexpected opposition he seemed powerless to resist, but 
with the artlessness of a child he looked around for some one 
to assist him. Once, in his strong manhood, we saw him, by 
a sudden and unprovoked assault, completely thrown. The 
assault was uncalled for, and by a- lifelong friend. He was 
struck dumb. His perfect rectitude was apparent at once to 
all ; but the surprise unfitted him to state clearly his own case. 
The shock was too much for his exquisite nervous system. We 
never before or after saw him under a guerilla fire. That was 
not his mode of warfare." 

Bishop Baker was not, in the popular acceptation of the 
term, a great pulpit orator. His temperament, habits of 
thought, and teaching methods led him to adopt a style of 
expression quite different from that which usually character- 
izes popular oratory. 

His mental processes were those of a teacher. Whether 
this was a native endowment or the product of habit we may 
not decide. It is certain, however, that long experience in the 
class-room is not calculated to cultivate persuasive oratory. 
The intellectual processes differ. The teacher becomes didac- 
tic, while the orator must be a master of persuasion. The 
teacher aims to convince the understanding, the orator to move 
the will. The greatest speakers must combine both these 
abilities. Conviction and persuasion are characteristics of all 
great masters of speech. 


Bishop Baker by long training in the class-room had become 
a prince among teachers. All his mental processes were as 
clear as crystal. When he had made a subject plain to "the 
understanding, he was satisfied, and sat down with the feeling 
that he had completed his task. But preaching requires some- 
thing more. The hearer must not only know duty, he must be 
moved to do it. A man may be great in making duty clear, 
and yet lack the power to enforce its claims until the rebel- 
lious will yields to its imperative demands. Such a preacher 
will delight men of culture and intelligence, whose trained in- 
tellects enjoy an intellectual feast, but he will not always suc- 
ceed in capturing the heart of the masses. The human will is 
a citadel which needs to be invested and stormed by stern as- 
saults, and only he can carry it who hurls thunderbolts against 
its defenses or persuades it to open its gates by winning ap- 
peals. It was not the forte of Bishop Baker to do this. He 
invested the fortress with truth, another must needs lead the 
attack. But his discourses were always perfect of their kind. 
They were intellectually strong, clear, conclusive. They were 
expressed in elegant English, giving the hearer priceless in- 
structions in duty. His manner was simple, natural, almost 
devoid of gesticulation, which befitted his style of speech. 
There was no effort to set off his thought by an effective man- 
ner. He explained, expounded, and declared the truth in the 
most gentle and unadorned way, and left the hearer to accept 
or refuse its message. 

A lifelongjriend has characterized his pulpit ministrations 
in the following words : " It must be remembered that preach- 
ing was not his delight, as was teaching; nor were his natural 
gifts in that direction equal to those that fitted him to shine 
so conspicuously in the professor's chair. It should also be 
membered that most of his public life prior to his election to 
the episcopacy was devoted to teaching — a calling which, 
when long and earnestly pursued, is discerned to induce habits 
of thought, expression, and manner generally not precisely 
favorable to that special style of preaching most agreeable to 
the popular taste. The truly eloquent and popular preacher 



is ordinarily one with whom preaching is a familiar and regular 
exercise, and not a mere occasional or incidental effort. 

The preaching of Baker might have been justly character- 
ized as sound in sentiment, orderly in arrangement, chaste and 
correct in style, clear and distinct in statement, pertinent in 
illustration, convincing in' argumentation, and sober and dig- 
nified in delivery. As he preached there was discernible very 
little of chaff among the wheat, very few confused or unmean- 
ing remarks. He was but slightly given to anecdote; he never 
in preaching, we believe, awakened a smile, and he seldom 
extorted a tear. His demeanor in the pulpit was faultless ; 
he was there perfectly himself, assuming no airs, indulging 
no violent gestures, and evincing no constraint or uneasiness, 
with attitude firm and dignified, a voice clear and musical, yet 
under excitement, often soaring and rapid as he rounded to the 
close of his sermon. On the whole, he was no mean preacher, 
but one to whom thoughtful men and women were wont to 
listen with interest, and often with delight, as the earnest and 
faithful message issued from his lips. For if Bishop Baker- 
was wanting in one or another of the more showy and popular 
elements of a great and eloquent preacher, he was far from any 
lack in what must be reckoned as the basis of all truly excel- 
lent preaching. He was well read and sound as a theologian. 
He had found time for a careful study of Christian doctrine 
generally, and was specially conversant with all the prominent 
writers of his own church, possessing himself of a thorough 
understanding of their sentiments and spirit; and if, in his 
labors at the institute, the department of theology had devolved 
upon him, instead of the one he so ably sustained, his light 
would have shone there with at least an equal radiance and 

As we have already stated, Bishop Baker impressed his per- 
sonality the most deeply on his church as a teacher. It seemed 
to be his conviction that this was his true sphere, and he was 
called out of it only by the strenuous urgings of his brethren. 
He prepared himself for class work with conscientious fidelity. 
He was never satisfied with previous attainments, but sought 



in every field for fresh illustrations and facts with which to 
elucidate the subject and attract the attention of his pupils. 

Teaching with him was not a task to be performed for the 
salary it secured him, or because it was his profession which 
necessitated earnestness for successful results. It was rather 
a work that he loved from a high appreciation of its dignity, 
utility, and necessity in the development of immortal souls. 
He Carried the work in the spirit of a Christian philosopher, 
who felt it a joy and a privilege to mark the unfoldings of 
young minds and point them to the higher summits of truth. 
It was this spirit that enabled him to stand almost unrivaled 
in any branch of study to which he turned his attention. 

" Fruitful of invention, apt and ample in illustration, indefat- 
igable in research, charged with a generous enthusiasm, in- 
spired with a single aim, and prompted to a full and firm 
endeavor, he came to his classes possessed of conscious 
strength for his work, and with a complete mastery of the 
business before him. Strong as he was as a teacher, yet, as he 
taught, there was no affectation of strength, — no ostentation of 
ability or learning. True, there was in that lecture room ani- 
mation, vivacity, assurance, sunshine; but, withal, the same 
calmness, the same gentle, affable spirit that marked him in 
his general intercourse and habits elsewhere." 

During his five years of teaching in the Biblical Institute 
at Concord he performed a large amount of literary work, 
of which his most intimate friends had no knowledge until 
after his death. He left a number of unpublished manuscripts, 
among which we might enumerate "The Life of Augustine," 
"The Birth and Childhood of our Lord," "Exegesis of the 
Acts of the Apostles," " Exegesis of the Epistles," with many 
sermons and addresses delivered on various occasions. 

The only work he ever published involving extended research 
and critical judgment was a digest of Methodist law, which has 
ever been a standard in his denomination. Its title is " Baker 
on the Discipline." In the preface the author says: "The 
design of this little manual is to furnish junior preachers with 
a brief, plain guide for the correct discharge of their official 
duties." The field was almost entirely new, and the sugges- 


tions and principles set forth were the product of his own 
mind. They reveal an intellect of the highest judicial order. 
The Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church was pro- 
nounced by Daniel Webster, who was retained as the counsel 
of the Methodist Church South in its great lawsuit with the 
Church North, after its division in 1844, as one of the most 
remarkable pieces of constructive statesmanship that he had 
ever studied. To have taken such a work in hand de novo, 
mastered its underlying principles, and elucidated its legisla- 
tive provisions, so that it has been recognized for several 
decades as the legal standard of the Church, is an honor that 
any mind might covet. This Bishop Baker did for his denomi- 
nation, and it is a more lasting monument to his memory and 
a richer tribute to his intellectual worth than the marble that 
rises above his grave. 

As already suggested, his greatest life-work was the estab- 
lishment of the Biblical Institute, thus opening in the Metho- 
dist Church the great problems of an educated ministry. This 
enterprise was new in American Methodism, and, as was very 
natural, was met with much opposition from some of the strong- 
est minds of the Church. Dr. Abel Stevens, the historian of 
Methodism, in his supplementary history of the Church, just 
published, says : " While Bishop Baker was at Newbury he had 
been instrumental in the formation of the Newbury Biblical 
Institute. This was the germ of all future theological schools 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church. In those days Methodists 
generally, ministers as well as laymen, cherished a prejudice 
against the idea of theological schools. Through the efforts of 
Bishop Baker and others, however, this prejudice was so over- 
come in New England that the New England Conference was 
at length persuaded to adopt the institute, which in 1847 was 
removed to Concord, N. II., and christened the Methodist 
General Biblical Institute." 

This movement in theological education thus initiated by 
Bishop Baker has had a wonderful development, and has 
affected his denomination beyond his most sanguine expecta- 
tions, for the official reports of the Church reveal that in 1898 
there were twenty-six such institutions established under the 


auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with property 
invested in real estate, buildings, equipments, and endowments 
to the amount of $3,200,000, and almost 1,500 young men in 
preparation for the Christian ministry, instructed by 117 pro- 
fessors and assistant teachers. 

What finite mind can estimate the far-reaching influence of 
such a life. He rests from his labors, but his works do follow 
him. ^ 

On motion of Mr. J. C. Thorne, Hon. J. B. Walker, Giles 
Wheeler, and W. P. Fiske were appointed a committee to pre- 
pare a list of prominent historic sites in Concord worthy of 
marking with suitably inscribed tablets, and estimates, if pos- 
sible, of the probable cost of such tablets. 

Mr. James Ayer of Salem and E. Bertram Pike of Pike's 
Station, Haverhill, were elected active members of the Society. 

A further communication from Messrs. Little; Brown 6^ Co., 
publishers, of Boston, requesting permission to examine and 
publish a part of the Daniel Webster letters in the possession 
of the Society, was referred to a special committee consisting 
of the members of the library committee and Messrs. L. D. 
Stevens, S. C. Eastman, and Henry W. Stevens, to report at a 
subsequent meeting. 

Adjourned to the call of the president. 

A true copy, attest : 

John C. Ordwav, 


Concord, January 13, 1903. 

The third adjourned eightieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society at Concord, Tuesday, January 13, 1903, at eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon, with an attendance of nine members. 

In the absence of the president, the Rev. D. C. Roberts, 
D. D., vice-president, called the meeting to order. 


The committee to whom was referred 1 the request of Little, 
Brown & Co. of Boston, Mass.,' 2 "to make examination of the 
Webster letters belonging to this Society, and to print such of 
them as are of importance,'' report that it is expedient to com- 
ply with the request ; the selection of the letters to be subject 
to the oversight of the publication committee of the Society. 

The report, on motion of Rev. N. F. Carter, was adopted. 

Miss Harriette E. Noyes of Hampstead and Mr. Thomas M. 
Jackson, of Brooklyn, N. Y., were elected active members of 
the Society. 

Hon. J. B. Walker presented the report of the committee 
appointed at a previous meeting to suggest to the Society what 
sites in the city of Concord are, in their opinion, of sufficient 
historic importance to be marked by tablets, recommending 
the following : 

1. The site of the twelve garrisons erected during the French 
and Indian wars. 

2. The site of the building in which the New Hampshire 
legislature held its first session in Concord, March, 1782. 

3. The site of the town house, built for the use of the town 
and the legislature in 1790. 

4. The site of the first bank in Concord. 

5. The site of the state prison built in 1812. 

6. The site of Mother Osgood's tavern. 

7. The site of Concord's first schoolhouse. 

8. The site of the old road leading across Soucook river to 
the lower towns on the Merrimack, called the carrying way. 

9. The site of the iron works. 

10. The site of the birthplace of Nathaniel II. Carter. 

11. Dea. John Merrill's ferry. 

The report, on motion of Mr. Thorne, was accepted and the 
committee continued. 

lion. S. C. Eastman moved that the report of the special 
committee chosen to take into consideration the subject of new 
or enlarged accommodations for the library and rooms of the 
Society be considered at this time. 

1 Dec. 10, 1902. 

2 Conveyed in a communication to President Todd, bearing date Nov. 29, 1902. 


The report is as follows : 


The committee appointed to consider the subject of an addi- 
tion to the present building of the Society, or the construction 
of a new one, submit the following report : 

The committee found that the library now contains about 
17,000 volumes, 400 duplicates, " and 60,000 pamphlets, not 
including magazines. Of these there are 4,635 volumes of the 
publications of tlie United States. There are in addition, for 
exchange and sale, 1,540 volumes of the State Historical pub- 
lications and 1,493 of the Society's collections and transac- 

An examination of the building, made by competent build- 
ers, disclosed the fact that the present building is strong and 
substantial, and shows no signs of weakness, except that the 
third floor has settled slightly and would need to be supported 
by posts if much more weight is to be placed upon it. By a 
small expenditure, if this were deemed advisable, supports 
could be put in, and by a little rearrangement of the alcoves 
shelves could be added for 7,400 volumes. 

The building is not fire proof, but is not exposed to destruc- 
tion by fire from the outside. 

The committee also obtained an estimate of what could be 
done with $10,000. They found that this amount of money 
would be utterly inadequate to build an addition on Main 
street of a size and style which would be in harmony with the 
present structure and at the same time substantially fire proof. 
If such a building is desired, a much larger fund must be 

It was found that an addition could be made on the east, 
over the present fire-proof vault, 30x34 feet, two stories high, 
as nearly lire proof as a building can be, which would contain 
stack room for 8,000 volumes, at a cost of $8,000. Of course 
if the whole fund were used, the building could be made large 
enough to contain 1 0,000 volumes. Such a building would 
relieve the present building from the storage of books, but 
would make no additional accommodation for a picture gallery, 
hall, or museum, save that afforded by what would be gained 
by removal of books from where they now are. 

The committee also learned that there is no reason to expect 
that the Sabine library will be immediately turned over to the 
Society, so that the necessity of providing for its reception and 
care in accordance with the terms of the gift is not a present 
one. It is to be hoped that it is merely postponed. 



The foregoing facts led your committee to consider the gen- 
eral subject of the object and scope of the Society, and to 
review a little more in detail the present condition of the 
library and its needs. 

There is no library, however large or well endowed, that 
does not place some limit to the hospitality it shows to the 
reception of printed material. The larger the library the 
greater is the need of defining what shall be received and what 
rejected. When we call to mind the fact that for the proper 
storage and care of books the investment in building and pre- 
liminary work is estimated at from $1.00 to $1.50 a volume, 
we find that when this capital cost is paid, it means an 
interest charge of not less than four cents a year for each 
volume put upon the shelves. As the large majority of 
the books in any library are untouched in any one year, 
and perhaps this is true if we say for each period of t]vc 
years, a true economy requires that before entering upon a 
large expenditure for housing our library, we should consider 
what we want in it and what our probable need will be in the 
lines which we determine we should pursue. 

We want our expenditure of money to produce the greatest 
profit to the objects we have in view. If we can secure a hun- 
dred books that are likely to be needed by those who now or 
hereafter have occasion to frequent our alcoves, we had better 
secure these, even if by so doing we deprive ourselves of the 
custody of fifty books which, while perhaps valuable in them- 
selves, do not contribute directly to the purposes for which the 
library was founded. 

For instance, we cannot afford to give place to current fic- 
tion by English authors if by so doing we should directly or 
indirectly abridge our supply of books relating to New Hamp- 
shire history, nor could we afford to secure a valuable col- 
lection relating to astronomical science if we were thereby 
deprived of works relating to the history of the United States. 

It is difficult for a genuine librarian or real lover of books to 
refuse to accept and give a refuge to any printed book or 
pamphlet, no matter what its subject is. Even a directory of 
a remote city would be rejected with a pang, and it causes a 
heartache to consign the ephemeral newspaper made of cheap 
wood pulp to the furnace. Yet, unless you have all the wealth 
of Mr. Carnegie as well as his inclination to devote it to the 
cause of libraries, the line must be drawn somewhere. 

Where shall it be drawn is the real question. Our constitu- 
tion points out what the founders thought should be our guide : 
"The object of the New Hampshire Historical Society shall be 


10 discover, procure, and preserve whatever may relate to the 
natural, civil, literary, and ecclesiastical history of the United 
States in general, and of this state in particular.'' 

A very broad held is opened to us here. If we fill this, we 
shall have enough to do. It will naturally require us to take 
in almost any printed book or pamphlet relating to the town 
affairs of any town in the state, to the personal history of any 
individual citizen, or of any one. who was born in the state, 
including any books or pamphlets written by any citizen of 
New Hampshire,** ™ 

This would constitute our special field, which we should cul- 
tivate most assiduously. 

Then there is our general field of the history of the United 
States, which calls for less detailed consideration. 

The purpose of such a collection is twofold. We want the 
material for the instruction of the people of the state as well 
as to some extent for their amusement. The second and 
important purpose is the accumulation of material out of which 
history may be written hereafter. A little, obscure pamphlet, 
a printed letter in a personal controversy, or some report relat- 
ing to a business enterprise, may furnish some single fact 
which will be of great service to the writer of history a hundred 
years hence. 

It is for that reason that we must go to the expense of tak- 
ing in and caring for much that seems to be trivial. These are 
often the very things that are otherwise lost. A bound book 
is apt to be preserved where the smaller productions disappear. 

Is it an object for the Society to attempt to compete with 
general libraries outside of the sphere which our constitution 
thus prescribes ? It seems to your committee that it is not 
wise to do this. The aim should be to complete our de- 
partment rather than to be able to say that we have a large 
number of volumes, many of which are foreign to the objects 
of the Society. If we have such books, unless they are in 
themselves works of real value, we had better let them give 
place to others. 

An examination of our library shows that there is much 
space now taken up with the books and pamphlets of a class 
not within our sphere that are not of genuine value in and for 
themselves. Some of them possess a qualified value ; many 
have an ephemeral interest and their preservation somewhere 
is doubtless desirable. It will not be possible to cite any par- 
ticular class that will not find some defenders. At the risk of 
exciting such opposition we will mention a few cases. 

This is the day of magazines. It is probable that no mem- 



ber of this Society could give the names of half of those that 
are published in this country alone. It is a fact also that there 
is hardly one, even of the more serious issues, of which bound 
sets, so far as published, cannot be obtained from time to time 
at auction sales at about half the cost of binding. If we ex- 
cept a very small number like the Atlantic and the North 
American Review, is it worth while for us to fill up our 
shelves with the unbound volumes of the rest? We certainly 
cannot afford to^bind them. It seems to your committee that 
considerable space could be secured by the sale or even the 
giving away of many of these, and that such action would be 
conducive to the best interests of the Society. 

The public documents of the United States contain much 
that is of yalue, and an immensely larger amount of what Car- 
lyle calls " dry-as-dust." They should be preserved somewhere. 
A single complete set is worth much more than several imper- 
fect sets. Our collection is very imperfect. We do not now 
receive these publications regularly. We -only get a few of 
them. The state library receives them and makes an effort to 
complete its collection. We have many things that the state 
has not got. The state can afford to house them. The cases 
in which those in three alcoves in our library are consulted are 
so extremely rare that more than one of our few librarians 
would find it difficult to point to a single instance in which the 
dust of years has been disturbed. If we should make a judi- 
cious disposal of these volumes, we might help the state to 
complete its set, possibly secure a little money for use in other 
directions and also obtain a material increase in shelf room. 
The public would be equally well served and the real value of 
our library be increased rather than diminished. This is a 
subject which should be carefully considered. 

The Society also has imperfect sets of publications of other 
states than our own. None of these are complete and only a 
small number of the states are represented. Many of the vol- 
umes have only a local interest, being laws, legislative journals, 
and reports of departments. The state library preserves all 
these and it is more than doubtful if it is advisable for us to 
duplicate their work. It is the opinion of your committee that 
a very limited selection of these should be kept if any. We 
might well draw the line at New England, if indeed we go out- 
side of our own state. 

Among the pamphlets there are imperfect collections of the 
reports of railroads, reports and catalogues of societies, schools, 
and colleges, and miscellaneous matter in great numbers. 
These possess no literary value and are to be preserved if they 


are to be kept as historical statements of facts. So far as 
these relate to New England it may be well to continue to 
keep them up. It is absolutely impossible for us to extend the 
collection over the other states with any hope of securing any- 
thing more than very imperfect collections. Even if we keep 
on with what we have, we shall soon be eaten out of house and 
home even with a new building, and the time and labor of the 
librarian will be frittered away in useless care of what will 
never be sought for within our walls. Much space could be 
secured by disposing gfr our superfluous material in this direc- 

It may be said that nearly all this material comes as gifts 
and costs us nothing. In the first instance this is true. But 
as soon as we receive it, it begins to cost in the care given to 
it by the librarian, and in a never-ending interest charge on 
the cost of the building required to house it. 

Then it may be suggested that one may offend the donors 
either by declining to receive such contributions or by dispos- 
ing of them afterwards. Much of this may be avoided by a 
diplomatic dealing with the situation, when our policy is once 
established and made known. If a residuum of offense still 
remains it may be the lesser of two evils. 

As to newspapers the committee is at a loss what to say. 
We cannot afford to give house room, much less to bind the 
large numbers that we are receiving. They will in a few years 
utterly swamp us by their bulk and the cost of binding all 
would be financial ruin, or at least starve the other departments. 
They have some historical value. The files of the older papers, 
when they were not so numerous as now, and when each paper 
had an individuality of its own, are frequently consulted. It 
would not be wise to exclude all from our alcoves, but it is clear 
that we must make a selection. 

As the result of their investigations the committee unani- 
mously recommend 

1. That the library committee be authorized to dispose of 
such periodicals as do not reasonably come within the scope 
of the Society. 

2. That the library committee be authorized to dispose of 
such duplicates as it does not seem desirable to preserve. 

3. That a committee be appointed to consider the disposi- 
tion of the publications of the United States, of the various 
states, of the miscellaneous pamphlets and newspapers, and to 
report their recommendations as to what if any shall be dis- 
posed of, and what shall be kept, and how those to be kept 
shall be made more complete. 



4. That the same committee be requested to report what 
changes can be made in the present building to provide for the 
present needs, without incurring much expense. 

5. That the building fund of $10,000 and the income there- 
from be kept for the purpose for which it was given and none 
of it used for any alterations in the present building, till a sat- 
isfactory plan for its use can be decided on. 

The committee also report that in their opinion an addition 
to the present building is not desirable. Such an addition 
would be *only a makeshift*, and it would be far better in the 
long run to secure an entirely new building adapted not only 
to present needs, but so planned as to be properly enlarged to 
meet the growth of the Society in the future. If the recom- 
mendations of the committee meet with the approval of the 
Society, time can be gained to secure the means for a better 
building than could be obtained from the present fund. Hopes 
are entertained by many interested in the welfare of the Society 
that such a result can be secured from efforts that are now 
being made. 

William. C. Todd. 

Virgil C. Gilman. 

Benjamin - A. Kimball. 

Joseph B. Walker. 

Samuel C. Eastman. 

After the reading of the report, and a somewhat general dis- 
cussion of its recommendations, it was 

Voted, That the report of the committee submitted to-day be 
laid upon the table, printed, and a copy thereof mailed to each 
member of the Society, with a notice that it will be taken up 
for action at a meeting of the Society to be holden the second 
Tuesday of January, 1903. 

John C. Okdway, 

Concord, N. II. , July 10, 1902. 

After some discussion the report was accepted and the sev- 
eral recommendations of the committee adopted. 

Messrs. Eastman, Walker, and Thorne being chosen a com- 
mittee to consider the disposal of publications mentioned in 
paragraph three of the recommendations, and also to report 
what changes can be made in the present building without 
incurring much expense. 

On motion of Mr. John C. Thorne, 


Voted, That a committee of five be chosen to solicit addi- 
tional funds for the erection of a new building, and that Rev. 
N. F. Carter, Giles Wheeler, and John C. Ordway be a com- 
mittee to nominate such a committee and report at the next 

At 12:15 noon voted to take a recess until 2 p. m. 


The Society reconvened at two p. m. 3 at which time E. J. 
tturnham, Esq., of Manchester delivered an address on "The 
Life and Public Services of Hon. John Dudley of Raymond." 

A vote of thanks was tendered Mr. Burnham, and a copy of 
his address requested for preservation in the archives of the 


John Dudley, an energetic and influential member of the 
Committee of Safety during the Revolutionary period, and for 
twenty-one years a judge in the New Hampshire courts, was 
born in Exeter, April 9, 1725. His father, James Dudley, was 
a lieutenant in the Provincial militia, a cooper by trade, and a 
great-grandson of that Thomas Dudley who was one of the 
early Provincial governors of Massachusetts. It appears that 
John Dudley attended school but little, if any, and ability to 
read was about the extent of his book learning until he became 
a hired laborer of Daniel Oilman, a man of some prominence 
in Exeter, and grandfather of John Taylor Oilman, afterwards 
governor. Mr. Oilman soon discovered in young Dudley a 
mind of unusual promise, and gave him such advantages for 
improvement as his home afforded, not the least of which was 
association with persons eminent in the colony, who frequently 
visited there. It was by this means that he gained much of 
the political and general information which proved of so great 
value to himself and to his state in after years. 

June 22, 1749, when twenty-four years of age, he married 
Elizabeth Gilman. About the same time he opened a grocery 
store. Little that is authentic can now be ascertained of this 


period in his career, but he appears to have been successful in 
trade and to have increased his property materially, when 
much of it was destroyed by fire. 

In 1 75 1 he bought a one fourth interest in a sawmill and a 
small quantity of land in Raymond, and in 1766 he removed to 
that town, having purchased the farm on which he resided for 
the remainder of his life. * In 1767 he was chosen moderator, 
and reelected in 1768 and 1769. He was again elected to that 
office in 177 1, and was continuously reelected for nine years. 
He held the office again in 1782 and 1783, and finally from 
1786 until 1790. Hevvas selectman in 1767-68-69, and con. 
tinuously from 177 1 to 1777. In 1768 he was commissioned a 
justice of the peace by Gov. John Wentworth, and soon became 
one of the most influential men in the town, although it was 
not until he was nearly fifty years old that he represented Ray- 
mond in the legislature. 

Raymond, originally a part of Chester, was classed with that 
town for several years after its incorporation, and appears to 
have been represented by a resident of Chester until as late as 
1775. The first reference to John Dudley in the Journal of 
the General Assembly is found in the records of a session held 
at Portsmouth in May, 1773, when a hearing was granted on a 
petition of John Dudley that a certain deed given by him be 
declared null and void. No mention is made in the Journal of 
the final disposition of the petition. 

In the autumn of 1774 John Dudley served on a committee 
of three which had charge of bailding the first meeting-house 
in Raymond, the frame being erected September 29. It was a 
notable "raising," but events were transpiring which would 
soon call the prosperous country squire to activities in a broader 
field. The town records show that on January 16, 1775, John 
Dudley and Jonathan Swain were chosen to represent Ray- 
mond in a convention at Exeter to choose delegates to the 
Continental congress. This convention met on January 25, 
but no list of the members has been found. Another Provin- 
cial congress met in Exeter on April 21, and John Dudley took 
his seat on April 25, having been chosen as a delegate on the 
previous day. The battle of Lexington had been fought on 


the 19th, and during the intervening days Squire Dudley had 
raised a company of volunteers in Raymond and adjoining- 
towns, and hurried it on its way to join the armed patriots who 
were gathering in the neighborhood of Boston. 

The struggle for independence had begun, and, as in the 
case of so many other men of the time, was destined to bring 
about a complete change in the career of this honest, industri- 
ous, and prosperous farmer and lumberman. For eight years 
he was absent from home on public business fully half of his 
time, and it is stated that in after years he estimated that his 
property shrank one half through unavoidable neglect during 
that period. •€*» 

It does not appear from the records that John Dudley took 
an active part in the work of this third Provincial congress. 
It was a brief session, although the date of adjournment is not 
known. The fourth Provincial congress met at P^xeter, May 
r 7> 1 77S- John Dudley again represented Raymond, as he 
continued to do until the close of the Revolutionary war, and 
long before this congress adjourned his peculiar fitness for 
work in committee began to be recognized. On May 20, 1775, 
it was voted "That Coll. Thornton, Coll. Partlett, Capt. Whip- 
ple, Coll. Folsom and Ebenezer Thompson be a Committee of 
Safety and that their instructions be deferred until next week." 
On the 25th it was further voted "That Messrs. Sam'l Sher- 
burne, Pierce Long and Jno. Dudley be a Committee to bring 
in a draft impowering the Committee of Safety and Committee 
of Supplies to act in ye recess of this Congress, and also to 
recommend to this body some suitable person for Commissary." 
This committee reported on the following day, and its report 
was promptly adopted. 

The "Instructions to the Committee of Safety" are printed 
in full in Vol. VII, /. 485, of the Provincial Papers. In brief, 
they conferred upon the committee extraordinary powers to act 
for the general welfare according to the best judgment of its 
members during a recess of the legislative body. This Com- 
mittee of Safety, thus constituted and instructed, was continued 
by successive appointments, and exercised its powers until 
May 29, 1784. During all this period it was in reality the 


executive power of the government in relation to the conduct 
of the war. From first to last forty-one men served upon it, 
and John Dudley's term of service was the longest ofall these 
save one--Hon. Meshech Weare. It is worthy of note that 
he assisted in framing the act that conferred unusual powers 
upon a body with which his name and fame are inseparably 

July 4 Jojin Dudley was ad^ed to the committee appointed 
July i, to bring in a plan for regulating the militia. On July 7 
the congress adjourned to August 22. On August 24 John 
Dudley was appointed member of a committee to "try, hear 
and determine " the case of one Owen Orke, arrested on a 
warrant issued by the congress and charged with stealing " a 
number of dollars and crowns" from one Dennis Pendergast. 
There appears to be no record of the committee's decision. 

August 30 John Dudley was a member of the committee 
appointed to apportion representation in future congresses. 
On October 31 he was named on a committee "to consider 
what sum of money will be sufficient to be emitted at this time 
to answer the demands on this Colony, and a scheme for emis- 
sion thereof." This committee reported on the following day 
that the receiver general should issue notes for 20,000 pounds 
lawful money, and the report was adopted. 

On November 3 John Dudley was made member of a com- 
mittee to draft a petition to the Continental congress, praying 
their direction for " some speedy mode of government and exe- 
cution of justice in this Colony." November n he was named 
as chairman of a committee to examine the accounts of other 
committees, and on November 1 1, complaint having been made 
against Samuel Dyer as an enemy to the country, John Dudley 
was appointed chairman of a committee to investigate and 
report. As a result of the investigation it was voted on Novem- 
ber 15 "that it is the opinion of this Congress that Samuel 
Dyer ought to confine himself to his present place of abode in 
Berwick." From this time on the enemies of the country at 
home were a source of nearly as much anxiety as the enemies 
from across the sea. 

This fourth Provincial congress was dissolved by vote of its 



members on November 15. The fifth Provincial congress 
assembled at Exeter on December 2 1 of the same year. There 
were many new faces, but John Dudley was in his place, this 
time, under the new apportionment, as member from Raymond 
and Poplin, now Fremont. He was placed at once upon the 
committee on rules, and on December 27 was named by the 
house as one of a committee of fifteen " to draw up a plan for 
the government of this Colony during the present contest with 
Great Britain." Under the plan of government devised by this 
committee the fifth Provincial congresJj on January 5, 1776, 
resolved itself into " a House of Representatives or Assembly 
for the Colony of New Hampshire," and John Dudley was 
again placed on the committee on rules. He was made a 
member of a committee to confer with a committee of the 
council and report what business was necessary to be imme- 
diately entered upon, and he was also on a committee to draft 
an act concerning the proceedings of the late congresses, and 
on another to " state the wages of the present House of Assem- 
bly." It was later voted that the pay be five shillings per diem. 

On January 17, 1776, it was voted in the house that John 
Dudley be made a justice of the inferior court of common 
pleas for the county of Rockingham. This action was con- 
firmed by another vote on the 26th of the same month, and 
John Dudley entered upon his long and honorable career on 
the bench. He was a justice in the court of common pleas 
until 1785, when he was appointed a judge of the superior 
court, which position he held until 1797, having been a judge 
twenty-one years. But there was much other work for him to 
do during the years of war. 

The people of Newton were aggrieved and sent a petition to 
the assembly. John Dudley, on the 19th of January, was 
made chairman of a committee to examine into the matter and 
report. Next day he was named on a committee to determine 
the pay of committee-men. On the 22d he was on a committee 
to confer with the council upon the expediency of choosing 
delegates to the " Grand Continental Congress " at Philadel- 
phia. On the 23d, as chairman of a committee to inquire into 
a complaint against Adam Stuart of Londonderry, suspected of 


being " enemical to this country," John Dudley reported that 
the committee was of the opinion that said Stuart " ought not 
to have the full liberty of a true friend to this country." 

January 25, 1776, it was voted by the house that John Dud- 
ley and James Betton be a committee to confer with a commit- 
tee of the council concerning settling the dispute between 
Colonel Hobart and Colonel Stark. This "dispute" was a 
most serious affair. Col. Samuel Hobart was paymaster-general 
for the colony of New Hampshire. On December 30, 1775, 
some soldiers of Colonel Stark's regiment, indignant at delay 
in receiving their pay, proceeded under arms from their bar- 
racks at Winter Hill to Colonel Hobart's lodgings at Medford, 
assaulted him, robbed him of a sum of money amounting to 
two hundred and sixty pounds, made him a prisoner and took 
him to Colonel Stark's headquarters, whereupon that officer, 
instead of placing the offenders under arrest, " hastily and 
inconsiderately," as he afterwards admitted, "threw out some 
warm and illiberal reflections upon some of the members of 
the Congress in that Colony." Of course Colonel Hobart 
complained to the assembly, and equally of course it was im- 
peratively necessary that something should be done. Ceneral 
Washington's attention was formally called to the affair, and a 
committee of inquiry, of which Gen. Nathaniel Greene was 
president, found Colonel Hobart's complaints to be well 
founded. It looked very much like a court-martial for Colonel 
Stark, but some influence was at work which procured from 
that irascible officer his well-known and remarkable written 
acknowledgment in which he admitted the facts alleged 
expressed his regrets, and explained that he had been wearied 
with the complaints of his men for want of pay, and was per- 
plexed with other business, but nowhere promised that he 
would proceed to bring the offenders to punishment. General 
Washington, by his secretary, Stephen Moylan, expressed to 
the New Hampshire assembly the hope that the acknowledg- 
ment would be accepted as satisfactory, as " the Colonel is a 
good officer, who understands and does his duty." 'Hie 
acknowledgment was accepted, and an affair which threatened 
grave injury to the cause of liberty was at an end. 



It is impossible to determine how much Judge Dudley con- 
tributed toward this fortunate outcome, but it may safely be 
assumed that in his plain and somewhat uncouth manner Jie 
would have more influence with a man like Stark than the 
aristocratic Meshech Weare could have had, and the thought 
intrudes itself persistently that the influence gained by the 
adjustment of this quarrel may have been felt a year and a 
"^ half later, when Stark was sulking at home, when Burgoyne 
was marching in force from Canada, and when Judge Dudley, 
as a member of the Committee of Safety, was toiling night and 
day to bring an adequate force of New Hampshire men into 
the field. 

The assembly adjourned on January 27 and met again at 
Exeter on March 6. John Dudley was placed upon the com- 
mittee on rules, and also on the committee to confer with a 
committee of the council relative to what business required to 
be taken up immediately. There was such business in abun- 
dance, and sufficiently pressing. General Washington had 
written to the Committee of Safety that it was probable the 
British, when forced out of Boston, would make an attempt on 
Portsmouth. We know now that nothing was farther from the 
thought of the British commander, but the apprehension lay 
heavily upon the men of New Hampshire in that uncertain 

John Dudley was again on the committee to nominate mem- 
bers of the Committee of Safety, and on March 22, 1776, he 
was himself chosen to that body, with which he remained 
faithful, efficient, and vigorously active throughout its subse- 
quent history and until 1784, after the close of the war. The 
records of this committee have been preserved in Vol. VII of 
the collections of this society. Kept in the terse, perspicuous 
style of the secretary, Ebenezer Thompson, these records will 
hold the profound interest of thoughtful men in all future time, 
setting forth as they do in the simplest language at how great 
a cost the independence of a people was achieved ; telling, in 
the bare facts of an official record, the story of the troubles of 
the men of New Hampshire in that time of stress — troubles 
with the finances ; troubles with the Tories at home and with 



other Tories sent by the hundred at a time as prisoners from 
New York; troubles with Vermont; sore trouble to provide 
men and equipment for service in the field ; apprehensions of 
invasion, and later, the long, anxious waiting as the tide of 
war rolled farther away to the southward, to reach full flood at 
Yorktown and ebb in the calm, of a victorious peace. 

The assembly adjourned on the 23d of March, but met 
again on June 5, remaining in session until July 6. There 
was scant opportunity for planting and none at all for hoeing 
by the members of the legislature that year or the next. John 
Dudley found his duties multiplied. During all the active 
years of the war he was selectman of Raymond, a justice of 
the court of common pleas, a member of the Committee of 
Safety, and in continuous service on important committees of 
the house whenever the assembly was in session. It is little 
wonder that his private affairs were neglected. In this month 
of June, 1776, he was chairman of a committee to count the 
gold and silver in the treasury. He found only eight hundred 
and fifty-nine pounds and twelve shillings, and it was necessary 
that a regiment be raised at once for Canada. He was on the 
committee again to consider and report what business was 
most urgent ; on the committee "to make a draft of a Decla- 
ration of this General Assembly for Independence on Great 
Britain," which declaration was unanimously adopted on June 
15, 1776 — now generally accepted as the first formal Declara- 
tion of Independence by any regularly constituted representa- 
tive body in America. He was on a committee to consider 
the expediency of delivering out powder from the colony stores 
to colonels, captains, and selectmen of towns ; chairman of a 
committee of three " to give out enlisting orders to the several 
officers of the regiment now to be raised and sent into Canada, 
and to commissionate the officers and make necessary prepa. 
rations for and equip the said regiment as soon as possible;" 
also chairman of a committee to consider a plan for sending 
money to Canada, on committee to consult with a similar 
committee of the council with reference to constituting a court 
to sustain appeals from the courts of probate ; member of a 
committee to count and deliver to the treasurer of the colony 


$10,000 brought by John Odlin from the Continental congress; 
on committee in the last week of June to report when and to 
what time the assembly should adjourn, the committee report- 
ing that, considering the necessity of raising the regiment for 
Canada, it was " absolutely necessary for the Court to Set next 
Week." Haying was at hand, but the report was adopted and 
the pay of the members was fixed at six shillings a day. On 
the 17th John. Dudley was on a committee to consider the 
expediency of permitting the soldiers already in service at 
Portsmouth and Newcastle to enlist in the regiment for 
Canada. Bad news was coming in fast, and the committee 
reported favorably, the report being adopted. June 28 alarm- 
ing information was brought in a letter from Col. Jacob Bailey 
of Newbury, Vermont, and John Dudley was assigned to the 
committee which took the letter under consideration and 
reported that four companies be raised at once for the defence 
of the frontier. 

The assembly adjourned on July 6, 1776, and met again 
September 4. During this interval of less than two months 
the Committee of Safety met on thirty-two days. John Dud- 
ley, in addition to his other duties, served as a muster master 
at the request of the committee. 

On the meeting of the assembly in September, John Dudley, 
evidently as a matter of course, was again on the committee of 
the house to report what business was necessary to be done, to 
nominate a Committee of Safety, and to report at what time 
the assembly should adjourn. On September 20 an adjourn- 
ment was made to the last Wednesday of November, but the 
1 6th of October saw the legislature again assembled in the 
court house at Exeter, having been summoned by the Com- 
mittee of Safety to act upon the requisition of the Continental 
congress for the raising of three battalions to serve during 
the war. 

The question of representation for the town of Conway had 
come up on more than one occasion, and early in this session 
John Dudley was named upon a committee which made a final 

This special session of the assembly lasted but four clays, 



and after making necessary arrangements for enlistments, 
adjournment was made on the 19th to November 27, the Com- 
mittee of Safety in the meantime going forward with the work 
of raising and equipping the additional troops required to fill 
the state's quota in the Continental army. It was during this 
interim that the Committee of Safety was called upon to meet 
an unexpected emergency. In the autumn of 1776 the govern- 
ment of New York state sent to New Hampshire sundry 
detachments of Tory prisoners — probably two hundred in all. 
These were marched across Vermont under guard, and were 
disposed of upon their arrival in such ways as the Committee 
of Safety could devise. Some were confined in the jails at 
Exeter, Dover, Portsmouth, and Amherst, and others were 
placed out to be boarded by and in some cases to work for 
such citizens as would receive them. The sound judgment 
and practical humanity of John Dudley found ample exercise 
in the amelioration of their hard lot in what proved to be a 
long and dreary confinement. 

The assembly met on November 27, according to adjourn- 
ment, and on the next day John Dudley was placed on a com- 
mittee to consider the condition of the " indigent prisoners" 
from New York, and report what measures should be taken 
for their relief. On the 29th he was appointed to serve on a 
committee to report the "best ways and means" for raising a 
regiment which had been asked for by General Washington. 
Again, December 5, we find him on a committee to consider 
and report upon sundry letters received from other New Eng- 
land colonies relative to the conduct of the war. 

This assembly dissolved on December 13, but was promptly 
succeeded by the new legislature, which met on the 18th of 
the same month. John Dudley was again on the committee to 
consider the condition of the Tory prisoners, and was also on 
a committee to prepare instructions for a committee which was 
to attend a convention of the New England states at Provi- 
dence. During this session, which adjourned on the 18th of 
January, John Dudley served on several other special com- 
mittees, made various reports relative to the prisoners, and for 
the first time occupied the chair as speaker pro ton. 


The assembly met again at Exeter on March 12, and again 
John Dudley was named on the committee to report what 
business was necessary to be done. 

On March 22 John Stark resigned as colonel and received 
the thanks of both houses. On the 24th Judge Dudley was 
first on the important committee on taxation. At this session, 
also, General Schuyler having sent an urgent request for 
^troops for the defence of Ticonderoga, Judge Dudley was 
named on the committee to consider the letter and draft an 

The assembly adjourned on April 12, but met again on 
June 4, and on the 5th Judge Dudley served on a committee 
"to consult together upon the expediency of raising a number 
of officers and soldiers for the defence of this State and any 
other of the New England States." The committee reported 
the same day that a regiment be raised consisting of 720 men. 
This action of June 5, 1777, may be regarded as the beginning 
of the movement which resulted in the raising of the three 
New Hampshire regiments that fought with Stark at Benning- 

June 6 complaint was made to the assembly against Sheriff 
John Parker that he had permitted the escape of Col. Asa 
Porter, and Judge Dudley was appointed with Colonel Peabody 
and Captain Moulton to investigate. The committee reported 
that as Sheriff Parker applied to a civil magistrate who refused 
to give a precept to commit said Porter, it was the opinion of 
the committee that said Parker had fully exculpated himself. 
This Colonel Porter, who, while under bonds and charged 
with "violent disaffection to the American cause," had ab- 
sconded and gone to Massachusetts, caused the assembly and 
the Committee of Safety much uneasiness. Therefore, on 
June 13, a committee, of which Judge Dudley was a member, 
was ordered " to draw up an advertisement" against him. It 
appears that he was apprehended, for later a committee ap- 
pointed to consider the petition of Col. Asa Porter reported 
that he be liberated from his present confinement on giving 
surely in 500 pounds, conditioned that he repair to Boxford, 
Mass., and remain on his father's farm for the term of twelve 



months, excepting liberty of attending public worship on Sun- 
days. Thus one more Tory was disposed of. 

The assembly adjourned on June 28 to the third Wednes- 
day in September, but was convened in haste in extra session 
on July 17. Ticonderoga had fallen and Burgoyne was pro- 
ceeding on the expedition that was designed to divide the col- 
onies, and render a further struggle for independence hopeless. 
This special session continued only three days, but in that 
time the militia of the state had been reorganized, John Stark 
had been appointed to command the second brigade, and a 
draft had been ordered of every fourth man in that brigade 
and in Colonels Moulton's, Webster's, and Badger's regiments 
of the first brigade. The men thus raised for a term of two 
months, organized into three regiments, fought at the battle of 
Bennington on August 16. 

The assembly met at Portsmouth on September 17, and at 
this session Judge Dudley served on a committee to consider 
the inventories of the several towns and report a new propor- 
tion of taxes. He was also on a committee to draft a letter in 
reply to a communication from congress relative to General 
Stark's refusal to take orders from General Lincoln before the 
battle of Bennington. 

With this session Judge Dudley's work upon committees 
other than that of the Committee of Safety, came to an end. 
At the first session of the new legislature, which met at Exeter, 
December 17, 1777, John Langdon was elected speaker of the 
house, but as he was absent, John Dudley was chosen speaker 
pro tern., and accordingly took the chair. The speaker was 
absent much of the time on other important business, and John 
Dudley's name appears in the records only at the opening of 
the sessions and when attached to acts of the assembly. It 
may be of interest to note that as speaker pro tern, he signed 
the act, passed March 4, 1778, dissolving the marriage between 
Robert Rogers and Elizabeth, his wife. 

Henceforth, throughout the remaining period of active war- 
fare, Judge Dudley's name appears more frequently in the 
records of the Committee of Safety than in the journals of the 
house. One entry deserves especial mention. It reads: 


2 5 

*• Thursday, January 20, 1780, The day the Committee were to 
meet; only John Dudley, Esq. attended, by reason of the 
stormy weather." The next day President Weare arrived^ and 
the two held a session together. 

Judge Dudley was speaker of the house in 1782 and 1783. 
He represented his town at the .several sessions of the conven- 
tion "which framed the constitution of 1784, and in 1785 was 
appointed a justice of the superior court, which position he 
helcruntil 1797, when he retired to private life upon his farm 
in Raymond, where he died May 21, 1805, at the age of eighty 

At 3 p. m. adjourned to the call of the president. 
A true copy, attest, 

John C. Ordwav, 
' Secretary, 

Concord, N. H., Feb. 11, 1903. 

The fourth adjourned eightieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society at Concord, Wednesday, February 11, 1903, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

The meeting was called to order by the secretary, and 
Judge Sylvester Dana was chosen president pro tern. 

John Scales, A. M., of Dover, delivered an address on " Col- 
Stephen Evans, a Distinguished Patriot of the Revolutionary 
War." 1 

A vote of thanks was tendered the speaker, and a copy of 
the address requested for preservation in the archives of the 

Dr. Plenry A. Hildreth, of Bethlehem, was elected an active 
member of the Society. 

A special committee to solicit additional funds for the erec- 
tion of a new building for the use of the Society was chosen 
as follows : 

iThis address was published in the Granite Monthly for November, 1903, /. 245. 



Hon. William C. Todd, 
William P. Fiske, Esq., 
Hon. William E. Chandler, 
Hon. Henry M. Baker, 
John F. Jones, Esq., 
John C. Thorne, Esq. 

. Adjourned, 3 p. m., to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. H., March 11, 1903. 
The fifth adjourned eightieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society in Concord, Wednesday, March 11, 1903, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, Vice-President Rev. D. C. Roberts, 
D. D., in the chair. In the absence of the secretary, Rev. 
N. F. Carter was chosen secretary pro tern. 

The Rev. Frederick L. Wiley, of Laconia, delivered an ad- 
dress on "The Rev. Benjamin Randall, Founder of the Free 
Baptist Denomination," at the close of which the Society ten- 
dered a vote of thanks to the speaker for his very interesting 
address, and requested a copy of the same for preservation in 
the archives of the Society. 1 

The speaker of the afternoon was elected a member of the 

N. F. Carter, 
Secretary pro tern. 
A true copy, attest, 

John C. Ordway, 

Concord, N. H., April 8, 1903. 
The sixth adjourned eightieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society in Concord, Wednesday, April 8, 1903, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon. 

1 The Rev. F. L. Wiley is now writing a full biography of Benjamin Randall. 


In the absence of the president, Hon. Joseph B. Walker was 
chosen president pro tem. 

An address prepared by the Hon. Henry M. Baker on 
"Gen. Nathaniel Folsom," was read by the Secretary, Mr. 
Baker being unable to be present in person. 

After the reading, on motion of Rev. N. F. Carter, the 

Voted, Tha-t our thanks be tendered the Hon. Henry M. 
Baker ror his very able and interesting address, and that a 
copy be requested for preservation in the archives of the 


There are many men whom the world does not call great, 
who by lives of uprightness and efficiency deserve well of their 
fellow-men and leave behind them records of public service 
faithfully performed which challenge attention and command 
admiration. Such men are the substance of the state, the 
strength of the past, the hope of the future. They are more 
liable to be forgotten than the brilliant few whose names 
illumine history, but they are none the less essential to the 
public welfare. They are those who keep the state true to its 
principles, the church faithful to its precepts and who lead the 
people to higher ideals and more earnest effort. We are met 
to-day to consider the life-work of such a man, Gen. Nathaniel 
Folsom, to commemorate his service to our state, the nation, 
and to his fellow-men. 

The Folsom family was of good English stock. John Fol- 
som, an ancestor of Gen. Nathaniel Folsom and the first of 
this family to settle in America, came on the ship Diligent 
of Ipswich, England, in 1638, and found a home in Hingham, 
Massachusetts. Less than two years before, he had married 
Mary Gilman. Thus, even while in the mother country, the 
families of the Folsoms and the Gilmans, both so distinguished 
in New Hampshire, were associated. He removed to Exeter, 
this state, about 1653. It is probable that others of the Fol- 
som family accompanied him or emigrated about the same time 
as the records of the town of Exeter show that Goodwin Fol- 

; 54 


som was one of the selectmen in 1659 and a juryman in 1662. 
The grandson of the emigrant, John Folsom, was Jonathan Fol- 
som, who was a farmer in Exeter. He married Anna, daughter 
of Nathaniel Ladd. They had twelve children, one of whom, 
Nathaniel Folsom, the subject of this address, was born in 
Exeter, New Hampshire, in 1.726. He was twice married. By 
the first marriage there were six children, and by the second, 
one, a daughter. 

At* the death of his father, Nathaniel was only fourteen 
years of age. The family was large and it became necessary 
for each member of it to contribute all possible for its support. 
He was soon apprenticed to a trade at which he worked for 
several years, though later in life he was known as a merchant, 
in 1761 he formed a copartnership with Joseph and Josiah 
Gilman under the firm name of Folsom, Oilman & Gilman. 
The duration of the firm was limited to seven years and its 
objects were stated to be " to keep a general store on a large 
scale, to build ships and carry on foreign commerce." 

In the days of young Folsom's early manhood the military 
spirit of the colony ran high and deeds of daring were frequent. 
In common with the young men of his time he joined a militia 
•company at an early age, and in its service undoubtedly 
developed that liking for military affairs which so largely 
determined his public career. I have found no record to show 
what offices he held in his company or regiment prior to the 
Crown Point Expedition of 1755. The fact that he was as- 
signed to the command of one of the ten companies constitut- 
ing New Hampshire's quota in that expedition is proof in it- 
self that he must have held good rank and excellent reputation 
in the military circles of the colony. His company consisted 
of his neighbors and acquaintances in Exeter and adjoining 
towns. He marched with his men through the woods to Al- 
bany, New York and thence to Fort Edward, where he joined 
the other New Hampshire troops. The men from our state 
served largely as rangers, which implies a knowledge of the 
wiles and skill of Indian warfare. 

The French and Indians attacked the Americans at Fort 
George, were repulsed and their commander, Baron Dieskau, 


mortally wounded and taken prisoner. During the day Cap- 
tain Folsom was ordered to scout with his men in the direction 
of Lake George. About 4 o'clock in the afternoon he met the 
retreating French and Indians and immediately scattered his 
men according to the ranger system of fighting, protecting 
them by trees and other defences, leaving each man to shoot 
when and as often as he could do so effectively. Under his 
immediate conmand were the eighty-four men of his own com- 
pany and about one half that number from New York. They 
maintained a sharp firing until dark, inflicting great loss upon 
the enemy, though their own loss was slight. Then they re- 
turned to their camp bringing with them their wounded, several 
prisoners, and considerable supplies captured from the enemy. 

Hon. Theodore Atkinson, secretary of the province of New 
Hampshire, in a letter to John Tomlinson, Esq., relative to the 
Crown Point Expedition, wrote : "In the engagement with Gen- 
eral Dieskau about eighty of our men [Captain Folsom's company 
of eighty-four] with about forty Yorkers — many of whom were 
of little service though others of them behaved well — I say, 
this small party under the command of Captain Folsom of New 
Hampshire it is thought killed more of the Canadians and 
Indians than was killed at General Johnson's camp ; they con- 
tinued an obstinate engagement with more than one thousand 
— indeed all that retired from before General Johnson's camp 
— killed great numbers of the enemy, recovered about twelve 
hundred packs, beat off the enemy, carried their own wounded 
men to the camp. This engagement lasted about three hours, 
when night came on and the French and Indians went off and 
left all. After this our regiment was ordered to the camp at 
Lake George and was never put upon duty but in the scouting 
way, which they performed in so acceptable a way that no duty 
but that was required of them. General Johnson could or 
would have had no intelligence had it not been for our men." 

It is said of Captain Folsom's victory that it " served more 
than anything else to revive the spirit of the colonies." 

This was the last a£five movement in this campaign. The 
regulars went into camp at Fort William Henry and the New 
Hampshire men returned home. 


It does not appear that Captain Folsom engaged in any ac- 
tive campaigning from this time until the outbreak of hostilities 
in the Revolutionary war. He was probably at home engaged 
in his trade or in business, living an active but quiet life. lie 
did not, however, abandon his service in the militia for in 1767 
he was promoted to be major, later to lieutenant-colonel and 
subsequently to be colonel of the Fourth New Hampshire regi- 
ment, which, command he probably continued to exercise until 
he was chosen brigadier-general by the Provincial congress 
which met at Exeter two days after the battle of Lexington. 
His duty was tersely stated to be to command the troops that 
had gone or might go "from this government to assist our suf- 
fering brethren in the province of Massachusetts Bay, who are 
now opposing the hostile violence of the regular troops, and to 
order for the troops that may be under his command, from 
time to time, all necessary supplies and to transmit to us the 
earliest accounts thereof and what may be thought further 
necessary for the support of the common cause." 

The next Provincial congress met on the 17th of May fol- 
lowing and proceeded to put the colony upon a war basis. 
On the 20th of that month they voted to raise 2,000 men, 
including those already encamped around P>oston. Three days 
later John Stark, James Reed, and Enoch Poor were elected 
colonels and Nathaniel Folsom a brigadier-general to command 
the three regiments in the field and all the troops raised by 
the state. This arrangement continued until the organization 
of the Continental service, which was enlisted for three years 
or during the war. Colonel Stark was then at Medford, with 
some 800 men under his command. He was soon joined by 
Colonel Reed and those of his regiment ready for duty. 
Colonel Poor remained in New Hampshire with his men to 
defend Portsmouth, the frontier, and the sea-coast. Colonels 
Stark and Reed participated in the battle of Bunker Hill and 
won laurels for the state. General Folsom remained at home 
attending to the details of his military command and encour- 
aging enlistments. He was known by the militia better than 
any man in the state, and all had confidence in his energy, 
integrity, patriotism, courage, and ability to organize those 


subject to military duty and to induce them to volunteer for 
active service. He was first made a brigadier-general, and on 
the 30th of June, 1775, was appointed a major-general by 
resolve of the Provincial congress, and his commission ante- 
dated to the 24th of May. On the 24th of August following 
he was designated again to be the general officer over the 
militia of the colony. This position he filled efficiently during 
the war. • General Folsom was not at Bunker Hill. He was 
busy equipping the soldiers and preparing them for active and 
efficient service. He looked after the details which now would 
be performed by those in the quartermaster, commissary, and 
ordnance service, and was in truth the gencf-al military officer 
of (he state. As an organizer and director he was respected 
as well as obeyed. He arrived in Cambridge three days after 
the fight on Breed's Hill, and assumed command of the New 
Hampshire troops, 

" Of men as ardent and brave and true 
As ever land in its peril knew." 

It was unfortunate that Colonel Stark entertained a feeling 
of hostility to him, based largely, if not altogether, upon jeal- 
ousy because Folsom outranked him. One can scarcely under- 
stand why he should have claimed the preference, for in their 
prior service in battle Stark was a lieutenant and Folsom a 
captain ; and while Stark was not in the militia service of the 
colony at the commencement of hostilities, Folsom commanded 
a regiment, and though he was not present at the attacks upon 
Fort William and Mary on the 14th and 15th of December, 
1774, when the news that the fort had been assaulted reached 
Exeter, he hastily raised a considerable armed force and 
marched to Portsmouth, where he arrived on the morning of 
the 1 6th of that month and with his men guarded the captured 
cannon until they could be taken at high tide into the country. 
He and his men formed the escort for them until they were 
stored in a safe place. But whatever the personal merits of 
these brave men, the situation was alarming. Stark was pop- 
ular with his men, and had neglected and even refused to obey 
the orders of General Folsom. General Folsom showed great 



forbearance and tried to conciliate Colonel Stark. His efforts 
having failed to bring about proper discipline, he reported the 
facts to the Committee of Safety by letter dated June 23, 1775, 
in which he said : " I am well informed by Mr. Stark's best 
friends that he does not intend to be under any subordination 
to any person appointed by the congress of New Hampshire 
to the general command of New Hampshire troops. 1 have 
tried all conciliatory methods, both by personal conversation 
and the mediation of friends but without effect. . . . 
Gentlemen, it is, I trust, unnecessary to hint to you that with- 
out a proper subordination it will be absolutely impossible for 
me to execute the trust you have reposed in me." 

Fortunately, upon reflection, Colonel Stark recognized his 
duty as a military officer, and General Folsom, two days later* 
was happy to supplement his previous report by another in 
which he said, "In my letter of the 23d instant I informed you 
that Colonel Stark refused subordination to my orders. But 
yesterday he made such submission as induces me to desire to 
pass over said letter, so far as it relates to him, unnoticed." 

When Colonel Stark yielded, the past was disregarded if not 
forgotten. Both General Folsom and Colonel Stark desired 
an election as brigadier-general by the Continental congress. 
The friends of each were active, possibly bitter, so congress, 
in consequence of this unfortunate rivalry, set aside both and 
elected John Sullivan, who was then a delegate in congress 
from New Hampshire. 

General Folsom remained with the New Hampshire troops 
before Boston less than three months. When General Sullivan 
joined the army, there appeared to be no necessity for his con- 
tinuance in the field, and he retired to his home in Exeter 
(where his wife had died a short time before, leaving a large 
family), and devoted himself to the public service in various 
capacities, but principally as commander of the militia, 
improving its equipment and discipline so that a considerable 
force could be available upon a short notice. The militia 
comprised twelve regiments fully organized, and from them 
were enlisted four regiments of minute men subject to orders 
to march at once. After the assumption of civil government 


by New Hampshire the Provincial congress passed an act for 
"forming and regulating the Militia within the State of New- 
Hampshire in New England." This act divided the militia 
into two classes — the training band and the alarm list. The 
training band included, with the ordinary exceptions, all able- 
bodied male persons in the state from 16 to 50. The alarm 
list included all male persons not in the training band, or 
otherwise excepted, from 16 years of age to 65. They could 
not be ordered out of their respective towns by an officer of 
less rank than a colonel, but must once in every six months 
appear with their arms and accoutrements for inspection. 

Each volunteer of the training band was required to equip 
himself with a good firearm and all other requirements of a 
soldier. Each company was to muster eight times a year, and 
in addition the major-general could order musters of the militia 
at his discretion. In 1776 the training band had 16,710 men 
enrolled. That year New Hampshire had 300 men in her 
fortifications and nine regiments under arms — three regiments 
of regulars in the Continental army and six regiments held as 
reinforcements. The remaining enrolment of the state was 
subject to duty as emergencies should require. 

All through the war General Eolsom was the inspiring and 
devoted commander of the state forces. He was responsible 
for their organization, equipment, and discipline. When any 
invasion was anticipated he ordered the several regiments to- 
be properly equipped for immediate service, and that the men 
carry their firearms with them " as much as they can with any 
degree of convenience, as we know not the day or hour when 
an attack may be made on our border ; and, as it is of the 
greatest importance to meet our enemies before they have time 
to get much footing, and to stop those infernal traitors among 
ourselves who may be disposed to join them." A few extracts 
from the public records will illustrate his duties and the confi- 
dence reposed in him. 

On April 21, 1775, tne ^ rst Provincial congress of which he 

was a member, voted unanimously that Col. Nathaniel Folsom 

be desired immediately to take the chief command of the New 

Hampshire forces as has been stated. Five days later he was 


made chairman of a committee to visit Massachusetts bearing 
a letter to the congress there and was instructed to assure them 
of the sympathy and aid of the people of New Hampshire. 
Later he went upon a like mission bearing the reply of New 
Hampshire to a letter from Massachusetts. The same month 
he was appointed on a committee to call a Provincial Congress 
of Deputies when they shall judge the exigencies of public 
affairs require it, and chairman of a committee on correspond- 
ence with other congresses and with committees of safety. He 
was a member of th£ second Provincial congress which met at 
Exeter the 17th of May, 1775. In this congress he was a 
member of the committee on rules and on ways and means. 
On the 20th of May it was voted, "That if it should appear 
that the above number of men (those enlisted in the towns) is 
wot our full proportion with the other governments that this 
•convention will be ready to make a proper addition for that 

General Folsom was also a member of the third Provincial 
congress. In this congress he was appointed on a committee 
to prepare a plan for the representation of the people in the 

His committee service was varied and extensive. Among 
the subjects which he was called upon to consider, in addition 
to those already stated, were to lay a plan for an army of suffi- 
cient force, to report what laws should be adopted as laws of 
the state, to nominate a proper person to be major-general of 
militia while he is in the Continental congress, on pay of 
soldiers, to nominate officers, as to highways, to nominate dele- 
gates to the Continental congress, to nominate collectors of 
taxes, on oath of fidelity, on the defenses of Portsmouth harbor, 
to reduce tax on money loaned the state, to nominate civil offi- 
cers, on business of the session, to raise men for the defense 
of Rhode Island, on ratable polls and estates, on recruiting 
soldiers, on clothing for soldiers, on bills as legal tender, on 
pay of civil officers, on accounts, on the liquor excise, on 
amount to be raised as taxes, on uniform taxation in the New 
England colonies by imposts, excises, etc., on the salaries of 
justices of the courts, on resolutions of congress, and various 


others. Those enumerated are ample to show the confidence 
reposed in him and his capacity for multiform service. The 
second and third Provincial congresses elected committees of 
•correspondence. General Folsom was a member of each and 
chairman of the second one. After that and until the close of 
the war committees of safety were chosen. General Folsom 
served on that responsible committee in the years 1775, 1776, 
1778, 1779, 1782, and 1783. In 1777, when he was not a mem 
ber of the committee, he joined the citizens of Portsmouth in a 
.petition to it asking the banishment or execution of "those 
abandoned wretches well-known by the name of Tories, who 
have too long infested this town and State . . . and contin- 
ued repeatedly to add Insult to Injury, till at length many have 
by the further instigation of the Devil been prompt on to coun- 
terfeit and pass large sums of money." He was a member 
of the state council in the years 1776 and 1784. 

As in the Continental congress each state had one vote and 
no more, though represented by several delegates, it is evident 
that there was not that inducement and possibly not the neces- 
sity for the continuous attendance of each delegate which exists 
under our present representative system. This fact may ac- 
count for the failure to attend of some of those elected to rep- 
resent our state in the Continental congress, and for the irreg- 
ular attendance of others, and also for the many times an elec- 
tion was declined. 

It is also to be noted that such delegates did not receive a 
stated salary regularly paid but were required by the necessities 
of the hour to expend their private fortunes or, at least, to ad- 
vance their personal and official expenses until such time as the 
public treasury would justify reimbursement. 

General Folsom was elected a delegate from New Hampshire 
to the first Continental congress which assembled in Carpen- 
ter's hall, Philadelphia, on Monday, the fifth of September, 
1774. John Sullivan was his colleague. Their credentials 
being the first issued are given in full. They are as follows : 

At a meeting of the deputies appointed by the several towns in this prov- 
ince, held at Exeter in the County of Rockingham, 21st July 1774, for the 


election of delegates on behalf of this province to join the general Congress : 
Present 85 members; The Honorable John Wentworth, Esq. in the chair: 
Voted, That Major John Sullivan and Colonel Nathaniel Folsom, Esqrs. ; 
be appointed and empowered, as delegates, on the part of this province, to 
attend and assist in the General Congress of delegates from the either Colo- 
nies, at such time and place as may be appointed, to devise, consult and 
adopt such measures, as may have the most likely tendency to extricate the 
Colonies from their present difficulties; to secure and perpetuate their rights, 
liberties and privileges and to restore that peace, harmony and mutual con- 
fidence which once happily subsisted between the parent country and her 

J. Wentworth, 

Major Sullivan and Colonel Folsom were prompt in their 
attendance. On Tuesday the second day of the congress it 
was resolved, "That a committee be appointed to state the 
rights of the Colonies in general, the several instances in which 
those rights are violated or infringed, and the means most 
proper to be pursued for obtaining a restoration of them." 
Both the delegates from New Hampshire were appointed on 
this committee. Their report, made a few days later, became 
the basis of the Declaration of Independence and remains to 
this day one of the most memorable documents in our national 

Though General Folsom was elected to congress subse- 
quently at various times and though his credentials were pre- 
sented by his colleague May 16, 1777, he declined to serve, or 
was too busy in home affairs to attend until Monday, the 21st 
clay of July of that year. The next month he was appointed on 
the board of the treasury, and from that time the colonial 
finances absorbed much of his time and attention. That ser- 
vice was so exacting that later he declined various committee 
assignments that he might devote himself to his duties at the 
treasury. General Folsom opposed all measures for represen- 
tation other than by one vote for each state. That view gener- 
ally obtained. The opposition consisted of Virginia, one half 
of North Carolina, and one delegate from Pennsylvania. He 
also vigorously opposed the plan to apportion taxes among the 
several states according to the value of the private land and 
improvements thereon in each state. He also served on the 



marine committee for a few months, but was excused from 
further service " as he was engaged at the treasury," and Mr. 
Frost was appointed to the vacancy. 

During the consideration of the Articles of Confederation 
Mr. Folsom was active and alert. He voted against an amend- 
ment which required the states voting in favor of a proposition 
to comprise a majority of all the people of the United States, 
and opposed limiting the call for yeas and nays to the demand 
of a state instead of a delegate. He was not satisfied with the 
Articles of Confederation because, among other reasons, the 
slaves, who constituted about one third of the wealth of certain 
states, were not taxed, and because they were not subject to 
military duty on the other hand, though they produced the 
food and clothing which in other states required the labor of 
men who were enrolled. Thus the quotas of the slave-holding 
states were equitably too small if their taxes were proportion- 
able. These inequalities, against which General Folsom earn- 
estly protested, were maintained until slavery was abolished. 

In October, 1777, when Mr. Hancock retired from the presi- 
dency of congress upon a leave of absence for two months, it 
was moved "that the thanks of congress be presented to John 
Hancock, Esq., for the unremitted attention and steady impar- 
tiality which he has manifested in the discharge of the various 
duties of his office as president." This resolution was met by 
a motion to substitute for it a resolution to the effect that "it 
is improper to thank any president for the discharge of the 
duties of that office." 

Mr. Folsom voted in favor of the substitute, but the motion 
was lost, the states being equally divided. The question then 
being upon the adoption of the original resolution, he voted 
A 7 o, and was sustained in that vote by Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, and Pennsylvania. 

It is certain that he voted against the resolution, not because 
he doubted either the ability, patriotism, or impartiality of 
Mr. Hancock, but because he thought the performance of duty 
to the best of one's skill and capacity should be required of 
every one as a matter of course and of right, and not be the 
subject of special thanks. 


General Washington having consulted with General Gates- 
and Governor Clinton relative to the advisability and expedi- 
ency of detaching a large force from the main army for the 
purpose of opening Hudson river after the surrender of Bur- 
goyne, and that fact having become known in congress, it was 
proposed to instruct General Washington to act relative thereto 
only "with their concurrence." Upon that proposition General 
Folsom promptly voted in the negative. He voted to detain 
the troops surrendered by General Burgoyne until the terms of 
the surrender were complied with by the British. 

On the 10th of January, 177-8, a committee of three from 
congress was ordered appointed, to serve with three members 
of the board of war, to visit the camp, consult with General 
Washington, and form and execute a plan for the consolida- 
tion of the army and increase its efficiency and promote disci- 
pline and good morals. Mr. Folsom was appointed on that 
committee. Letters from the camp, and the fact that Mr. Fol- 
som's name does not appear in the roll-calls of congress from 
January 15 to March 24, 1778, indicate that during that time 
the committee was at Valley Forge. The committee made 
several recommendations which were adopted, and the comfort 
and efficiency of the army were increased. 

About the 1st of April, 177S, General Folsom returned' 
home, and New Hampshire was unrepresented in congress 
until the 21st of May, when Mr. Josiah Bartlett presented his 

General Folsom returned to congress on the 30th of Decem- 
ber, 1779, and remained about six months. The Journals of 
this congress are brief and unsatisfactory. In the published 
edition I have been able to consult the yeas and nays are not 
given, and it is practically impossible to determine the action 
of individual delegates upon many questions of importance. 
Mr. Nathaniel Peabody was his only colleague present (though 
Woodbury Langdon and George Frost had been chosen) until 
Mr. Samuel Livermore, who was subsequently elected, pre- 
sented his credentials Monday, the 7th of February, 17S0, and 
began a service which was continued several years. During 
this session General Folsom devoted himself especially to the 


determination of the boundary between New Hampshire and 
the states of Massachusetts and New York, involving jurisdic- 
tion over the territory now known as the state of Vermont, apd 
to the settlement of the accounts of the state of New Hamp- 
shire with the general government. 

His efficient service in prior congresses is proof that he was 
active upon all public questions at this time. The Journals do 
not show definitely when General Folsom returned home. It 
is certain that he was in attendance until late in June. With 
the session his congressional career ended. It was active, 
efficient, progressive, and patriotic. ^He was true to his state, 
the United States, and the high ideals which actuated the lead- 
ers of the Revolution in military and civil life alike. He had 
served with such distinguished statesmen and patriots as John 
Sullivan, Josiah Bartlett, Samuel Adams, John Adams, John 
Hancock, Robert Treat Paine, Stephen Hopkins, Roger Sher- 
man, Elbridge Gerry, Oliver Ellsworth, Oliver Wolcott, Philip 
Livingston, George Clinton, Gouverneur Morris, John Jay, 
Thomas Mifflin, Edward Piddle, Benjamin Franklin, George 
Read, Philip Schuyler, Peyton Randolph, George Washington, 
Patrick Henry, Edward Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, and 
others, and was respected and honored by them. With them 
he had performed valued and delicate committee service, and 
at times had been selected by them for important and techni- 
cal duties. Plad he performed no other service than on the 
treasury board and in the camp at Valley Forge, planning 
greater efficiency for the army, he would have deserved well of 
his countrymen and received the approval of his state. 

The records show that he served in the colonial assembly 
under Gov. John Wentworth before the difficulties with the 
mother country rendered separation a necessity, that he was an 
active and efficient member of the first four of the Provincial 
congresses, and that he served for several sessions in the state 
legislature. In 1776 he was one of the first twelve councilors 
(or senators) of the state under the form of government then 

He was a member of the constitutional convention of 1778-79. 
That convention submitted to the people a new constitution 


which they rejected. No copy of the journal of this convention 
is preserved and hence no knowledge is obtainable of the propo- 
sitions submitted to the convention and rejected or the dis- 
cussions which ensued. Two years later the third constitu- 
tional conventional assembled. General Folsom was a mem- 
ber of this convention. It. submitted three constitutions to the 
people. The first and second were rejected and the third 
ratified. -The constitution thus secured is the basis of the con- 
stitution now in force and is a monument to the wisdom and 
forethought of our ancestors. This convention from its organ- 
ization to its final adjournment was in existence two years, four 
months, and twenty-six days. Its journal is also lost but that 
General Folsom was prominent in its deliberations can be fairly 
presumed from the fact that he was elected president//-^ tempore 
of its last session and as such signed the announcement of the 
adoption of the constitution by the people. 

On the 26th of January, 1776, he was elected the second 
justice of the court of common pleas for the county of Rock- 
ingham. The decisions of that court are not reported and hence 
no opinion can be expressed in positive terms of his career as 
a judge, but the facts that Rockingham was at that time the 
most important county in the state, that upon the adoption of 
the constitution he was promoted to chief justice, and that he 
held the office until his death, would indicate that he was sat- 
isfactory as a trial justice. 

During his entire life he had the confidence of his townsmen. 
They elected him to all the offices — great and small — within 
their control and it appears that he never declined to serve them 
because the office was insignificant or its duties laborious or 
unpleasant. His whole life was one of service. For a score of 
times he was elected moderator of Exeter's town-meeting. 

General Folsom was a Free Mason as is shown by his sig- 
nature to the petition of the master, wardens, and members of 
St. Johns lodge at Portsmouth to the legislature in "the year 
of Light 5799 " asking the incorporation of their lodge. 

In religion he was an orthodox Congregationalist, firm in his 
faith and strict in the observance of his duties. When the 
First church and its pastor were accused of being heterodox 


he promptly joined in the movement for another society in 
which the old standards of faith and practice would be main- 
tained.. He was active until a short time before his death, which 
occurred at his home in Exeter on the 26th of May, 1790. 

He was a kind husband, a devoted father, an obliging 
neighbor, a true friend, a patrotic citizen, and an officer faithful 
in the discharge of both civil and military duties. He deserved 
well of his town and state and neither were ungrateful. 

He was not a great man, but he could do many things well — he 
did not dazzle by brilliancy, but won the esteem, respect, and 
approval of his fellow-men by conscientious service. Such 
men are worthy of commemoration. Their disinterested and 
patriotic public service, their personal integrity and moral 
worth render them appropriate subjects for the consideration 
and admiration of all who honor virtue, love loyalty to principle, 
and reverence the ideal in man. 

Voted to adjourn to the call of the presidemt. 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. H., May 13, 1903. 

The seventh adjourned eightieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society at Concord, on Wednesday, May 13, 1903, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, Rev. D. C. Roberts, vice-president, in 
the chair. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, of Concord, delivered a very inter- 
esting address on " Concord's Solemn League and Covenant of 
1774," at the close of which, on motion of Hon. B. A. Kimball, 
a vote of thanks was extended to the speaker, and a copy of 
his address requested for preservation in the archives of the 
Society. 1 

Joseph Dana Bartley, A. B., of Burlington, Vt., was elected 
an active member of the Society. 

Voted at 3 p. m. to adjourn at the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 


1 Publi.slied in the Granite Monthly for October, 1903. 



Harry Bingham was born in Concord, Vt., March 30, 182 t. 
He was descended in the seventh generation from Thomas 
Bingham, who came to America from Sheffield, England, and 
was one of the first landed proprietors of Norwich, Conn., and 
who died in 1693. Mr. Bingham was fitted for college at the 
academy at Lyndon, Vt., and was graduated from Dartmouth 
college in 1843. During his preparatory course, while in col- 
lege and during his law studies he taught school in the winter. 

He studied law at Lyndon, Vt., and with Hon. Harry Hib- 
bard of Bath, N. II., and was admitted to the bar in 1846. He 
opened an office in Littleton in the same year where he remained 
in practice for the rest of his life. The bar of northern New 
Hampshire contained many eminent and strong lawyers, but 
owing to his thorough preparation and familiarity with the princi- 
ples of law and their application to cases, and his untiring indus- 
try, as well as his vigorous intellect, he was always able to hold 
his own among them. He had for partners, his brother George 
A. Bingham, from 1S52 to 1870, and for three years ex-Chief 
Justice Woods and his son Edward. In 1874 he formed a part- 
nership with John M. Mitchell, Esq., of Concord, and in 1S79 
Albert S. Batchellor, Esq., was admitted to the firm. In 1881 
William II. Mitchell, Esq., who had studied law with Mr. 
Bingham, was also admitted to the firm. In 1880, John M. 
Mitchell removed to Concord, and opened an office there under 
the firm name of Bingham & Mitchell. He continued as a 
member of these firms to the time of his death, though for 
three or four years previously he had had but little participation 
in business. 


Mis active career as a lawyer covered a period of fifty years. 
There was hardly any case of importance in his county during 
the period of his activity in which he was not employed and his 
advice was sought by clients from all parts of the state. He 
frequently appeared before the courts of Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, New York, the federal courts and occasionally before the 
supreme court of the United States at Washington. 

Me was untiring in his preparation of cases, making a thor- 
ough investigation, both as to the law and the facts. His 
arguments, whether to the court or the jury, were logical and 
sound. While he was not an eloquent advocate in the exact 
sense of the term, he was a successful and powerful one. He 
always commanded the attention of the tribunal that he was ad- 
dressing, whether it was the jury or the court. Even when 
apparently unprepared, his mind was so abundantly stored with 
knowledge of law and general information that he seemed to 
possess the faculty of arranging his material in a thorough 
manner in his mind as he advanced in his address. 

Mr. Bingham was a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school, of 
the uncompromising, stalwart type, thoroughly devoted to what 
he believed to be the principles of the party. Naturally a man 
of his strong character exerted a great influence upon his polit- 
ical associates. It was largely owing to his influence and advice 
that Littleton became a Democratic town in 1852 and continued 
to be so most of the time for the next forty years. In 1S61 he 
was elected a member of the state legislature and at once as- 
sumed the position of leader among the Democrats, which he 
maintained during the many years in which he subsequently 
represented his town and the state. It was the period of the 
Civil war and Mr. Bingham was the leader of the party of strong 
dissenters from the policy of the Republican party at that time,, 
and was the centre of many stormy debates upon the floor, in 
which he showed his entire ability to cope with the strongest 
men of the opposite party. 

He was several times the candidate of his party for member 
of congress and for United States senator. He was nominated 
for chief justice of the supreme court of the state by Governor 
Weston in 1874, but was defeated by a division in the council, 


and in 1880 he declined an appointment as justice of the same 

He was delegate to the Philadelphia Peace convention of 
1866. He was a member of the Democratic convention which 
nominated Horatio Seymour in 1868, of the Baltimore conven- 
tion which nominated Horace Greeley in 1872, of the Cincin- 
nati convention which nominated General Hancock, and of the 
Chicago conventions of 1884 and 1892 which nominated Grover 
Cleveland, and in all of these he was a member of the com- 
mittee on resolutions. In 1880 he was accorded the degree of 
Doctor of Laws by Dartmouth college. 

His classmate, William C. Todd, said of him on one occa- 
sion : "I wish one trait of Bingham could be specially brought 
out. He would never sacrifice his convictions to gain office or 
advancement. He told me that in the Know Nothing excite- 
ment, about 1854, he was offered the nomination for governor. 
It was at that time equivalent to an election, and he would have 
been one of the governors of New Hampshire, but he could not 
accept with his principles. 

" He had rare political courage, and was just as ready, perhaps 
more so, to advocate a cause if he thought he was right, alone, 
as with the crowd behind him. I could name one very dis- 
tinguished man who lacked this quality. 

" He was an honest man, and would never gain money by a 
sacrifice of integrity. 

"He had great wit and by a few sentences could use most 
effectively ridicule against an opponent." 

In the latter years of his life, Mr. Bingham delivered many 
addresses on general topics covering a wide range, besides 
writing numerous articles and essays on political and national 
subjects. He delivered the annual address before the Histor- 
ical Society in 1897. In 1896 he refused to accept the popu- 
list and free silver platform of the Chicago convention and 
continued to maintain his opposition to those theories to the 
time of his death. His essays and addresses are in every in- 
stance the result of the study and reflection of a thinker. He 
always kept in close contact with practical affairs. He was a 
man who in public offices trod the path of duty with unfalter- 





ing step and in every station, one with whom thrift had never 
followed fawning 

He was elected member of this Society June 14, 1S93. He 
died September 13, 1900. 


Lewis Downing, Jr., was born in Concord, December 6, 
1S20. His father was born in Lexington, Mass., and came to 
Concord in 1813 and started the manufacture of wagons, to 
which was afterwards added the making of coaches, for which 
Concord has been celebrated. 

Lewis Downing, Jr., was educated in the common schools of 
Concord and at the Burr seminary in Manchester, Vt. He 
then learned the coach maker's trade in the shops of Downing 
& Abbot. In due time, after the dissolution of that firm, he 
became a member of the firm of Lewis Downing & Sons, and 
then of the firm of Abbot, Downing & Co., and on the forma- 
tion of the Abbot-Downing Co. was chosen president, which 
office he retained to his death. 

He was elected a director of the National State Capital bank 
in 1867 and president in 1S78, and continued in the office dur- 
ing the remainder of his life. He was a trustee and member of 
the investment committee of the Loan and Trust Savings bank 
and also vice-president for several years before his death. He 
was for many years a director of the Stark Mills of Manchester. 

Major Downing— he gained the title from militia service in 
his younger days — was a member of the Second Congregational 
(Unitarian) church of Concord and was a regular attendant at 
its services and greatly interested in all the religious and char- 
itable work of the denomination to which he belonged. 

He was always interested in everything that related to the 
city of Concord, and his opinion was frequently sought in 
matters relating thereto. He took great pleasure in investigat- 
ing and recording facts relating to the history of the city, and 
aided materially the committee who had that in charge. 

He is survived by his wife and one daughter. His death 



was lamented by all, though not unexpected, as he had not been 
in vigorous health for several years. In his own business of 
coach building he was decidedly a master and no one contrib- 
uted more than he in a long life to the making of the reputation 
of the Concord coaches, which were known in North and South 
America, Australia, and, last of all, in South Africa. 

He became a member~of this Society June 12, 1S67. 

He died August 19, [901. 


Moses Humphrey, son of Moses Leavitt and Sarah (Lin- 
coln) Humphrey was born in Hingham, Mass., October 20, 
1807, and died in Concord, N. H., August 20, 1901. His 
education was limited to the common schools of his native 
town, but in the larger school of experience he was a diligent 
student and made valuable acquisitions to his store of practi- 
cal knowledge which served him well in the busy activities of 
life. From 1S21 for twelve years he followed the sea, and 
during seven was master of the schooners Ann and 
Climax of Hingham, and other vessels. Afterwards in 
company with his brother he engaged in commerce, owning a 
number of vessels, also in mercantile business and cooperage 
on an extensive scale, whose practical management largely 
devolved on him. 

He originated the manufacture of " kits " by machinery 
and continued in the business from 1843 to 1851 in Croydon, 
N. H., and after that for many years in Concord. 

He was deeply interested in the affairs of the city. He was 
a member of the first city council in 1S53, president of the 
council in 1S54, alderman in 1S55 and 1856, a member of the 
house of representatives in 1857, for many years from i860 
president of the Merrimack County Agricultural society, 
elected mayor in 186 1, having previously served in that 
capacity during the temporary illness of the incumbent, and 
reelected in 1865, a director 'in the First National bank in 
1864, a member of the governor's council in 1869, a member 

Hon. Moses Humphrey, 


•of the legislature from ward five, and chairman of the board 
of agriculture for many years after 1870. 

On the breaking out of the Rebellion, soon after he entered 
upon his duties as mayor, on President Lincoln's first call 
for troops, he suggested to a prominent police officer the 
importance of recruiting a company for immediate service, 
resulting in company "A" of the First regiment of New 
Hampshire volunteers. As Concord was made the headquar- 
ters of several regiments, bringing into the city men of differ- 
rent classes, his responsibility for good order was greatly in- 
creased, but he proved himself equal to every emergency. 
After the passage of an act by the legislature authorizing 
towns and cities to pay state aid to volunteers, he took it upon 
himself to do the work, and for this purpose disbursed $23,- 
330.29. He also was the city's agent for filling the quotas 
under different calls for troops and promptly secured recruits 
in excess of the requisition. He took part in the movement to 
rebuild the state house in 1865, and was appointed by the 
governor one of the committee to enclose and beautify the 
grounds. While a member of the governor's council in 1869 
he was zealous in his advocacy of the building of the new 
state prison, and as well of transferring the power for the 
appointment of warden from the legislature to the governor and 
council. He was a strong advocate for building for the city a 
horse railroad, and was for many years superintendent and 
president of the company. He was always identified with the 
Republican party, and long a prominent member of the Uni- 
versalist church. He was elected a member of this Society, 
June 10, 1868. 

He married first, December 15, 1831, Miss Lydia Humphrey, 
of Croydon, N. H., and the couple were spared to each other 
till after the celebration of their golden wedding. An only 
daughter was born to them, who died it] 1S50. She died Feb- 
ruary 27, 18S7. Pfe married, second, May 2, 1888, Adeline 
Wentworth Clarke, at Newfields, N. H. She died Oct. 4, 1900. 



Charles A. Busiel, son of John W. and Julia (Tilton) Busiel, 
was born in Meredith Village, November 24, 1842. In 1846 the 
family removed to Laconia, where ever after he had his resi- 
dence, was educated, and upon becoming of age engaged in 
the hosiery business, having previously served an apprentice- 
ship in his father's mill. In 1868 he disposed of his plant and 
entered into partnership with his brother, John L. Busiel, un- 
der the firm name of C. A. Busiel & Co., and so continued till 
187 1, when their father was admitted to the firm, and the 
firm name changed to J. W. Busiel & Co. He was also identi- 
fied with many business enterprises in Laconia and elsewhere. 
He was president of the Laconia National bank, an owner in 
the Laconia Democrat^ a director and member of the execu- 
tive committee of the Concord and Montreal railroad ; also a 
director of the Boston, Concord and Montreal railroad ; Mere- 
dith and Conway; New Boston ; Franklin and Tilton ; Moosi- 
lauke and Profile and Franconia Notch railroad ; and presi- 
dent of the Lake Shore railroad of New Hampshire. 

He held many public offices, was the first mayor of the 
city of Laconia, and honored with a reelection, also represent- 
ed his town in the legislature in 1878-79. He was deep- 
ly interested in political matters. Originally a Democrat, he 
afterwards found reason for planting himself on the Repub- 
lican platform, and was elected governor in 1894, and in- 
augurated January 3, 1895, serving his two years and making 
his administration noteworthy for his rigid economy in regard 
to state appropriations. He was a man of practical ideas, pub- 
lic-spirited, liberal in his philanthropies, deeply interested in 
everything looking to material interests of his own city, of 
commanding presence, for many years a leader in political cir- 
cles, and widely known throughout the state. 

He was elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, June 13, 1^04. 

He died suddenly August 29, 1901. His wife and one 
daughter survived him. 

^m^ c ' : '" 

a^iczM /&00&L 




John T. Perry was born in Exeter, N. H., April 5, 1832, and 
was the youngest of five children of Dr. William and Abigail 
Gilman Perry. His father was a descendant in the sixth gen- 
eration from Anthony Perry, one of the first settlers of Reho- 
both, Mass. His mother was a- daughter of Col. Nathaniel 
Gilman of Exeter. He was a student at*Phillips Exeter acad- 
emy in 1843, and was graduated from Harvard in 1S52. He 
was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa society, and was the 
author of the Bowdoin prize-winning essay. 

Soon after leaving college he was an assistant librarian of 
the Astor library, then just founded. He returned to Exeter, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1856, but never prac- 
tised his profession. In 1S57 he was assistant editor of the 
New Hampshire Statesman at Concord for a short time, and 
then took a similar position on the Manchester Mirror. In 
1858 he accepted an editorial appointment on the Cincinnati 
Gazette, of which he soon became a part owner. He continued 
in this position for twenty-five years, when the Gazette was con- 
solidated with the Commercial, and he sold out his interest and 
returned to Exeter in 1883, where he continued to reside until 
his death. 

For a few years after his return he continued to write for 
the Commercial-Gazette, and in 1888-95 he was the editor of the 
New Hampshire Journal, and its successor, the Congregational 
Record and- New Hampshire Journal, the organ of the Congre- 
gationalists in New Hampshire, 1895-98. He also wrote for 
the editorial columns of the Exeter News-Letter, besides con- 
tributing letters of travel and articles on a variety of topics. 
He wrote articles for reviews, and was the author of " Sixteen 
Saviours or One," a book written to prove that the Gospels are 
not Brahminic, and published in Cincinnati in 1879. ^ e a ^ so 
published a history of the^ First church in Exeter, in 1899. 

Mr. Perry was an omnivorous reader and was gifted with an 
extraordinarily retentivq^memory. He had a finished and flex- 
ible style in writing, and worked with great rapidity. He was 
trustee of the public library of Exeter for eighteen years, leav- 


ing it at his death his library of about 1,800 volumes, and of 
the Phillips Exeter academy from 1885 to 1899, when he re- 
signed, being at that time president of the board. In politics 
he was a Republican. He was a member of the First Congre- 
gational church of Exeter, and deeply interested in all its 
activities. He traveled widely in this country and in Europe, 
also making a trip round the wd$ld by the way of the Pacific 
ocean to J-apan, and then to India, in company with his wife, in 
2895 and 1896. 

He was married in 1862 to Miss Sarah Chandler of Concord, 
a lineal descendant of John Wheelwright. They had no chil- 
dren. His wife died June n, 1897, and he died November 
.29, 1 90 1. 

He was a man of brilliant intellect, high scholarly attain- 
ments, and of quiet and refined tastes. Pie had great strength 
of character, and was a man of positive convictions and marked 

He was elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society June 13, 1883. 


Charles Tracey Means was born in Manchester, January 20, 
1855. ^' s father, William G. Means, was paymaster of the 
Land and Water Power company. When Charles was two or 
three years of age the family moved to Andover, and afterwards 
to Boston. Charles received his education at the public schools 
in Andover, and at the Boxford private school in Worcester. 
At the age of sixteen or seventeen he left school and went to 
Biddeford, Me., to learn the trade of machinist. After being 
there a short time he had typhoid fever and on his recovery 
he came to Manchester, and in May, 1883, entered the Man- 
chester Locomotive Works as an apprentice. After working in 
the shoo for nine years he was taken into the office as a book- 
keeper, and then becarhe paymaster. On the death of Aretas 
Blood in 1897, he was appointed superintendent of the works. 
He was identified with the business during the whole period of 

Rkw Charlks L. Tap pan 


its growth and the reorganization of the plant, at the time when 
the great change took place in the manufacture of locomotives. 

He was always a Republican. In 1883-84 he was a repre- 
sentative of the legislature, being faithful in attendance and 
active in legislative work. In 1889-90 he was a member of 
the senate from the old Manchester district, No. 18. In 1890 
he was appointed a member of the Republican National com- 
mittee. He was in constant attendance %t state and city com- 
mittee meetings. 

Mr. Means was a sociable, genial gentleman, and in the 
home circle, the club, or in the world of business and politics 
was always respected and loved. He was a member of the 
Derryfield club of Manchester, and his presence was always 
welcomed by his associates. 

October 16, 1S83, Mr. Means was married to Elizabeth A. 
French, daughter of G. A. French, and his widow and two chil- 
dren, Katharine and Louise, survive him. He died January 
25, 1902. He became a member of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society June 11, 1890. 


Rev. Charles Langdon Tappan, son of Jonathan and Dolby 
Beede (Heard) Tappan, was born in Sandwich, June 26, 1828, 
and spent his early life in his native town. He was bred a 
shoemaker, and for a time worked at his trade in Lynn, Mass. 
Later he fitted for college at Smithville (R. I.) seminary. He 
graduated from Amherst college in 185S, and Andover Theo- 
logical seminary in 1S61, having taken the first two years of 
his theological course at the Theological Institute of Connecti- 
cut, East Windsor, Conn. Pie was licensed to preach by the 
North Hartford Association, at Windsor Locks, Conn., June 5, 
i860; then spent another year of study at Andover, Mass., as 
resident licentiate, and was ordained as an evangelist at St. 
Paul, Minn., January 28, 18^4. Was acting pastor at Owat- 
tonna, Minn*f 1S64-66 ; Brighton, 111., 1868-70; Sandwich, 
N. II., 1871-78; and supplied at Wilmot, 18SS-89, and East 


Concord, 1881-82, with residence at Concord, where he spent 
the last twenty years of his life, dying there February 23, 1902. 

While in Owattonna, Minn., he edited for a year or more, in 
1866-67, The Republican Journal with signal ability. In trav- 
eling through Missouri near the close of the Civil war, when 
party feeling was intense and bitter, he passed through some 
exciting and perilous experiences. 

Returning to his native sta 1 ^ he married May 18, 1876, 
Almira Remington Rice, daughter of Emanuel and Almira 
(Sprague) Rice, of Natick, R. I. The marriage proved a happy 
one. Mrs. Tappan died Augusts, 1899. 

Mr. Tappan was a man of positive convictions and opinions, 
and on occasion was outspoken in their utterance. lie de- 
lighted in controversy for the sake of argument, even when his 
personal belief was in agreement with his antagonist. He was 
notably social and fond of story-telling for amusement or to 
illustrate an argument. Though inclined to be pessimistic in 
his estimate of the character and trend of current events, his 
hopes for the final outcome were unclouded. 

He was a great lover of books, well versed in American and 
English history, and accumulated a valuable library. He was 
elected a member of the New Hampshire Histoiical Society 
June 8, 1887, became a life member, was librarian 1S90-95, 
and a member of the library committee till his death. 

His type of theology was after the standard of the fathers, 
having little patience with the liberalism of the " new depart- 
ure," believing it to be false to the teachings of the Word of 

His loss is deeply felt in the varied relationships of life. 

N. F. C 


Rev. Moses Thurston Runnels, son of Moses Thurston and 
Caroline (Stearns) Runnels, was born in Cambridge, Vt., Jan- 
uary 23, 1830. His preparatory studies were pursued at New 
Ipswich and Jaffrey. He graduated from Dartmouth college 
in rS53, and from the Theological Institute of Connecticut, at 



Rev. Moses T. Runnels, 


East Windsor Hill, in 1856. He was ordained at Jaffrey, Au- 
gust 13, 1856, and had the following pastorates : Orford, 
1860-65; Sanbornton, 1865-86; East Jaffrey, 1886-89; 
Charlestown, 1889-91 ; Croydon, Goshen, and Unity, 1891-92-; 
and Croydon, 1892-99. While in the seminary he labored as 
Sunday-school missionary in Canada three summers; was agent 
of the American Sunday-school Union of Philadelphia, in Wis- 
consin 'in 1856 ; a missionary in Western Texas, 1856-57 ; and 
in Kansas, 1857-5S ; and superintendent of Sunday-school 
missionaries, Boston, 1858-59. He occupied a pulpit nearly 
every Sunday for forty years. He was a good preacher, un- 
compromisingly loyal to the Word of God as he understood it, 
conscientious and faithful as a pastor, interested in every good 
work for the uplifting of the community, and endearing himself 
to his family by his unceasing devotion, in seeking to minister 
to their happiness, and generally to old and young by his kind- 
heartedness and affectionate disposition. 

One of his striking characteristics was an intense love for 
and loyalty to his college classmates, interesting himself in 
everything that concerned their prosperity and welfare; as 
class secretary for many years corresponding with them fre- 
quently, and from time t - time visiting many of them as he had 
opportunity. Class re-.nions gave him special pleasure, and it 
is to be regretted that his life could not have been spared to 
participate in the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of grad- 
uation — an event to which he had looked forward with liveliest 

He was on the examining committee of Dartmouth college 
in 1863 ; served as captain's clerk, U. S. N., on board the San 
Jacinto, East Gulf Squadron, for three months in 1864; a del- 
egate to the Congregational National Councils of 1865 and 
1874; and a trustee of Gilmanton academy. He was elected 
member of the New Hampshire Historical Society June 9, 1869. 

Mr. Runnels was a frequent contributor to newspapers and 
periodicals, and an industrious author. Among his numerous 
publications was the History of Sanbornton, 2 vols.,//. 579 and 
1022 ; Genealogy of the Runnels and Reynolds Families in 
America, in 1873,//. 370; Biographical Sketches of the Class 


of 1853, D. C, 1895,//. 320. At the time of his death, at the 
home of his daughter in Charlestown, March 17, 1902, he was 
engaged in writing a history of Plymouth, which was left un- 

He married Fannie Maria, daughter of Hosea Swett and 
Fannie (Huntington) Baker, at Haverhill, July 9, 1S61, by 
whom he had five children, only one now living, Mrs. A. A. 
Paul PooJe, Needham, Mass. 

n. F. c. 


Farwell Puffer Holden was born at Dracut, Mass., June 21, 
1845, an ^ died at Penacook, N. H., March 28, 1902. lie 
was the son of Daniel and Roxanna (Haynes) Holden, and 
spent his boyhood at his home in West Concord, N. H. His 
education was acquired in the district schools of that village, 
and at the Boscawen academy. After leaving school he served 
an apprenticeship in the woolen mill, owned and operated by 
his father. When about twenty years of age he was employed 
by Thomas Greenbanks, as clerk and book-keeper at Gaysville, 
Vt., where he r mained six years. After severing his connec- 
tion here he emoved to Bethel, Vt., where he was cashier in 
the National White River bank for six years more. He then 
returned to Gaysville, where for ten years he was engaged in 
the manufacture of underwear, and earned the reputation of 
producing first-class goods. When the Holden family conclud- 
ed to build a new mill in Penacook, Farwell sold his business 
in Vermont, and removed to Penacook, taking an active part 
in the construction of the new mill and in the establishment 
and operation of the manufacture of woolens to the time of his 

Pie was twice married: first, October 25, 1870, to Miss 
Laura Greenbanks. By her he had one son, Laurence Green- 
banks Holden, born January 21, 1872. Mrs. Holden died 
January 24, 1872. On March 5, 1S74, he was married to Miss 
Sarah Frances Tripper, by whom he had another son, Royal 
Daniel Holden, born November 5, 1880. 

John W. Noyks, 


Mr. Holden was elected a member of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society January 19, 1888. He was also a member 
of the Horace Chase Lodge of F. & A. Masons, Penacook, 
and a Sir Knight of the Mount Horeb Comrnandery, Knights 
Templar, of Concord. He was also a member of the Knights 
of Pythias. 

Politically he was a stalwart Republican, and in religion a 
Univers'alist, but while in Penacook his family attended ser- 
vices at the Congregational church. He was a man of a 
warm, impulsive nature, with most decided opinions, which, 
when deemed necessary, he never hesitated to express, pub- 
licly or privately, and in unmistakable language. Pie was 
one of the most active and public-spirited men in Penacook, 
prominent in every project for the benefit of his fellow-men, 
and for that reason his death was the occasion of mourning to 
all its people. J. c. L. 


John Weare Noyes, son of Daniel and Nancy (Weare) 
Noyes, was born in Springfield, N. H., January 14, 18 10. He 
received his education in the common schools of Springfield 
and Andover, and Pembroke, Salisbury, and Kimball Union 
academies. After serving as a clerk in a store in Cone rd a 
few years he went to Chester, N. H., March 27, 1832, where 
he spent the remainder of his life. Here for twenty years he 
engaged in mercantile business, for which his native ability 
and experience at Concord eminently fitted him, and by a 
close application he was enabled to achieve a gratifying suc- 
cess. Afterwards he gave himself more entirely to farming 
and other interests, to which previously he had given more or 
less attention. 

His town at various times honored him with nearly all the 
offices in its gifts, sending him as its representative to the 
legislature in 1841-42, 1853-54, and 1875-76. He was its 
treasurer many years, and held a commission as justice of the 
peace for more than forty years, and of notary public nearly as 



long. In 1864-65 he was elected a member of the executive 
council in District No. 2. In politics he was a Republican. 

He was one of the directors of Deny bank from 1840 till it 
closed its business, and in 1864 was elected president of the 
Derry National bank, which office he held for many years. 
He did a large part of the probate and justice business of the 
community with credit to himself and satisfaction to the pub- 
lic, enjoying the implicit confidence of those with whom he 
came in contact in his business life. He was often called 
upon to settle differences, the parties being confident that jus- 
tice would be done. 

He was a member of the First Congregational church of 
Chester for more than fifty years, and was long a trustee of 
the Ministerial fund of the society, and also treasurer. He 
was a corporate member of the American Board of Commis- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, and a trustee of several reli- 
gious and benevolent institutions in the state. 

Mr. Noyes married, first, Nancy Aiken of Chester, Septem- 
ber 27, 1836, by whom he had one daughter, Isabella Aiken. 
Mrs. Noyes dying June 20, 1840, he married, second, Clara D., 
daughter of Rev. Dr. McFarland of Concord, October i8 r 
1842, by whom he had four children, Elizabeth McFarland 
and Nancy S. A., the other two dying in infancy. His second 
wife died June 26, 1853, and he married, third, Harriet $., 
daughter of Rev. Nathaniel Bouton, D. I)., of Concord, June 
21. 1855, who survived him. Their children were Mary Bell 
and John Weare. 

He was elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society June 10, 1885, and died May 10, 1902. 




June, 1903, to June, 1904 






Concord, N. H., June io, 1903. 

The eighty-first annual meeting of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society was held in the rooms of the Society in Concord, 
Wednesday, June 10, 1903, at 10.30 a. m. 

In the absence of President Todd, who was dangerously ill at 
his home in Atkinson, the meeting was called to order by the 
first vice-president, Hon. Albert S. Wait. 

The minutes of the last meeting were approved without read- 

The secretary's report of membership was as follows : 

Whole number at date of last annual meeting, 167 

New members qualified during the year, 30 

Making a total of, 197 

Less members who have died during the year, 8 

Present membership, 189 

Names of members who have died during the year : 

Cyrus Sargeant, Plymouth, died July 24, 1902. 
Claudius B. Webster, Concord, September 7, 1902. 
John Ballard, Concord, September 19, 1902. 
Mrs. Cora K. Bell, Exeter, November 25, 1902. 
Leonard A. Morrison, Derry, December 14, 1902. 
Joseph Pinkham, Newmarket, February 27, 1903. 
Isaac Andrew Hill, Concord, February 28, 1903. 
Virgil C. Gilman, Nashua, April 28, 1903. 

The annual report of the treasurer was read, and it was 
ordered that it be placed on file. 



Receipts credited to general income: 

Income from permanent fund, 

$S5 6 - 1 3 


New members, 




Books sold, 


State appropriation, 


Income from Todd fund, 




Expenditures charged to general income 

Printing and binding, 


Printing of proceedings, 

2I 5-5° 








3 I -5° 

Salary of librarian, 


Incidental expenses of librarian, 




10 -75 





1,43s- 60 


Permanent fund, 

$1 1,500.00 

Current funds, 




To new account : 

Permanent fund, $11,500.00 

Current fund, 1,051.43 

■ ■ $12,551.43 

The Wm. C. 2 odd Fund. 

To investment, $1,500.00 

income, 58.56 


By paid for genealogical works, 58.56 




2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s debentures, $500 each, $1,000.00 

Receipt, Johnson Loan & Trust Co., 600.00 
2 Atchison, Topeka &: Santa Fe bonds, 4 per cent., 

$500 each, 1,000.00 

2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. bonds, 6 

per cent., $1,000 each, 2,000.00 

1 New York & New England R. R. bond, 7 per cent., 1 ,000.00 

1 Little Rock & Ft. Smith R. R. bond, 7 per cent., 1,000.00 

3 shares of Concord ^Electric Co.'s common stock, 

$100 per share, 300.00 
5 shares of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. 

stock, 500.00 

13 shares of Concord & Montreal R. R. stock, 2,268.50 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings Bank, 2,350.31 

Cash on deposit in National Bank, 532.62 

7'/ie Wm. C. Todd Fund. 


1 Northern Pacific Great Northern 4 per cent, bond, $1,000.00 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings Bank, 500.00 

Building Fund . 

Subscription of Wm. C. Todd, $5,000.00 

Other subscriptions, 4,955.00 

Interest received, 691.60 

$1 ,500.00 


On deposit in New Hampshire Sav- 
ings Bank, $10,546.60 
Note, 100.00 


I have this day examined the account of Wm. P. Fiske, 
treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society for the 
year ending June 10, 1903, and find the same correctly cast 
and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. I have also examined 
the securities constituting the funds of the Society and find 
them correct. 

John C. Thorne, 
* For the Standing Committee. 

Concord, N. II., June 10, 1903. 

2 86 


The report of the librarian was presented by Rev. N. F. 
Carter. The report was accepted, and it was ordered that it be 
placed on file. 

librarian's report, 1903. 

To the Members of the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

Your librarian is happyto be able to report another pros- 
perous year touching the increase of its valuable publications. 
Contributions have been received from nearly every state in 
the Union, Canada, England, France and Sweden, showing 
how widely known is the Society and the interest it has 

Excluding town reports and certain periodicals, the acces- 
sions during the past year have been of bound volumes, 792, 
and of pamphlets, 2,278, a grand total of 3,070. Ninety-five 
volumes have been bound. Last year's report gave the total 
of bound volumes in the library as 17,093. Adding the "num- 
ber to those received and bound during the past year, we have 
in the library today 17,977 bound volumes. One hundred 
and nineteen volumes have been purchased. 

The following individuals have made contributions : 

Vol. Pan 

Abbott, Miss Frances M. 
Adams, Charles F., 
Aiken, Rev. Edwin J., 
Aldrich, Charles, 
Allen, Frank O., 
Amen, Harlan P., 
Anagnos, M., 
Anderson, Rev. Asher, 
Andrews, Gibson C, 
Aten, Henry J., 
Ayers, Rev. S. G., 
Bachelder, Nahum J., 
Baker, Henry M., 
Bancroft, Dr. C. P., 
Bangs, I. S., 
Barnwell, James G., 
Benton, Joseph, 
Bettle, William, 
Bingham, George W., 
Blagden, Silliman, 

Vol. Pan 

Blanchard, Miss Grace, 
Blomberg, Anton, 
Blumer, Dr. G. A., 
Bouton, N. Sherman,, 
Boynton, Henry, 
Brickett, Miss E. A., 
Briggs, Frank O., 
Breitnall, R. H., 
Brown, I). Arthur, 
Brown, Francis H., 
Bryant, H. W., 
Buckshorn, Rev. L. H., 
Budd, Henry I., 
Butterfield, Simeon, 
Caldwell, William H., 
Calvin, Samuel, 
Carroll, Lysander H., 
Carruthers, Rev. J. B., 
Carter, Mrs. F. H., 
Carter, Mrs. H. G., 


:8 7 

Vol. Pam. 

Vol. Pam. 

Carter, Rev. N. F., 


Hassam, John T., 


Carter, Solon A., 

Hay ward, Fred D., 

Cate, George W., 


Hayward, Rev. Silvanus, 


Chalmers, Rev. Thomas, 


Herbert, Miss Alma J., 


Chandler, William D., 


Hermann, Oscar, 


Clay, Ithiel E., 

■45 '3 

Hill, Rev. H. F., 5 


Cochran, Joseph A . , 


Hillis, Rev. N. D., 


Coit, J. Milnor, 


Hillis, William S., 


Colby, Henry B., 


Himes, Rev. W. L., 

5 2 

Comstock, John M., 


Hobbs, W. J., 


Conn, Dr. Granville P., 


Houston, Dr. J. A., 


Cook, Corydon W., 


Howe, Miss S. A., 


Cook, Howard M., 


Ives, Rev. Joel S., 


Cordes, Herman & Co., 


Jewell, Miss M. Blanche, 


Cousins, Rev. E. M., 


Jewett, Miss Sarah Orne, 


Curran, Mrs. Mary H., 


Johnson, J. E., 


Dike, Rev. Samuel W., 


Jones, John F., 1 


Donelly, Richard A., 


Kimball, Miss Annah J., 


Dorrance, Anne, 


Kimball, John, 


Dunbar, J. H., 


Kingsley, Shuman C, 


Dye, Franklin, 


Kummell, Henry R., 2 

Eastman, Samuel C, 

9 2 

Lamb, Fred J., 


Elliott, Rev. L. 11., 


Lamberton, James M., 


Evans, Dr. B. D., 


Lane, Dr. E. B., 


Evans, Miss Carrie, 

• 3 

Lasher, George F., 


Eyler, Myrtle B., 


Leahy, William A., 


Farmer, J. E., 


Linehan, John C, 1 


Farquar, David, 


Little, Brown & Co., 2 

Ferris, Morris P., 

2 6 

Little, George T., 1 


Fitts, Mrs. James H., 

41 68 4 

Lyon, Mrs. Clara P., 1 

Fletcher, VV. I., 


Lytle, John J., 


Folger, Allan, 


Maguire, Irvine G., 1 

Folsom, Charming, 


McClure, Phillips & Co., 14 


Foster, John, 


McDowell, Miss Anne, 


French, Dr. Edward, 


McFarland, Miss An- 

Fuller, G. S. T., 


nie A., 


Gallinger, Jacob H., 

11 15 

McGann, Edward W., 1 


Gerould, Rev. Samuel L. 


McMaster, John B., 1 

Gibbs, W. D., 


Means, Miss Emilv R., 


Gilfillan, C. D., 


Miller, Dr. H. M.', 1 

Ginn & Co., 


Mills, William C, 


Glidden, John M., 


Mitchell, Henry, 2 

Gould, Sylvester C, 


Morse, Fred W., 


Green, James M., 


Murkland, Rev. Charles S., 

Green, Dr. Samuel A., 

3 3 

Musgrove, R. W., 


Greyson, John, 

Nelson, William, 1 

Hackett, Frank W., 


Nutter, John P., 1 

Hall, Edwin W., 


Olin, William M., 2 

Hammond, Otis G., 


Ordway, John C, 1 





ol. P 


Vol. P 


Parvin, Newton R., 


Walker, Joseph B., 

: I 

Patterson, Samuel F., 


Ward, Dr. John W., - 

Pearson, Edward N., 


Waters, T. Frank, 



Pearson, Miss Florence C, 


Watson, Irving A., 


Pearson, George H., 


VVentworth, George A., 


Peaslee, John B., 

- i 

White, J. Du Pratt, 


Phaneuf, J. & Son, 


White, James T.,& Co. 



Pidgeon, Charles F., 


Wiley, Rev. Frederick L 

•, I 


Pillsbury, Albert E., 


Wilson, Mrs. M. C. C, 


Pillsbury, Frank J ., 


Wolcott, Charles D., 


Rankin, Rev. Jeremiah E., 



Wood, James A., 


Reed, Rev. Geo. H., 


Woodbury, Frank D., 


Rice, Franklin P., 


Woodbury, John, 


Rix, Guy S., 



Robbins, Rev. J. H., 


Received from Historical 

Robinson, Miss Sara 
T. D., 


Societies : 

Rollins, Frank W., 


American Irish, 


Rosegarten, Joseph G., 






Sargent, Rev. 0. C, 




Seward, George F., 





Shaw, Leslie M., 





Shepard Miss Ida F., 





Skilton, James A., 





Sloan, John J., 



Smiley, A. K., 




Smith, E. H., 




Smith, Frank B., 


Manchester Institute. 


Smock, John C., 





Smyth, G. Hutchinson, 





Stainsby, William, 





Stitt, Rev. W. C., 


New Jersey, 



Stock well, J. W., 




Stone, George F., 



Stoutenburg, Henry A., 




Strong, Miss Emily W., 


Rhode Island, 


Swan, Robert T., 


Southern California, 


Swazey, Benjamin F., 




Swett, Charles E., 




Tappan, Miss Eva M. 




Thayer, Miss Kate M. 




Thompson, Rev. A. H., 


West Virginia, 


Thorne, John C, 




Tileston, Harvey, 


Tittman, 0. H., 


Other societies 


Tuck, Edward, 




Wadlin, Horace G., 




Waldron, Rev. Daniel W 



American Antiquarian, 


Walker, Isaac, 


American Bible, 




Vol. Pam. 


1. Pam. 

American Fvet Trade 

Kansas Agricultural Col- 





American Museum of 

Mass. Institute of Tech- 

Natural History, 



American Philosophical, 


Mount Holyoke College, 

Bureau of Ethnology, 


Oberlin College, 


Davenport Academy of 

Ohio State University, 




Proctor Academy, 


Ohio Archaeological and 

Simmons College, 




Tufts College, 


Ohio Historical a rj d 

University of Chicago, 




University of Cincinnati, 3 

1 27 




University of Illinois, 


Society of Antiquity, 


University of Iowa, 


Vermont Antiquarian, 


University of North Car- 

Worcester Antiquarian, 




Worcester Society of 

University of Philadelphia, 




University of Toulouse, 
Wellesley College, 


Libraries have donated 


Wesleyan University, 


follows : 

Yale University, 




Received from other 


Los Angeles Public, 


ces : 

Maine State, 





Adams Nervine Asylum, 


New Hampshire State, 




New York Public, 

I I 

Associated Charities, 


Peoria Public, 


Bank Commissioners, 


St. Louis Public, 


Barnard Memorial, 


Syracuse Public, 


Benevolent Fraternity of 

Vermont State, 


I I 



Received from educational 
institutions : 

Andover Theological 

Seminary, 1 

Bangor Theological 

Seminary, 2 

Boston University, 

Bowdoin College, 1 

Chadron Academy, 

Chicago University, 

Colby College, 

Columbia University, 

Drew Theological Semi- 
nary, 2 

Harvard University, 1 1 

Johns Hopkins University, 10 

Boston Children's Hos- 
Boston City Hospital, 
Boston Provident Asso- 
Boston Y. M. C. Union, 
Children's Aid Society, 
Children's Mission to the 

Chicago, R.I.&P.R.R., 
Church Home, 
Civil Service Commission, 
Clerk of Supreme Court, 
Elliot City Hospital, 
Eye and Ear Infirmary, 
Graham Home for Old 





Gwynne Home, 
Home for Aged Men, 


Hospital for Epileptics, 
House of the Good Sa- 




Industrial Aid Society, 


Interstate Commission, 


Labor Bureau, 


Lawrence City Mission, 


Lawrence General Hos- 

Little Wanderers' Home, 



Maine General Hospital, 



Mass. Homeopathic Hos- 
Mass. Soldiers Home, 



Mass. State Farm, 


Mayflower Descendants, 
Medfield Insane Asylum, 


N. E. Hospital for Wo- 

men and Children, 


Vol. Pam. 

Orphans 1 Home, 

Parish Register Society, 


Prison Commissioner, 

Providence Record Com- 


Purchased, 1 

St. Luke's Home, 

Superintendent of Docu- 

Taunton Insane Hospital, 

Tewksbury Hospital, 

U. S. Government, 

Westboro Insane Hos- 

Winchester Home for 
Aged Men, 

Woman's Union Mission- 
ary Society, 







The following publications are regularly received 


Boston Advertiser. 
Boston Journal. 
Manchester News. 
A T ashua Telegraph. 


Ashland Citizen. 
Berlin Reporter . 
Bristol Enterprise. 
Canaan Reporter. 
Exeter News- Letter . 
Farmington A r ews. 
Kearsai'ge Independent. 
Laccnia Democrat. 
Littleton Courier. 
Meredith News. 
Morning Star. 
New Hampshire Patriot. 
A T ew Hampshire Sentinel. 
Peterborough Transcript . 


Portsmouth Gazette. 

Plymouth Record. 

Somersworth P^ree Press. 

Simcook Press. 

Valley Times. 

1 1 'oodsville News . 


' American Missionary. 
Atlantic Monthly. 
Bible Society Record. 
Granite Monthly. 
Hoine Missionary. 
Life and Light. 
McClure's Magazine. 
Missionary Herald. 
Nature Study. 
Nor tii American Review. 
Pennsylvania Magazine. 
Sailors Magazine. 
Sunday School Missionary. 
Travelers* Record. 


American Catholic Historical Record. 

American Historical Review. 

Anna Is of low a . 

A n tJiropologist . 

Dedham Historical Register. 

Essex Antiquarian. 

Historic Quarterly. 

Iowa Historical Record. 

Mayflower Descendant . 

Medjield Historical Register. 

N. E. Historic and Genealogical Register . 

7 ransallegheny Magazine. 

West Virginia Historical Magazine. 

(Quarterly Bulletin of Grand Lodge of Lowa. 

William and Mary Quarterly. 

Texas State Association Quarterly . 

The Society has also received from Fred H. Pitman of Som- 
erville, Mass., a manuscript letter of Mrs. Robert C. Ingersoll; 
a copy of the constitution and by-laws of the Merchants and 
Mechanics Association of Concord, from an unknown donor; 
a package of letters of John Farmer to Isaac Spalding, from 
Miss Sarah A. Kendall of Nashua; a package of old manu- 
script papers relating to Henniker soldiers of the War of 18 12, 


from Mrs. Martha Hilton of East Andover, coming down to her 
from her great-grandfather Withington of Henniker; and type- 
written genealogies of the Heard, March and Tappan families, 
prepared by the late Rev. C. L. Tappan, from Miss Eva March 
Tappan of Worcester, Mass. A blue print map of Rye, N. H., 
has been received from T. M. Jackson of Brooklyn, N. Y., and 
from Hon. Jacob H. Gallinger, 112 topographical maps of the 
United States in sheets and 20 folios. Of relics of the olden 
time, has* been received a foot-stove of meeting-house fame, 
from Rev. William W. Livingstone of Jaffrey ; a box of clay 
stones from the Connecticut River at South Deerfield, Mass., 
from Samuel W. Howe of Gardner, Mass. ; a cane made by 
Wendell Sampson of Bow, from a stick cut near Washington's 
tomb at Mount Vernon by himself about 1840, from Martin A. 
Hadley of Bow ; a black jug made at Lyndeborough, N. IT., in 
1792, by Daniel Clark, who later run his pottery near where is 
now St. Paul's School in Concord, from Mrs. George F. Kelley 
of Concord ; specimens of hand-made nails from a barn over 
100 years old, from Angelo H. Fowler of Hill ; a hand reel and 
a rotary reel of the olden time, from Mrs. Calvin H. Smart of 
Concord; a cartridge box of the War of 1812, belonging to 
Amos Clark, born in Acworth and dying at Plymouth in 1879, 
who was captain of the second company of the Sixteenth regi- 
ment of the New Hampshire militia, from C. R. Clark, Esq., of 
Montezuma, Iowa ; and from the estate of the late Ithiel Clay 
of Chatham, N. II., by the hands of the administrator, Dana J. 
Brown of Ossipee, a collection of relics, mostly Indian, includ- 
ing axes, gouges, net-sinkers, arrow heads, etc., a total of over 
30 pieces. Also has been received from Amos B. Carpenter of 
West Waterford, Vt., the commission of Capt. David Carpen- 
ter, dated December 20, 1799. 

For certain newspapers and periodicals the Society is in- 
debted to the Granite Monthly > Rev. Howard F. Hill, Mrs. 
James H. Fitts, whose contribution rendered complete two 
serial publications, Miss Frances M. Abbott, Samuel C. East- 
man, Miss Alma J. Herbert, Frank J. Pillsbury, Miss Grace 
Blanchard, Rev. W. L. Himes ; and to the estate of the late 
Ithiel E. Clay of Chatham, N. H., by the hand o.f Dana J. 
Brown, administrator, 13 volumes of the earliest "State 
Papers," two copies of "Jackson's Geology of New Hamp- 
shire," and " Hitchcock's Geology of New Hampshire," three 

The Society has received on deposit 100 unbound copies of 
Vol. I, " Lane Genealogy," from Mrs. Mary E. Chapman of 
Exeter, and 200 unbound copies of Vols. II and III, from 


Mrs. James H. Fitts of Newfields and J. Lane Fitts of Candia, 
heirs of the late Rev. James H. Fitts of Newfields, to become 
the property of the Society after ten years, conveyances of the 
same signed by the respective parties having been received 
and placed on file. 

Two years ago it will be remembered that the Society granted 
permission to Prof. C. H. Van Tyne to copy the Webster let- 
ters in its possession for publication in a volume by McClure, 
Phillips & Co. of^New York, the company promising to give 
the Society 12 copies, and Mr. Van Tyne personally promising 
over his own signature to add 13 copies more. The volume 
of 769 pages was issued last autumn, and the 12 copies prom- 
ised by McClure, Phillips & Co. came promptly to hand. Two 
copies only have come to individual members of the Society 
from Mr. Van Tyne. 

The congestion of the library, which no weeding of dupli- 
cates can remedy for any length of time, seriously embarrasses 
the work of the orderly arrangement of the library according 
to classification. Much progress, however, has been made in 
giving easy and speedy access to its treasures. Approxi- 
mately 30,000 pamphlets have been classified, put into boxes 
made for this special purpose, arranged alphabetically and con- 
secutively numbered, the contents of each indicated thereon and 
catalogued piece by piece, with the number of the box contain- 
ing such contents put on each card, and the boxes catalogued 
by number specifying the nature of the contents of each, so 
that any desired pamphlet can be readily found. Many pamph- 
lets, however, remain to be treated in like manner. When com- 
pleted and room is found to arrange the boxes consecutively 
as numbered, their availability will be manifest. For such 
room a new building is a necessity. Every passing year more 
and more strongly emphasizes such necessity. 

We would also suggest a second time the propriety of taking 
into serious consideration the importance of establishing an 
official organ devoted to the various interests of the Society, 
especially on historical and genealogical lines, placing on per- 
manent record for the public interested in such investigations 
some of its own valuable manuscripts and such contributions 
of special worth as may from time to time be sent in. It would 
in due time lead to larger and richer accumulations of valuable 

Visitors and patrons have averaged 130 per month. 
Respectfully submitted, 

N. F. Carter, 



The report of the Standing Committee was presented by 
John C. Thorne, and on motion of Rev. Dr. D. C. Roberts it 
was voted that the recommendation be approved. 


Your committee would report that but little of importance 
has transpired the past year. 

The small details of caring for the building have been per- 
formed as usual. The unsatisfactory and inconvenient quar- 
ters of the past still remain to limit the work and progress of 
the Society. The committee feel that more and more there is 
urgent need of a new edifice to carry on properly the purposes 
which it is intended to accomplish. 

The grounds have been recently graded, to keep them re- 
spectable, at an expense of about twelve dollars. 

A flag and staff have been procured for the small sum of 
about eight dollars, that on public days we may throw out the 
stars and stripes to the breeze. 

In regard to the two parks which are deeded to our care, there 
is evident need that some work should be done upon them. 

The Memorial Park, of some three fourths of an acre, sit- 
uated on the Plains, in which stands the monument indicating 
the site of the first religious service in central New Hampshire 
in 1725, is exposed to great danger from forest fires. Many 
bushes which grow about the grounds, and even near the 
granite shaft, should be cut away and the land cleared. Its 
present condition is unsafe. 

Also at the Bradley Monument, on the Millville Road, the 
grounds about it badly need and deserve attention, as they are 
seen by so many hundreds of people. 

Perhaps Mrs. Eddy, whose house is opposite, would join 
with the Society in making of this place, of which we own 
some six rods square, a pretty little park. 

If the Standing Committee, in whom perhaps you might 
have confidence, were authorized to expend, in much-needed 
work on these two parks, a sum not exceeding $50 each, it 
would serve to make them more respectable. 

Fire is liable to damage either of these granite monuments, 
especially the one upon the Plains. 

The committee would ask that an amount not exceeding 
$100 be voted them for the improvement of these two little 
plots of ground which surround historical monuments given to 
our care and preservation. 

John C. Thorne, 

For the Committee. 

Concord, June 10, 1903. 


A verbal report of the Committee on the Library was made 
by Mr. Amos Hadley, chairman, and the same was accepted. 

A similar report of the Committee on Publications was 

The Special Committee to whom was referred the disposition 
of certain publications and pamphlets, not considered within 
the scope of the Society, made two -reports, the first a majority 
report in favor of the proposition, and the second, a minority 
report opposing tfie same, especially until the erection of a 
new building, and the removal of the library thereto. After 
some discussion, on the motion of Hon. N. G. Ordway, the 
Society voted that both reports be laid upon the table. 


The committee to whom was referred the subject of the dis- 
position of the publications of the United States and of several 
of the states respectfully report : 

Publications of the United States. 

These fill several alcoves. While they are more or less com- 
plete for the periods covered, the Society has not for many 
years been a regular recipient of them. The New Hampshire 
State Library has a substantially complete set and has the new 
issues as they appear. The value of these books for sale is 
not large ; but it seems desirable to sell them at the best price 
we can get. Any one wishing to consult them can find them 
in a more complete condition at the State Library. 

We have a large pile of the Patent Office Gazette in numbers. 
They occupy a good deal of space and are practically inacces- 
sible and of no present use. In fact, it is probable that no one 
has ever looked at them, except casually, as a matter of pass- 
ing curiosity. Both the State Library and the United States 
Circuit Court have bound copies of these and also complete 
copies of the patents issued, of which the Gazette gives only 
the claims. Any one desiring to investigate a patent question 
can be much better served at the State Library or the United 
States Court House than in our alcoves. The committee rec- 
ommends the sale of these. 

There are some of the government publications which it 
seems desirable to keep. The collection of about 150 volumes 
collected and bound by one of the charter members of the 
Society, Governor Plummer, should not be disposed of. They 


contain some papers which are rare and may be unique, and 
are associated with Governor Plummer and were a special gift 
to the Society and should be retained. 

It also seemed best to the committee to retain the Annals of 
Congress t the Congressional Globe and its continuation, and all 
volumes of history as well as the illustrated books of geology 
and discovery. 

They recommend that a committee be authorized to dispose 
of the other volumes of Congressional publications and the 
Patent Qazette on the best possible terms and that the Patent 
Office be notified that the Gazette is not within the scope of the 
Society and request its discontinuance. 

State Publications. 

There are in the library quite large collections of the jour- 
nals of the legislatures and of sessions laws and department 
reports of other states. Those of the New England states the 
committee recommend should be retained. Those of the other 
states are not useful and they occupy a good deal of space. 
Of many of the states we have nothing. The committee rec- 
ommend that the same committee above spoken of be directed 
to return to the states which sent them publications of this 
class, with a courteous explanation of the reasons why we can- 
not keep them. The committee will, of course, first ascertain 
the wishes of the state as to their being returned. 

The other subjects referred to the committee have not been 
considered. They are reserved for further action and should 
be taken up by another committee appointed at this or some 
subsequent meeting. What is here recommended seemed to 
be a substantial step and perhaps as much as should be treated 
at once. 

It may not, however, be improper to suggest that the draw- 
ing of lines as to the kind of pamphlets which the Society can 
afford to take care of and the disposition of the very large and 
increasing collection of newspapers demand serious and care- 
ful consideration. 

Samuel C. Eastman, 
Joseph B. Walker. 


As the third member of the committee to whom was referred 
the disposition of certain publications, would report : 

That owing to positive convictions in regard to our library, 
which have increased with longer consideration, I feel obliged 
to dissent, in part at least, from the report presented by Messrs. 



Kastman and Walker. Regretting to differ from these gentle- 
men, I think I should present my opinion. 

With the section that treats upon the disposing of and dis- 
continuing the Patent Office Gazette in pamphlet form, I fully 
agree, as they are undoubtedly a burden to us. 

In regard to the Governor Plummer collection of some 150 
volumes of government publications, a gift to the Society, that 
they should be retained, I also agree. 

But in regard to the bound government publications of vari- 
ous kinds, I am averse to their removal. Taking haphazard 
from the shelves two or three volumes, I find a full article upon 
the "Organization of Our Army ;" a paper upon the purchase 
and the history of the " Hermitage " — the home of President 
Jackson in old Tennessee ; one upon the claims and account 
of the great naval inventor, John Ericson ; another upon 
agriculture in the different states — the treatment of soils, cul- 
tivating crops, harvesting, storing and marketing of various 
products (result of much study and investigation); also upon 
building canals, improving rivers and harbors, which has much 
to do with our home and foreign commerce ; reports of the 
Secretary of the Interior, giving the topography and surveys of 
many sections of our country, interior commerce by means of 
our great railroad system ; condition of education in New Hamp- 
shire, its methods and results; — these are all valuable to the 
student and historian. 

Department of State papers have correspondence on many 
matters by Adams, Seward, Bismark, and numerous others of 
the world's great men ; another volume contains letters of con- 
dolence from nearly all the countiies of the earth, upon the 
wicked assassination of Lincoln — all valuable papers ; also 
full papers upon Immigration and Mining; upon valuable 
observations in different waters and along various coasts by 
our navy, etc. In fact, an half-hour's investigation of public 
documents reveals that within their compact leather covers 
there exists a vast amount of information upon hundreds of 
subjects, gathered at great expense of time and money and 
here preserved for us — and which we should preserve upon 
our shelves. 

All duplicates should be disposed of as soon and as well as 
may be. 

I must say, as I believe, that we cannot afford thus to begin 
to disintegrate-, if we cannot house books like these we are in 
a very poor plight indeed. 

As to the State Reports of other states, outside of New Eng- 
land, I cannot agree with the rest of the committee that we 


should return them to the donors. It seems to be a most dis- 
courteous action for us to take. Many of these contain most 
valuable matter. For instance, taking down a volume, I see 
that it is a " History of the Mound Builders of Ohio," a rare 
and important historic article. 

The suggestion that we keep those of the New England 
states of course meets with the wishes of us all. 

Rather than to dispose of more or less valuable books — for 
how can we judge what others may want to consult? — let us 
join in t{ie feeling and expression of our noble President Todd, 
"that the first thing and the last thing we need is a new build- 
ing," and move unitedly and strongly for its attainment. 
Then as we move from our old to new rooms the opportunity 
will be given on roomy shelves to arrange and classify and so 
systemize our library as to make it worthy of what it is. But 
do not let us even begin to think that we are enlarging our 
opportunities by breaking up our collection of books. 


John C. Thorn e, 


The committee on publication made a verbal report that 
Part I, Vol. IV, of the Society's Proceedings, had been issued 
in accordance with a vote of the Society, and distributed as 

On motion of Mr. Hadley a committee of three was appointed 
by the chair to nominate officers for the ensuing year. The 
committee was as follows : 

Amos Hadley, William P. Fiske, John F. Jones. 

The committee on new members reported the names of 
George F. Morris of Lisbon and Miss Carrie R. Todd of 
Concord, and they were duly elected. 

On motion of Hon. J. B. Walker, the order of business was 
suspended and the annual address was given by George F. 
Morris, Esq., subject, " Maj. Benjamin Whitcomb, Ranger and 
Partisan Leader in the Revolution." A vote of thanks was 
presented the speaker, on motion of Rev. Alfred L. Elwyn of 
Portsmouth, and a copy of the address requested for preserva- 
tion in the archives of the Society. 



As early as 1632 John Whitcomb (1), born in England, emi- 
grated to America and settled in Dorchester, Mass. In 1644 
he moved to Scituate and from thence to Lancaster, Mass., in 
1652. The name was then spelled Whetcomb. He and his 
son John were among the thirty original proprietors of the town 
of Lancaster. He drew by lot one of the most desirable farms 
in the town, having an estate which inventoried two hundred and 
forty-one pounds, which was considered a large estate among 
the early settlers. His wife's name was Frances and from them 
descended a very numerous race of Whitcombs. John died in 
Lancaster, September 24, 1662 ; Frances, his wife, died March 
17, 1 67 1. They had eight children, as follows : 

John , married Mary , 1667 ; died April 6, 1683. 

Jonathan , married Hannah , 1667 ; resided in Lan- 
caster ; massacred by Indians, 1692. 

Job , married Mary , 1669; died in Weathersfield, 

Conn., 1683. 

Josiah ■, see next entry. 

Robert , married Mary Cudworth, 1660 ; resided in 


Catherine , married Rodolphus Ellrns, 1644 ; had seven 


Mary , married John Moore. 1683. 

(James ?). Questioned. 

Josiah Whitcomb (2), fourth son of John, lived in Bolton, 
Mass. ; married Rebecca Waters, December 4, 1664, and died 
April 12, 17 18. He was selectman of the town in 1706, and 
a member of the Legislature in 17 10. He was garrison com- 
mander in 1704, three of his sons being members of his gar- 
rison at the time. He had eleven children, as follows : 

Josiah , born in 1665 ; died in infancy. 

Josiah , born in 1666 ; died in 17 18. 

David -, see next entry. 

Rebecca , born in 1670 ; married Jacob Houghton 


Johanna , born in 1673 ; married N. Joslyn, 1708. 


Mary , born in 1676; married (1st) S. Willard, (2d) S. 

Farnsworth, 1706. 

Damaris ■, born in 1678 ; married Nathaniel Wilder, 

1707. _ ' _ 

Hezekiah , born in 1681 ; had seven children. 

Deborah ■ , born in 1683. 

Eunice , born in L685 ; married Whiting. 

Abigail , born in r688 ; married White. 

David* Whitcomb (3), son of josiah, was born February 20, 
1668, in Lancaster, and married Mary Fairbanks, May 31, 
1700. Lived in Bolton, where he was recommended as a 
proper person to keep an inn and sell liquors in 1717. He 
died in 1727, and had six children, as follows: 

David, Jr., married Betty White in 1731 ; died in 1786. 1 
Jonathan, lived in Bolton, Mass. ; married Rachel Woods, 
Joseph, married Damaris Priest; died in Swanzey, 1792. 
Benjamin, see next entry. 
Simon, born in 17 14. 
Rebecca, married Ezra Sawyer, 1725 or 1726. 

Benjamin Whitcomb (4), fourth son of David, was born in 
Lancaster, and lived for a time in Bolton, Mass. He was one of 
the original proprietors of the lands laid out in the additional 
grant to Lancaster, which later, in 1740, was incorporated as 
Leominster. He was chosen a deacon in Leominster in 1747, 
and died in 1778. He married Dorothy White, a daughter of 
Capt. John White, and had by her sixteen children : 

Tamar, born March 2S, 1735. 

Benjamin, Jr., see next entry. (Subject of this sketch.) 
Dorothy, born in 1739. 

Joanna, born September 2, 1741 ; died in infancy. 
Nathaniel, born June 27,, 1743 , died in infancy. 
Joanna, born May 9. 1745. 

Nathaniel, born May 2, 1747; died at Sugar Hill, N. H., 
1828, unmarried. 

Eunice, born September 10, 17 48. 

1 I note that in the History of Swanzey David, Jr., is given as of the second gen- 
eration of Whitcombs, which I think is an error, his name being confused with that 
of his father. 


Ephraim, born October 21, 1750 ; lived in Jaffrey, N. II. 

Mary, born December 18, 1752. 

Rebecca, born March 19, 1754. 

Lois, born September 3, 1755. 

Prudence, born February 13, 1758; died August 23, 1759. 

John, born May 20, 1759; died at Franconia or Easton, 
N. IL, 18 13. 

Josiah, born August io, 1761 j* died at Lisbon, N. H., Jan- 
uary 9, 1834. 

Prudence, born September 18, 1763. 

Such was the ancestry of Major Benjamin Whitcomb, the 
subject of this sketch. He was born July 2, 1737, in Lancaster, 
Mass., in that part of the town later incorporated as Leomin- 
ster. Hardly had he reached manhood when the French and 
Indian War broke out. In 1755 a call was made for men from 
Massachusetts to join in an expedition under General Johnson 
against Crown Point, and it was while serving as a private in 
Samuel Hind's company, in this expedition, that young Whit- 
comb, then scarcely eighteen years of age, first saw active 
service. He was in the battle of Lake George, September 8, 
1755, when the gallant but unfortunate Dieskau was defeated 
by the undisciplined colonial troops. 

Lie again responded in 1757 on the general alarm which fol- 
lowed the victory of Montcalm at Fort William Henry, enlist- 
ing in Capt. Oliver Wilder's company. It was expected that 
Montcalm would follow up his advantage and push on to Albany. 
Men were hastily enlisted for its defense, but Montcalm retired 
to Canada, and the company was disbanded without seeing 
active service. 

He again enlisted in 1759 in the company of James Reed for 
service with General Amherst in his expedition against Mon- 
treal. In the enlistment roll his name appears as follows : 

" Benjamin Whitcomb, aged 21, served 1756, Leominster." 

He served with his company during Amherst's entire cam- 
paign. On the return from Canada, some of the Massachusetts 
companies marched across Vermont from Lake Champlain to 
Charleston No. 4, N. H., and from thence to their homes. 
Undoubtedly Whitcomb on this trip became more or less familiar 


with Westmoreland, N. H., in which town he later settled. 
The date of his removal is uncertain, and whether he went 
directly from Leominster to Westmoreland or like some of his 
brothers, went first to Jaffrey, N. H., and from thence to West- 
moreland, is only a matter of conjecture. From the records it 
is certain that in 1775, Whitcomb was a resident of the latter 

His family seems to have been fired with the patriotism of 
the times. Of the five sons of Benjamin Whitcomb, Sr., who 
grew to manhood, four, at least, enlisted in the Continental 
army, — Nathaniel, who served in Capt. Jacob Hind's Company 
in Col. James Reed's Regiment ; John and Ephraim, who served 
in Capt. Francis Town's Company of Col. David Cilman's Regi- 
ment; and Benjamin, Jr., whose career is of more particular 
interest to us in this sketch. 

Benjamin Whitcomb was among the first in New Hampshire 
to respond to his country's call at the opening of the Revolu- 
tionary War. The date of his enlistment is somewhat uncer- 
tain. In the roll of Col. Timothy Bedel's Regiment of June 23, 
1775, which was the first muster of Bedel's men, Whitcomb's 
name does not appear. Two more companies were added to 
Bedel's Regiment, in July, 1775. January 20, 1776, the New 
Hampshire house of representatives voted "to raise one regi- 
ment of soldiers forthwith." This regiment, consisting of eight 
companies, was raised and placed under the command of Colonel 
Bedel and ordered to join the Continental Army. Benjamin 
Whitcomb's name appears in the roll of Capt. Samuel Young's 
Company in this regiment as second lieutenant, and we find him 
receipting March 8, 1776, for ^10 16s. od. for services since 
January 22, 1776. So we conclude that he responded to the 
call of the house of representatives made January 20, 1776, 
and enlisted two days later. Some time prior to June 24, of 
the same year, he was promoted to first lieutenant. During the 
month of March, 1776, Bedel's Regiment or the part of it which 
was not eliminated from service that year by the surrender at 
the Cedars, 1 was ordered to Canada to join the northern division 

1 The list of officers and men of Bedel's Regiment surrendered at the Cedars in 
1776 is given in American Archives, Series Five, Vol. i, p. 167. Lieutenant Whit- 


of the Continental army under the command of General Schuy- 
ler. It was in Montreal as early as April 20, at Quebec, May 
6, Sorel, May 27 and 28, Crown Point, June 19 to July 15, and 
Ticonderoga, July 18, where it remained some time. 

The Champlain valley was familiar ground to Whitcomb 
because of his service in the French and Indian War, and very 
early in the campaign his qualifications seemed to have been 
discovered by his superior officers. At that time an important 
branch of the service and one attended with the greatest dan- 
gers was the ranger or scouting service. Whitcomb seems to 
have been chiefly employed during the year 1776 in this line 
of work, his field of operation being between Fort Ticonderoga 
and the enemy encamped around St. Johns and Montreal, 

In accounting the dangers attending such duties I am afraid 
we. do not, in the days of well-laid highways, railroads, tele- 
graphs and telephones, stop to think that then none of these 
existed. Then nothing but boundless, and I might almost say 
trackless, forests existed in northern New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont. To deliver a message from Coos (Haverhill) to the 
Continental Army in Canada, through 180 miles of unbroken 
forests, required a man of dauntless courage, iron constitution 
and cunning, to outwit the savage allies of the English, who 
were wandering through the entire intervening region, bent on 
plundering and scalping whoever crossed their path. To such 
service Benjamin Whitcomb was assigned. The exact work 
he did in that line can be but partially related, as the records 
are very meagre. Such information as we have is gathered 
from letters of different persons, written relative to the opera- 
comb's name does not appear in the list. This is evidence that he was employed else- 
where at the time of the unfortunate affair of the Cedars. 

Valuable contributions to the literature relating to the history of the regiments 
commanded by Colonel Bedel, which may be consulted by those who desire to pursue 
the subject further, are as follows: Article by Judge Aldrich in Vol. 3, Proceedings 
of the N. 11. Hist. Soc, pp. 194-231, entitled " The Affair of the Cedars and the 
Services of Colonel Timothy Bedel in the War of the Revolution "; Memoir and 
Papers of Lt.-Col. Joseph Wait, by Horatio L. Wait, Manuscript Collections of the 
N. H. Hist. Soc, unpublished; Lt.-Col. John Wheelock, by President Samuel C. 
Bartlett, Proceedings N. H. Hist. Soc, Vol. 2, pp. 408-426 ; Lt.-Col. David Webster, 
by Hon. Alfred Russell, Vol. 30, Granite Monthly, p. 93. 


tions of the army in general, in which Whitcomb's name casu- 
ally appears. 

In a letter dated at Skenesborough, August 8, 1776, written 
by Gen. Benedict Arnold to Gen. Philip Schuyler, Whitcomb is 
mentioned as having been lately sent from Crown Point to St. 
Johns, "which place he left the 31 ultimo. Pie went down on 
the east side as far as Chambly, and returned on the west. 
Says he observed about forty bateaux at St. Johns and some 
others building, but no large vessels, — believes there were 
about two thousand men there and one thousand men between 
St. Johns and Chambly." 

In a letter from Major-General Gates to General Washington, 
dated at Ticonderoga, August 28, 1776, Lieutenant Whitcomb 
is mentioned as having left that place " the 20th instant upon a 
scout towards St. Johns, Chamblee, &c." And General Arnold, 
writing from Windmill Point to General Gates, September 7, 
i 776, says: " Lieutenant Whitcomb arrived here the 5th instant 
in the evening and went off the same night, with three men 
from St. Johns on the west side." 

Whitcomb seems to have returned from this expedition Sep- 
tember 17, 1776, as appears from a letter by General Arnold 
to General Gates, dated at Isle-la-Motte, September 18, 1776, 
in which letter Whitcomb is mentioned as returning from the 
north with two prisoners. 

The dates in these letters seem to correspond with a diary 
kept by Whitcomb of one of his expeditions. Although no 
month or year appears in Whitcomb's memoranda, a compari- 
son of the dates given and of contemporaneous events leads 
me to the conclusion that the diary refers to this expedition. 
Whitcomb's minutes are here reproduced. 

Abstract of Lieutenant Whitcomb's journal on his scout : 

Set out from Ticonderoga with my party and arrived at 
Crown Point that day, where 1 showed my orders to Gen. 
Arnold, who advised me to wait for the fleet, which was to sail 
the next day. I staid according to orders, and sent over the river 
to buy some sauce. My party found a man at one of the inhab- 
itant's houses, who they suspected to be an enemy to the cause. 
Upon their return and information they gave of the person, 1 
went over the next day and brought him to Gen. Arnold. lie 


could give no account of himself, only came to work. Gen. 
Arnold told him he would send him to Gen. Gates and that night 
set him at liberty. I never knew what became of him since. 
The winds being contrary was detained until the 25th. (Aug. 
1 776,) when we set sail and only made two miles. The 26th. 
made Gilliland's Creek; 27th. the winds being high, the gon- 
dolas could not lay there, moved off to Button-Mould-Bay. I 
remained there till the 31st. On the same day I went to Gilli- 
land's Creek, and had orders to take two tories and examine 
them which 1 did, with Capt. Alexander, and found them not 

2nd. September, at evening, left Capt. Alexander, and set 
out with two canoes, and the wind being against us, put up on 
the island near Cumberland Bay. My ensign was taken sick 
with ague so that we could not move him. Left two men to 
take care of him. The fleet passed us while on the island. 
4th. at evening I set out with Wright in a canoe, when we lost 
our way, the night being dark, and got into a bay. We could 
not find our way back but was obliged to stay till morning. 
Eatly in the morning we set out and came in sight of the ves- 
sels when we were at the lower end of the Isle-la- Motte. The 
wind being so high we could not make way till about ten 
o'clock. Arrived that day about two o'clock with Gen. Arnold. 
I took two men out of the vessels and went on shore, where 
we encamped that night. 

On the 7th. September, early in the morning, set out and 
arrived opposite the Isle-au-Noix. The day being wet, and I 
was taken with the ague, durst not venture to wade the water. 
On the 8th was something better. Waded over to the bank 
of the river, and made a discovery of near one thousand men 
as I judged on the island but not a vessel or batteaux to be 
seen. Then returned across the water and travelled five miles 
towards St. Johns. I sent one man back to Gen. Arnold, to 
inform him of it. The 9th. went above two miles and was 
then seized with the ague. 10th. only made a mile, the ague 
being so violent ; nth. travelled seven miles and came to the 
road when the ague seized me again. 12th. saw one of the 
enemy, but being sick durst not venture to make an attack 
upon him. The day before 1 saw 319 regulars and a small 
number of indians with their baggage, pass by to St. John's. 
13th. saw 72 indians armed, returning from St. Johns to Mon- 
treal. Before they were out of my sight T saw two persons 
coming after them, when they came against me, I found them 
to be the enemy. 1 immediately stepped out and told them 
they were my prisoners and must immediately go to Ticon- 

3 o6 


deroga and see Gen. Gates. They asked me whether I was 
not a Canadian as they were sure I was no soldier. I told 
them soldier or not, they must go with me, and I immediately 
ordered them to march out of the road; and they then-offered 
me sums of money to let them go. I told them I would not 
for all the money King George was worth. 

We marched that night about eight miles, the 14th marched 
about 12 miles, 15th came to the place where the vessels lay 
when I left them and found them gone, which surprised the 
prisoners very much, as we were just out of provisions, and we 
were greatly afraid of starving. I told them their fleet had 
most certainly taken ours or drove them off; with intent to try 
them. They asked me the strength of our fleet. I told them. 
They said it was impossible for them to drive us, that our fleet 
had not gone far. We marched 6 miles and came in sight of 
a fleet, to a river which we could not pass. The Indians fre- 
quently came there to view our vessels and the ground between 
being wet in other places we were obliged to lie there that 
night and sent off a man to the vessels who arrived next day 
about ten o'clock with a batteau, he crossed the river on^ a 
small raft, 16th we immediately went on board the batteau 
and in about two hours got to the vessels, 17th about two 
o'clock left the vessels in a batteau commanded by one of Col. 
Hartleys subs and went about 20 miles that night, 18th early 
in the morning we set off and made Gilliland's Creek. The 
officer having business there we remained until the 19th at 12 
o'clock then set out the wind being against us, made only 
twelve miles, 20th late in the morning we set out and got to 
Crown Point about 3 o'clock. 21st arrived at Ticonderoga. 

Benj. Whitcomb, Lieutenant. 




It was during his'scout in July, 1776, already referred to, 
that he shot General Gordon of the British Army at a point 
between St. Johns and La Prairie, Canada. 

I have read and heard of many different accounts of this 
adventure, but the one to which I attach the greatest credit is 
the one which has been handed down from generation to gen- 
eration among the family traditions of Major Whitcomb, and 
which is as follows : 

The general then in command of the Northern Division of 
the Continental Army, which, after the disastrous attempt on 
Quebec and Trois Rivers early in the season of 1776, had 
retreated as far as Crown Point and Ticonderoga, was desirous 


of capturing an officer of the British Army, in hopes of gaining 
from him information concerning the strength and movements 
of the enemy. An invasion was momentarily looked for. 
Whitcomb, who was engaged in scouting service, knew of the 
desire. He set out with two companions, who later deserted 
him. He made his way to St. Johns and stationed himself 
beside the road leading from the enemy's camp, choosing a 
place where a stream of water and deep ravine came near the 
highway, at a point where a tree had been blown over, leaving 
the roots turned up. Here he waited until he saw a British 
officer with several aids approaching. When they were passing 
he fired, mortally wounding General Gordon. He remained 
secreted beneath the roots of the tree until the pursuing party 
rushed past him, thinking, of course, that he would immedi- 
ately try to make his escape. As soon as they were out of 
sight he passed along the trunk of the fallen tree into the 
alders of the ravine. Keeping in the stream for some dis- 
tance, traveling day and night, with a scant supply of provi- 
sions, he reached Fort Ticonderoga in safety, where he related 
his adventures, not knowing that he had killed the officer. 
When asked if he thought he killed the officer, Whitcomb said 
his "gun never deceived him when aimed at a deer, but as a 
leaf came in the way of his sight as he fired, he could not be 
positive but was sure he struck him as he saw him quiver 
about the shoulders." 

The shooting of General Gordon greatly incensed the Brit- 
ish, who claimed that such an act was contrary to all rules of 
civilized warfare and no less than murder. Later Whitcomb's 
release was demanded of the American general, under a flag 
of truce, but the British were informed that so long as they 
employed Indians to waylay, murder and scalp Americans they 
must reasonably expect retaliation. A reward of 50 guineas 
was offered by General Carleton for the capture of Whitcomb, 
either dead or alive. 

Notwithstanding the perils, Whitcomb immediately set out 
on another scouting expedition to the same region, during 
which he did capture two of the enemy, as appears by the let- 
ter of General Arnold under date of September 18, 1776, and 


by Whitcomb's diary. In an extract from Aunsbury's letters 
the incident is noted as follows . " I am most agreeably inter- 
rupted in my serious reflections by a visit from our friend S., 
who is just arrived from New York. He was taken prisoner 
last summer by a notorious fellow of the name of Whitcomb, 
the same who shot Brigadier-General Gordon, the particulars of 
which I will inform you in my next." 

The next letter referred to is printed at length in the 
" Memoir and Official Correspondence of Gen. John Stark," page 
490, but is too lengthy to be reproduced in full here. It gives 
the British version of the shooting of General Gordon, and in 
referring to the capture of " our friend S." (Colonel Skene), 
the author says, " that Whitcomb in furtherance of his desire, 
after the death of General Gordon, to capture a British officer, 
went with two companions back to the same spot and con- 
cealed themselves in the woods. The regiment of which our 
friend S. is quartermaster having occasion for some stores from 
Montreal, he was going from the camp at St. Johns to procure 
them. He was advised not to go this road, but by way of 
Chamblee, on account of the late accident ; but you know him 
to be a man of great personal bravery and courage, joined 
with uncommon strength, and he resolved not to go so many 
miles out of his way for any Whitcomb whatever. He jocosely 
remarked that he should be very glad to meet him as he was 
sure he would get the reward.' In this however he was greatly 
mistakened, his reward being no other than that of being taken 
prisoner himself." 

Of the several different accounts of the killing of General 
Gordon, some, which have been written, have incidents woven 
in which bear decided ear-marks of improbability. For in- 
stance, that in " Hemenway's Vermont Historical Gazetteer," 
Vol. 1, page 1065, wherein he is said to have made his escape 
to Royalton, Vt., and in " Wells' History of Newbury, Vt.," page 
90, recently published, wherein he is spoken of as having plun- 
dered the body of his victim and taken from it a watch and 
sword, are illustrations. 

It is hardly probable that Whitcomb would have passed the 
Continental Army on Lake Champlain to take refuge at South 


Royalton, Vermont. The indisputable evidence is that he 
reported to General Arnold at Skenesborough before August 
8, and as early as August 25 set out on another scout to the same 

Again it is improbable that he plundered the body of Gen- 
eral Gordon if several aids were present when the shooting 
occurred, and more improbable that he should go back without 
knowing that he haol killed him. 

I have either read or heard a theory advanced that the 
American officers in command of the Northern Army, to retal- 
iate for the inhuman treatment of the American prisoners sur- 
rendered by Major Butterfield at the Cedars, offered a cap- 
tain's commission to any one who would capture a British offi- 
cer of the rank of colonel, or a major's commission to any one 
who would capture a British general. This is not improbable. 
The capture of Colonel Skene was made September 13, 1776, 
and one month after, Whitcomb was commissioned a captain. 
What his secret orders were, may never be known, but it is 
certain from the refusal to surrender him on the British demand, 
and from the treatment subsequently accorded him, that the 
shooting of General Gordon was not looked upon as an atrocity 
by the American officers in command. 

October 14, 1 776, Lieutenant Whitcomb was commissioned 
a captain by the Continental Congress and raised an independ- 
ent battalion of rangers for the Continental Army. The bat- 
talion at first consisted of two companies, Captain Whitcomb's 
and Capt. George Aldrich's, and a record remains of the names 
and residences of the men. 1 Most of them enlisted in the latter 
part of 1776, and their term of enlistment was "during this 
war." The battalion seems to have joined the Northern Army 
at Ticonderoga. General Gates in a letter to Congress dated at 
Albany, November 27, 1776, designates Whitcomb's battalion 
for service at Ticonderoga. Whitcomb, himself, seems to have 
been at Ticonderoga as early as November 14, 1776, for on 
that day by general orders to the Northern Army he was des- 
ignated as field officer of the day. 

His renown seems to have been more than . local and his 

1 State Papers, Vol. XV ; Revolutionary Rolls, Vol. 2. 


fame and character are well illustrated by a letter written by 
General Gates to General Schuyler, dated at Ticonderoga, 
November 5, 1776. It says: "Let the tory inhabitants of 
Tyron County know that I will send Captain Whitcomb and 
one hundred men to whip them into obedience the moment 
they are refractory. H. Gates." 

His name seems to have been used for its effect on the 
Tories, mucl\ as a mother sometimes frightens her child into 
obedience by threatening to call in some noted character of 
the town. What the effect of this letter was on the inhabi- 
tants of Tyron county we do not know, but we presume it had 
a terrifying influence, as there is no record that Whitcomb was 
sent there. 

Whitcomb's battalion served in different divisions until 
December 31, 1779. Captain Whitcomb was promoted to 
major, November 10, 1777, and during the years 1777, 1778- 
and 1779 ; his battalion served at times in each of the following 
organizations: Col. George Reed's Second N. H. Regiment, 
Col. Bedel's Regiment and Maj. Dearborn's Battalion. 

When in July, 1777, Burgoyne's invading army from the 
North compelled the Americans to abandon Fort Ticonderoga, 
Whitcomb's rangers retreated to Albany with the rest of the 
Northern Army. 

In early summer, Capt. George Aldrich of Whitcomb's rang- 
ers was sent to New Hampshire to recruit more men for the bat- 
talion. On his return he joined General Stark, then near Ben- 
nington, and with the men he had recruited, took quite a prom- 
inent part in the battle of Bennington. A portion, at least, of 
Whitcomb's rangers were with the Northern Army at Saratoga, 
and participated in the battles of Stillwater or Bemis Heights, 
September 19 and October 7, 1777. We find in the list of 
companies engaged in the first battle, Major Dearborn's bat- 
talion of infantry, partly made up of Whitcomb's rangers. The 
loss in the first battle in Major Dearborn's Battalion was forty 
three killed, and of the three hundred and twenty-one men 
killed, one hundred and sixty-one were from New Hampshire, 
being one more than half of the entire loss. It is interesting 
to note here that in the four engagements fought in 1777, viz., 


Hubbardton, Bennington and the first and second battles of 
Stillwater, New Hampshire troops bore a prominent part. 
Colonel Cilley's first New Hampshire, Colonel Reid's second 
New Hampshire and Colonel Scammell's third New Hampshire 
regiments were in the battle of Hubbardton and both battles 
at Stillwater. It was General Stark who gave the first check 
to the advance of the victorious Burgoyne at Bennington, and 
to New Hampshire n\en as much as to any others, is honor 
and glory due for the triumphant outcome of the campaign of 
the Northern Army in 1777, which was the turning point in the 
long struggle for American independence. 

As nearly as I am able to tell, Major Whitcomb, after par 
ticipating in the victories over Burgoyne, remained with 
General Gates at Albany until fall. The fifteenth of Novem- 
ber, 1777, he was sent by General Gates to Colonel Bedel, who 
was then at Coos (Haverhill), with a message requiring Bedel 
to engage without delay "a regiment of volunteers of five hun- 
dred men, officers included, to be commanded by yourself 
(Bedel), as colonel, and the bearer, Captain Whitcomb, as 
major," for the capture of St. Johns, Canada. The greatest 
secrecy was enjoined on them and no one was to be acquainted 
with object of the expedition except Bedel, Wheelock and Whit- 

By a later letter dated at Albany, January 29, 1778, from 
Colonel Hazen to Colonel Bedel, it appears that Onion River 
was to be the general place of rendezvous for the proposed 
expedition, to which place Major Whitcomb was supposed to 
accompany Bedel. 

By a letter from General Conway to Bedel, bearing date at 
Albany, 15th February, 1778, Bedel was directed to remain 
with his troops at Coos until further orders, which was followed 
by another letter of similar import the next day, February 16th. 
The expedition to Canada was finally abandoned by orders 
from Marquis de Lafayette, and the regiment was ordered to 
Albany instead. We suppose Major Whitcomb was assisting 
Colonel Bedel during the time from the fall of 1777 until the 
expedition was abandoned in the -spring of 1778, in recruiting 
the regiment. 



In March of the same year, 1778, Lafayette appears to have 
sent orders to Bedel to keep his men together for general duty 
at Coos, in scouting expeditions, in building forts and high- 
ways and for the general defence of the Connecticut valley 
frontier, but the regiment was disbanded under the prior enlist- 
ment March 31, and mustered anew for a year's service April 
1, 1778. Major Whitcomb seems to have drawn pay with 
Bedel's Regiment for the full time from November 15, 1777, 
until March 31, 1778 — one hundred thirty-seven days. 1 

It appears that because of the political troubles arising 
between Vermont and New Hampshire, relating to the border 
towns on the Connecticut River, and because of representa- 
tions made by Ethan Allen, General Stark became somewhat 
prejudiced against Bedel's Regiment and wrote to General 
Gates expressing his belief that Bedel had not mustered the 
number of men for which he was drawing rations and pay. 
The result was that General Gates dispatched an officer to 
Coos with orders to Bedel to send one hundred men to 
Stark at Albany, and later, after further correspondence of 
Stark to Gates, expressing a similar incredulous state of mind, 
General Gates in July, 1778, ordered the companies of Captains 
Nelson, Cusbman, Taylor and Tarleton, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Wheelock, to join Stark at Albany. This left 
four companies of Bedel's regiment at Coos, under the command 
of Colonel Bedel and Major Whitcomb. These companies were 
commanded by Capt. Ezekiel Ladd, Timothy Barron, Simeon 
Stevens and Luther Richardson. As a result of the political 
quarrels Bedel's Regiment was in disfavor with the authorities 
at Exeter, at Bennington and New York, but as it was recruited 
by order of the Continental Congress, it was beyond the reach 
of state authorities and remained on duty, a part at Coos and 
a part at Albany and vicinity, until relieved by General Hazen 
at Coos in April, 1779. That Whitcomb did not remain at 
Coos all of this time is made certain by a letter from Gen. 
James Clinton to Colonel Bedel, bearing date of February 16, 
1779, in which he says he has written Major Whitcomb to col- 

State Papers, Vol. XV, 


ect his scattered corps and take post with Bedel at Coos for 
the protection of the stores, and by a letter of Bedel to 
Clinton, dated at Haverhill, March 6, 1779, m which he says 
he has not yet seen or heard from the major. Where he was 
at the time is a question I have not yet solved. But during 
most of this period of time, so far as we are able to determine, 
Major Whitcomb was on duty at Coos with Bedel's Regiment; 
and as frequent calls for information about the condition of 
the enemy and the general feeling of the settlers in Canada 
were made on Colonel Bedel by Generals Gates, Hazen, La- 
fayette and others, we may feel certain that Major Whitcomb 
was performing his full share of scouting service. As we have 
said, General Hazen relieved Bedel at Coos in April, 1779. He 
remained there until September. The frontier was then guard- 
ed for a time by a regiment under the command of Col. Moses 
Nichols. Afterwards the people were left to look out for them- 
selves under the command of Major Whitcomb. 

In December, 1779, Major Whitcomb appears as a messenger 
from General Washington at Morristown, N. J., to Colonel 
Hedel at Haverhill, the message being dated December 11, 
1779, ordering Colonel Bedel to appear at that place before a 
court of inquiry concerning charges of mal-conduct in the 
quartermaster's and commissary's departments at Haverhill. 

During the seasons of 1779 and the early part of r78o, the 
settlers in the Coos region were constantly alarmed lest an 
invading army should be sent from Canada into the Connecti- 
cut valley. Scouts were kept out all of the time, and in those 
days, surrounded as they were with boundless forests, without 
the means of speedy communication, great must have been 
their anxiety. Every forest tree was made to hide a lurking 
foe. With every fresh alarm new petitions were sent to Exeter 
and Albany for assistance. Finally on the twenty-second day 
of June, r 7S0, the house of representatives voted to raise one 
hundred twenty men to be sent to the Western frontier of the 
state to reinforce Major Whitcomb's battalion. Ephraim Stone 
of Westmoreland was appointed captain of one company, and 
Samuel Runals or Reynolds of Durham, of the other. These 
men were enlisted for six months. A fort had been constructed 


at Upper Coos (Northumberland), and to this place Captain 
Reynolds was sent. 

Whitcomb's battalion remained on duty at Coos and Upper 
Coos during the year 1780. On October 16th of the same 
year, what appears to have been the sequel' of the killing of 
General Gordon, took place, viz., the sacking of Royalton, Vt- 
It will be remembered that a reward was offered for the cap- 
ture of Whjtcomb, and the same was also true of Gen. Jacob 
Bayley of Newbury, Vt. It appears that the enemy were apprised 
of the fact that Whitcomb was at Haverhill by a prisoner by 
the name of Hamilton, who had been at Newbury on parole. 
A party under the command of a British lieutenant, Horton, 
composed mostly of Indians, guided by Hamilton, set out to 
capture Whitcomb and Bayley, but when they arrived at what 
is now Montpelier, Vt., they received information that Coos 
and Newbury were strongly garrisoned. They then turned 
through Chelsea and Tunbridge, Vt., and vented their fury on 
Royalton, laying in ashes the entire settlement, and killing a 
number of persons and taking others prisoners. 

It was while at Upper Coos, according to a family tradition, 
which seems quite well grounded, that Whitcomb was surprised, 
captured and taken to the St. Francis River in Canada, where 
his captors intended to deliver him over to the British authori- 
ties at the mouth of the river and receive their reward. He 
was kept securely bound, but the night before they expected 
to reach the British post, he prevailed on one of the Indians 
whom he had befriended years before to cut his bonds and 
release him, when he made his escape back to his post. 

Major Whitcomb's service in the Revolution was continuous 
from the time of his enlistment. The following is a copy of 
his record of service on file at Washington : 

Capt. Benjamin Whitcomb, Dr. Contra, Cr. 

Engaged Octo. 14, 1776. ) By ioMonths& 10 days (a) Capt. 

Promoted to a Major. > wages. 

) By 1 month, 20 days, Maj. 
Nov. 10, 1777. 

By 12 months ditto in 1778; By 12 months ditto in 1779; 
By 12 months in 1780 ; By 1 month in 1781. 


From this and other records it appears that his public ser- 
vice ended at Haverhill, N. H., January 31, 1781. 

It may not be out of place to give here three or four of the 
stories of adventure which are told of Major Whitcofnb by his 
descendants now living in Lisbon, and others whose ancestors 
were personally acquainted with him. 

The story is told that on one occasion while on one of his 
scouting expeditions, he was discovered and closely pursued 
by a band of British and Indians, who appeared to have him 
surrounded. He did not dare to proceed, and looking for a 
place to secrete himself, he discovered a large hollow tree fallen 
to the ground, into which he crawled. Soon after a spider 
began spinning or repairing a web which Whitcomb had dis- 
placed by his entrance into the tree.. His captors having as 
they supposed completely surrounded him, searched everywhere 
for him. They came to the very log in which he was secreted, 
but the spider had completed its work, and the Indians seeing 
the web at the mouth of the opening, accepted it as positive 
proof that nothing had entered, and passed on. Whitcomb re- 
mained in his close quarters until darkness covered his retreat. 

It is also related that Whitcomb, while scouting, was discov- 
ered and pursued by a band of Indians. In his flight, he came 
to a stream of considerable size, closely pursued. He dove 
in, swam for a considerable distance under the water, and came 
to the surface under a pile of logs and driftwood which had 
accumulated. Here he was able to find a place where he could 
get his face out of water to breathe. His pursuers after hunt- 
ing both sides of the stream, up and down, finding no track, 
abandoned the search in the supposition that he was drowned. 

Another story is told that on the occasion of the killing of 
General Gordon, Whitcomb a few nights prior, while reconnoi- 
tering the enemy's camp, in the darkness suddenly found him- 
self within the picket-line of the encampment. He was sur- 
rounded before he discovered his position. The surface of the 
ground was completely covered with a young growth of scrubby 
oak about three feet high. As soon as the alarm was given the 
enemy scattered in every direction in search of him, and he 
was soon completely encircled. Escape seemed impossible. 



He got into the thickest portion of the brush, prostrated him- 
self on the ground, and lying on his back, with his knife cut 
twigs, within his reach, sticking them in the ground all about 
him, completely concealing himself before daylight. In this 
position he continued motionless the entire day until the fol- 
lowing night when he made his escape by crawling close to the 
earth until beyond the enemy's lines. Several times during the 
day searching parties were very near to him, and at one time 
he was in danger of being trampled upon by the horse of an 
officer who rode past him. But his greatest apprehension of 
discovery was from the work of clearing the ground of the 
scrub oak which the enemy set out to do. The clearing was 
pushed to within twenty feet of him when night came. <- 

It is also related of him that at, or near, the close of the war, 
while living in Lisbon, a strange Indian was discovered lurking 
around in the woods. Whitcomb was warned and knowing 
that his scalp was rated at quite a sum of money and the un- 
friendly feeling existing against him because of the havoc 
wrought by him among their numbers, concluded that the pres- 
ence of the Indian boded evil to himself. Whitcomb started 
out with his rifle and was not seen around his home for several 
days. One day a shot was heard within the present limits of 
the village on the west side of the river. The strange Indian 
disappeared. We don't know that Whitcomb ever made any 
particular talk about the sudden disappearance of the unwel- 
come visitor, but it is a certain fact, one which I have from the 
lips of a man, now one month less than ninety years of age, 
Joseph Parker, Esq., and an eye witness to the discovery, that 
the bones of an Indian were found in the bank near the prem- 
ises now occupied by Frank Hall in Lisbon village. This was 
generally reported as Whitcomb's Indian. The bones were 
wired together by Dr. Moses Hibbard and put on exhibition in 
his barn. 

Such are a few of the stories told illustrating well the prowess 
of Major Whitcomb. The list might be extended, but I will 
not take the time. The foregoing are perhaps the most impor- 
tant, and have been gathered from the lips of old residents of 
Lisbon, some of whom have personal recollections of the 


Major. The first two stories have a ring of Scottish fiction 
about them, but the others are well vouched. Whether the 
former have any foundation or not, the very fact that they 
gained credence among Whitcomb's neighbors, shows their 
estimate of his character for bravery. 

At the close of his military career, Major Whitcomb settled 
down to private life on the frontier near the scene of some of his 
adventures.' We find Ipy the land records in Grafton county that 
on the 24th day of October, 1782, he purchased a full proprie- 
tor's share of land in the township of Concord (Lisbon) of 
Joseph Burt of Westmoreland, Cheshire county, for eight 
pounds. In this deed Whitcomb is set out as a resident of 
Haverhill, N. II. It is supposed that he moved to Lisbon very 
soon after his purchase. 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the town of Concord 
(Lisbon) held at the dwelling house of Major Samuel Young, 
innholder (now known as the Cobleigh place), in Concord, 
October 30, 1799, it was voted " That in consideration of Ben- 
jamin Whitcomb's settling in the town of Concord, the proprie- 
tors relinquished to him, his heirs and assigns all their right or 
claim to one hundred acres of land of River Lot No. 1 oppo- 
site the 5th & 6th Ranges, he paying the proprietor's treasurer 
fourteen dollars and fifteen cents in ninety days." This tract 
of land is located west of the Ammonoosuc River, extending 
north and south of the premises now occupied by David Ash. 
Whitcomb built a frame house on the lot near the present site 
•of Mr. Ash's barn, which is said to have been one of the first 
frame houses in Lisbon. It was burned October 1, 1884. 

Whitcomb appears to have dealt quite extensively in real 
estate, as sixty-four land sales are recorded in which his name ap- 
pears either as grantor or grantee. He took a prominent part in 
town affairs and was elected to nearly all the different offices 
within the gift of his townsmen. He was a justice of the peace 
for quite a number of years. The records of the town of 
Lisbon are lost prior to 1790, but Major Whitcomb's name 
occurs frequently in the records subsequent to that date. He 
filled the office of selectman in the years 1793, 1796, and 1797. 
In the latter year the town chose as its highest officers aformid- 


able array of military talent. I quote from the record : " Made 
choice of Major Samuel Young, Major John Young, and Major 
Benjamin Whitcomb, selectmen for the town of Concord the 
year ensuing, who were all sworn." 

In the year 1818, at the age of eighty, he applied for and 
was granted a pension at the rate of two hundred and forty 
dollars per annum, the cause alleged being that he was then in 
reduced and stood in need of the assistance of 
his country for support. To his application is attached an 
invoice of his personal property which amounted to the sum of 
forty-nine dollars and seventy-four cents. An increase of his 
pension was applied for under an act of Congress of May 15, 
1828, which was allowed to the time of his death ancl paid to 
his only surviving children, Anna Morris of Lisbon, N. H., 
and Ruth Merry of Bolton, Lower Canada. 

Benjamin Whitcomb married Lydia Howe of Westmoreland, 
in 1769, and had by her six children : 

Benjamin, Jr., who married Sally Young of Lisbon. 

Joshua, who married Bailey. 

Lydia, who married Ezra Caswell of Lisbon. 

Azulia, who married Rankin. 

Anna, who married Samuel Morris of Lisbon. 
Ruth, who married Ralph Merry of Bolton, Canada. 

Of his children, Anna was the only one who always lived in 
the town of Lisbon. She had twelve children, one of whom, 
Mrs. Adam Streeter, is now living. She also has numerous 
grandchildren and great-grandchildren still residing in the last 
mentioned town. 

Major Benjamin Whitcomb died July 22, 1828, aged ninety- 
one years and twenty days, in Lisbon, N. IL, in that part of 
the town known as Savageville, on the place now owned by 
Mrs. Matilda Wright, who is a granddaughter of Anna Morris. 
He and his wife Lydia, who died September 14, 1823, aged 
eighty-four years, are buried side by side in what is known as 
the Salmon Hole cemetery near the Sugar Hill railway station 
in the town of Lisbon. Their graves are marked by two nearly 
plain slabs of talc schist or soapstone rock, which seems to be 
a variety of stone much used during that period. On her stone 
appears the following : 


Friends nor physicians could not save 
Her mortal body from the grave. 
Nor can the grave confine her here 
When Christ shall call her to appear. 

In personal appearance Major Whitcomb is described as a 
man of average height, muscular, with very broad shoulders, 
light complexion, kindly countenance, and in his old age inclined 
to corpulency. There was little about him to indicate the 
stern, 'fearless qualities X)i the man. He was honest in all his 
business transactions, and never for a moment disregarded or 
trespassed on the rights of others. It seems rather remarkable 
that a man accustomed as he was to the activity displayed dur- 
ing the war, wont to roam through the forests, subsisting largely, 
as of necessity he must, on the products of the woods and 
streams, should immediately settle down to a quiet, peaceful 
life on a farm at the close of his military career. That a man 
who was accustomed to command, accustomed to obedience 
from others, one who had made himself feared by his foes, 
whose name was a terror to the Indians, should be so careful 
never to infringe on the rights of others, should so regard their 
wishes and desires, as Whitcomb is said always to have done, 
seems equally remarkable. In his old age, after his sons were 
married and removed from town and three of his daughters, 
Lydia, Azulia, and Anna, had families of their own, he was 
cared for by his daughter Ruth, who remained unmarried to the 
time of his death and was appointed administratrix of his 
estate. He left a will but it was never probated, being deemed 
defective because of its having only two witnesses. From the 
pension rolls we learn that he was survived by only two of his 
children, Anna and Ruth. His estate according to the invoice 
consisted of a few household goods and a small amount of 
pension money, hardly enough to defray the expenses of his 
burial. From his recorded deeds, we judge, however, that he 
had generously provided for all of his children out of his estate 
years before his death, practically settling the same according 
to his own desires. 

Major Whitcomb lived in the history-making period of this 
country, at a time when the northern border of civilization was 
practically marked by Conway on the Saco, by Campton on the 


Pemigewasset, Rumney on Baker's river, Haverhill and New- 
bury on the Connecticut, and Lisbon on the Ammonoosuc. 
Such settlements as had been made north of these points were 
weak and unprotected. All around and between them there 
was nothing but unbroken forests. Money was scarce and 
trade was carried on by a system of barter. It was not alone 
the exigencies of war and the presence of savage foes that 
called fo£ activity on the part of the frontiersman. To forge 
ahead of all others to the very verge of civilization, to clear 
the forests, to erect homes, to raise crops sufficient for the sup- 
port of a wife and large family, to endure the hardships of the 
New England winters, far from churches and schools, far from 
physicians, distant from stores and mills, necessitating long 
trips to supply the necessities of life, called for a display of 
undaunted courage, iron will, and muscular activity fully equal- 
ing the duties of the soldier. In both lines, as soldier and 
civilian, Major Whitcomb had no superior. When done with 
one he cheerfully took up the duties of the other. In warfare 
it is said he never shirked and no enterprise was so arduous, 
no undertaking so dangerous but that he was willing to enter 
upon it. He was as brave as the bravest, and as cunning and 
crafty as the savage foes with whom he was called to compete; 
His powers of endurance must have been almost beyond con- 
ception. The hardships he encountered, the hairbreadth 
escapes he passed through, are almost incredible. Yet he did 
pass through them all, a great good fortune following and guid- 
ing him, without serious injury, to end a long, active and 
useful career in the peace and quiet of his home. But his life 
and character are better displayed by his acts and deeds than 
illustrated by any word picture of mine. It is to such men as 
Major Whitcomb that this country owed a debt which it can 
never fully repay. To such is due our American independence. 
We have to thank them for the blessings of a free and inde- 
pendent republican form of government, for which they toiled, 
fought and died. It was for them to establish it. It is ours 
to maintain and enjoy. 

Note. I have been greatly assisted in the preparation of this paper by Supt. 
A. K. Whitcomb of Lowell, Mass., and Samuel Emery ofAntrim, N. IL 


Voted, That the annual assessment of three dollars be levied 
upon the members for the ensuing year. 

The committee appointed to present a list of officers for the 
ensuing year reported that the Hon. William C. Todd of 
Atkinson declined a reelection and recommended the following, 
which were subsequently elected by ballot : 

Hon. Albert S. Wait. 


Rev. D. C. Roberts, D. D., 
Hon. Henry M. Baker. 

Recording Secretary. 
John C. Ordway. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Hon. Charles R. Corning. 

William P. Fiske. 

Rev. N. F. Carter. 

Dr. Eli E. Craves. 

Standing Committee. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
Edson C. Eastman. 

Library Committee. 

Amos Hauley, 

Mrs. Frances C. Stevens, 

Rev. George H. Reed. 


Puhlishiiig Committee. 

Samuel C. Eastman, 
Nathan F. Carter, 
John Dow-st. 

Committee on New Members. 

Rev. N. F. Carter, 
. John C. Ordway, 
Howard M. Cook. 

Committee on Speakers. 

Joseph B. Walker, , 

Lyman D. Stevens, 
Rev. Howard F. Hill. 

Committee on the Naval History of the State. 

Albert S. Wait, 
Joseph C. A. Wingate, 
Charles R. Corning. 

It was voted that a Committee on Field Day, with discre- 
tionary powers, be appointed, the same committee as last year, 
with John C. Thorne and William P. Fiske added. 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. H., December 9, 1903. 

The first adjourned eighty-first annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society in Concord, Wednesday, December 9, 1903, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, President Wait in the chair. 

Mr. John Home of the Rumford Printing Company of this 
city, by previous invitation, delivered an address on " Book 
Binding," with illustrations and specimens of workmanship. 
On motion of S. C. Eastman a vote of thanks was tendered 
the speaker for his very instructive and entertaining address. 


John JRoby Eastman of Andover and Dr. Granville P. Conn 
of Concord were elected active members, and Hon. Henry 
Kirke Porter of Pittsburg, Pa., an honorary member of the 

Rev. Howard F. Hill made a verbal report for the committee 
on speakers, asking that the Society instead of the committee 
decide upon the expediency of holding monthly meetings for 
the delivery of addresses the present winter. Rev. N. F. Car- 
ter moved that the several speakers who have been invited to 
prepare historical papers to be read before the Society, be 
offered the choice of delivering them in person or forwarding 
such papers to be placed on file or read by the Secretary 
or other person. The latter motion was laid upon the table 
for a time, but subsequently taken from the table and passed. 

On motion of S. C. Eastman, 

Voted, That the Society continue the publication of its Pro- 
ceedings with such addresses as may have been delivered be- 
fore the Society and not elsewhere printed. 

On motion of Mr. Hill, 

Voted, To adjourn to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordwav, 


Concord, N. H., January 20, 1904. 

The second adjourned eighty-first annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society in Concord, Wednesday, January 20, 1904, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

In the absence of the president and secretary, the meeting 
was called to order by Hon. Joseph B, Walker, and Edson C. 
Eastman elected president pro tern, and John F. Kent, secre- 
tary//-^ tan. 

The librarian read a letter from Hon. Amos J. Blake of 
Fitzwilliam, regretting his inability to be present and enclosing 
the manuscript of his sketch of the life and character of Hon. 
Amos A. Parker, which address was read by Mr. Walker. 



Amos Andrew Parker was born in Fitzwilliam, October 8, 
1 79 1. At the time of his death he was the oldest living grad- 
uate of any American college and member of the bar in New 
England. He died at the home of his youngest son, Hon. 
John M. Parker, in Fitzwilliam, May 12, 1893, aged 101 years, 
7 months and 4 days. 

He was the fourth of the nine children of Hon. Nahum 
Parker, a United States senator, and for 20 years a judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas of this state. A brief sketch of 
his distinguished father and of his public services rendered to 
the state and nation will not be out of place in this connec- 

Hon. Nahum Parker was born in Shrewsbury, Mass., March 
4, 1760. His father was Amos Parker of Lexington, Mass., a 
brother of Jonas Parker, who was one of the eight men killed 
in Captain Parker's Company of Minute Men on Lexington 
Common on the memorable 19th of April, 1775. The name 
of Jonas Parker is on the Lexington Monument. 

Amos Parker was born July 26, 1723, and died at Shrews- 
bury, December 23, 1790. His wife was Anna Stone, born 
October 21, 1726, and died November 13, 1799. They had 
nine children ; the two oldest were born in Lexington, the oth- 
ers in Shrewsbury. 

Nahum was their seventh child, and at the early age of 16 
he entered the Revolutionary Army from Shrewsbury. JIow 
long he remained in the army we have no means at hand to 
determine. He kept a diary at the time, and if that could be 
consulted the question might possibly be settled. 

In the year i8i7,when pensions were granted to all Revolu- 
tionary soldiers, he applied for a pension, and as evidence of 
services performed he sent to the secretary of war, John C. 
Calhoun, his diary accompanied by an affidavit stating that he 
was the identical man who performed the services mentioned 
therein, and at once received his pension certificate, the secre- 
tary remarking that the evidence was conclusive, for no man 
could make such a diary without having performed the services. 


He was present at the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga in 

After the war he married Mary Deeth of Gerry (now Phil- 
lipston), Mass., August n, 1783, after living a short time in 
Gerry. Pie moved to Shrewsbury in 1784, and in March, 1786, 
he came to Fitzwilliam and settled on a farm on the east side 
of the town, now owned by Harvey A. Clark. He resided 
there until the day^of his death. 

The History of Fitzwilliam truthfully says of him : " The 
ability and fidelity of Mr. Parker were at once recognized by 
the people of Fitzwilliam, and he was soon called to fill offices 
of trust. October 17, 1792, the proprietors of this township 
elected him as their clerk and treasurer, and he held these 
ollices till the closing up of the business of the proprietors in 
18 1 5. Though not educated as a lawyer, he was well ac- 
quainted with the forms and methods of civil proceedings, and 
brought to all his public duties a well-trained mind, a habit of 
exactness *in all the calls issued by him for legal meetings, and 
in the record of the same, and the utmost fidelity in account- 
ing for the funds in his possession. To all these qualifications 
for a public servant he added an almost faultless penmanship, 
so that from the date of his election as clerk of the proprietors 
their record books become easy of comprehension. 

" fn 1790 Mr. Parker's name first appears upon the records 
of Fitzwilliam as one of the selectmen, and he held this office 
for four successive years. Beginning with 1792 he was often 
moderator of the town meetings. In 1794 he was chosen to 
represent this town in the state Legislature, and was reelected 
annually till 1804, or for the period of 10 years. In 1806 he 
was again chosen representative." 

He had ir commissions as justice of the peace and quorum 
throughout the state. His first commission is dated January 
9, 1794, and signed by Josiah Bartlett, governor, and the last 
is dated December 20, 1836, and signed by Isaac Hill, gover- 

Of the 11 commissions three were signed by John Langdon, 
three by John Taylor Gilman, and one each by Josiah Bartlett, 
Samuel Bell, David L. Morrill, Matthew Harvey and Isaac 



Hill. He had three commissions as judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. The first is a commission as " Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas for the County of Cheshire," 
dated February 3, 1807, and signed by John Langdon. 

The second is a commission as "An Associate Justice of our 
Circuit Court of Common Pleas for the Western Circuit," dated 
July 13, 1813, and signed by John T. Oilman. 

The third is a commission as "An Associate Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas for the County of Cheshire," signed 
by William Plumer, governor, and dated July 5, 18 j 6. Dur- 
ing all the years in which Judge Parker held the office, and 
discharged the duties of judge, Cheshire County included within 
its limits the present county of Sullivan. 

Cheshire County, incorporated March 19, 177 1, was one of 
the five original counties into which the province was then 
divided, Keene and Charlestown being the shire towns. 

July 5, 1827, the county of Cheshire was divided, its north- 
ern riortion being taken to form the county of Sullivan, which 
was named in honor of Hon. John Sullivan of Durham. In 
1813 the "Western Circuit," as it was called; included the 
then counties of Cheshire, Grafton and Coos, the largest in the 
state, and Judge Parker " rode his Circuit " (as it was then 
termed) on horseback with his saddle bags, in one of which he 
carried the famous " Green Bag," containing his court papers, 
reports, statutes, and other law books for reference, and in the 
other his change of wardrobe and other articles, being absent 
from home frequently during the terms of court in his district 
from five to ten weeks at a time. 

In 1805 and 1806 he was elected and served as councilor 
from the "Old Fifth Councilor District," and in 1828-29 as 
senator to the General Court from District No. 9, and was one 
of the leading members of that body. June 13, 1806, he was 
elected a senator from New Hampshire in the United States 
Congress for the full term of six years, but finding his duties 
as judge and senator too onerous, and, moreover, sometimes 
conflicting in point of time, he resigned his office as senator 
after a service of three years, and continued to hold the office 
of judge. 



In all the civil, social and religious affairs of the town Judge 
Parker was prominent for a long series of years, his honesty, 
ability and fidelity being universally acknowledged by his 
townsmen, and in fact throughout the state. Of his kindness 
to the poor and afflicted many instances are related by aged 
citizens, and his influence was invariably in favor of the culture 
and good morals of the people. 

He died at his homestead, November 12, 1839, aged 80 
years; and a substantial granite monument marks his resting 
place in our public cemetery, with the following inscription 
thereon : 

Born March 4, 1760. 

Appointed Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common 
Pleas in 1807. 

United States Senator 
from New Hampshire 
from 1806 to 18 10. 

Died November 12, 1839. 

The subject of this sketch, Amos Andrew Parker, attended 
the district school in Fitzwilliam during the short terms kept in 
his district, and when the school was not in session worked 
upon his father's farm until he was 15 years of age, when he 
formed the purpose of obtaining a collegiate education, after 
a preparatory course of one year under the instruction of his 
pastor, the Rev. John Sabin, and a three years' course at New 
Ipswich Academy, under the tuition of Oliver Swain Taylor, 
who at that time was principal of the Institution. 

In June, 18 10, he entered the University of Vermont in the 
Sophomore year, and graduated in 18 13 at the age of 22 years, 
ranking second in his class. He was appointed to deliver an 
English oration, with the place of honor in the joint exhibition 
of the Junior and Senior classes ; the Greek Oration at the 
Junior Exhibition, and the Salutatory Address in Latin at 

Soon after graduation he went to Fredericksburg, Va., and 



was engaged as a teacher in the family of a wealthy planter, 
where he remained three years. He then returned to New 
Hampshire and commenced the study of law in the office of 
James Wilson, Sr., of Keene, completing his course with Hon. 
Levi Chamberlain, who was at that time in the practice of law 
at Fitzwilliam. He was admitted to the bar in 1821, and com- 
menced the practice of his profession in Epping immediately 
after, whera he remained until 1823, when he moved to Con- 
cord to accept the editorship of the New Hampshire Statesman. 

In 1824 and 1825 he was commissioned and served as aid 
on the staff of Governor Morrill, from which office he received 
his title of colonel. While residing at Concord he was dele- 
gated as one of the governor's aids to proceed to Boston and 
invite General Lafayette to visit New Hampshire. This was 
in June, 1824. The General kindly accepted the invitation, 
but desired that his visit to New Hampshire be deferred until 
the following year, and accordingly in June, 1825, Colonel 
Parker made the same journey to Boston with proper equipage 
to convey the distinguished French soldier and statesman to 

The equipage consisted of a barouche with four horses, an 
elegant stage coach with four horses, and a two-horse carriage 
for the baggage. The General was accompanied by his son, 
George Washington Lafayette, and his private secretary and a 
body servant. General Lafayette was then 67 years of age, 
well preserved and in good health. 

After Colonel Parker's retirement from active professional 
life, he published a work of 150 pages entitled, "Recollections 
of Lafayette and his Visit to America." After leaving Con- 
cord he practised his profession at Exeter and Kingston, and 
returned from the latter place to his native town in 1837, and 
continued the practice of the law. 

While residing at Exeter Colonel Parker made a long excur- 
sion to the West, and on his return published a valuable book 
(which was one of the first of its kind) entitled, "A Trip to 
the West and Texas." It was published in three editions of 
5,000 copies each, and had a rapid sale. He also published a 
book of poems in his eightieth year, and wrote many stories, 


articles for magazines and newspaper contributions. Here in 
his native town, after 1837, he held nearly every office in the 
gift of the people, and took a very active part in the measures 
adopted to suppress the Rebellion, furnishing three sons for" 
the Union Army, one of whom died in the service. He had 
received and held 15 commissions as a justice of the peace 
and quorum of five years each, covering a space of 75 years, 
his first commission^bearing date June 22, 1822. 

For several years he was a trustee of the New Hampshire 
Asylum for the Insane, a director of the Ashuelot Fire Insur- 
ance Company, a director of the Cheshire County Bank (now 
the Keene National Bank), was a member of the Bar Associa- 
tion of New York City, and of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society. He served as representative from Fitzwilliam during 
thirteen sessions of the Legislature ; his first election to that 
office was at the March election in 1839, ' He occupied the 
position of first selectman in Fitzwilliam for ten years, and for 
many years was moderator of town meetings, town agent, and 
town treasurer; during the Civil War was chairman of a com- 
mittee of three for funding the war debt of the town, which 
was very efficiently and promptly accomplished. For 72 years 
he was a member of the bar and engaged in the practice of the 
law the greater portion of that time. 

In 1S44-45 he was actively engaged in forwarding the pro- 
jected railroad between Boston and Burlington by way of Rut- 
land. After aiding in obtaining charters for the " Fitchburg " 
and " Cheshire " railroads, he brought the matter before the 
people of Vermont, addressing large crowds at Bellows Falls, 
Brandon, Rutland, Vergennes, Burlington and other places. 
The Rutland and Burlington Railroad was soon built, and is 
today the "Rutland Division" of the Central Vermont System. 

Colonel Parker was a man of splendid physique, tall, remark- 
ably erect through life, and in all respects well proportioned. 
As a public speaker he also made his mark. In addition to 
Fast Day addresses, railroad, political, educational and miscel- 
laneous speeches, Colonel Parker delivered four Fourth of July 
orations, one in 1813 at Falmouth in Virginia, one in Rocking- 
ham county, Vt, and two in Fitzwilliam. One of the finest 



gems of its kind was an address on " Education," delivered at 
Rindge on October 17, 1843, before the Cheshire County 
Common School Association. 

In his boyhood days he was too studious and busy to indulge 
in any of the sports and dissipations which often undermine 
the constitutions of the more favored youths, and the temperate 
habits he then formed greatly augmented and preserved his 
constitution for work and a long life. 

At 80 he had the vigor, endurance and strength of a man of 
50, and at 90 that of a man of 60. He was always regarded as 
a well-read lawyer, a safe counselor, and, when engaged in the 
trial of causes, a successful advocate. He was a good citizen 
and an honest man. 

He was a ready writer and a good thinker, and his success 
at the bar, upon the stump, and in the halls of legislature 
attested his power and influence as a speaker and debater. 
His was an active life, and he was long interested in the cause 
of education and temperance. 

Colonel Parker was a good Latin and Greek scholar. He 
retained his knowledge of the classics to a remarkable degree 
during his whole life, and quoted Latin and Greek phrases and 
maxims in his conversations and addresses with great ease and 
fluency. He was quite a wit, and at times enjoyed a good joke. 

A short anecdote illustrating his ready wit was recently 
related to the author of this sketch, by Hon. Albert S. Wait 
of Newport. While attending the session of the court at 
Keene, between 40 and 50 years ago, the judges and lawyers 
made their headquarters at " Colonel Harrington's Tavern," as 
it was commonly called in those days, and more recently the 
" Eagle Hotel." At the familiar sound of the dinner bell, the 
presiding judge and the lawyers from the various towns in the 
county and other parts of the state attending the term of court 
filed into the spacious dining-room, and took their seats at the 
well-loaded table which was assigned by the good host to the 
judge and members of the bar. Among the prominent mem- 
bers of the bar of Cheshire County, at that time, was Judge 
Frederick Vose of Walpole, who was invariably punctual and 
constant in his attendance at court, the sessions of which gen- 


erally lasted from five to six weeks, and he was also equally 
punctual in his attendance at the dinner table. On one occa- 
sion there were seated at the head of the table : His Honor, 
John James Gilchrist, the presiding justice; E. L. Gushing of 
Charleston ; Aldis Lovell of Alstead ; A. H. Bennett of Win- 
chester ; Col. Amos A. Parker of Fitzwilliam, and several other 
members of the bar from other portions of the state, including 
himself, who was seaied at the table directly opposite Colonel 
Parker, who, after looking up and down the long table for sev- 
eral minutes, failed to see Judge Vose of Walpole in his accus- 
tomed seat. Colonel Parker, turning to Brother Wait, ejacu- 
lated, " Inter Nos ?" (Where is Vose?), which created great 
merriment among all those seated at the table. 

Colonel Parker was married three times : First, to Miranda 
W., eldest daughter of Rev. Daniel C. Sanders, president of 
Vermont University at the time of Mr. Parker's graduation, 
by whom he had three children, two of whom still survive, 
George W., who resides at Halifax, Mass., and Andrew, who 
resides in Brooklyn, N. Y. He married, second, Mary, daugh- 
ter of United States Marshal McClary of Epsom, by whom he 
had four children, two of whom are still living, Mrs. Miranda 
S. Smith, widow of Anson B. Smith, formerly a hardware mer- 
chant of Winchendon, Mass., and Hon. John McClary Parker, 
now engaged in trade in Fitzwilliam, and who has served in 
both branches of the New Hampshire Legislature. Pie mar- 
ried, third, Julia E. Smith of Glastonbury, Conn., April 9, 1879, 
he being at that time 88 and Miss Smith 86 years of age. 

Miss Smith had become famous some 20 years before her 
marriage for resisting taxation without representation, or, in 
other words, by refusing to pay taxes because she did not have 
the privilege of voting, and also by a translation of the Bible 
from the original Hebrew and Greek into English, unaided and 
alone, after seven years of severe labor and study, and publish- 
ing 1,000 copies at her own expense. 

Her fame was in no wise diminished by her marriage to 
Colonel Parker, at her advanced age. It was a nine days' 
wonder at the time, and more or less noticed by the newspaper 
press throughout the country, but it really proved to be followed 



by seven years of happy married life, during which time they 
resided at Glastonbury, and at Hartford, Conn. 

She died March 6, 1886, and soon after Colonel Parker 
returned to his native town and resided with his youngest son, 
Hon. John M. Parker, as before stated, where he received all 
the care and attention necessary to make his declining years 
pleasant and happy. He was buried in our public cemetery, 
and a substantial headstone of our native granite marks his 
final resting-place. At the time of his death the following edi- 
torial appeared in the Independent Statesman, printed at Con- 
cord, N. H. : 

Colonel Amos A. Parker, once editor of the Statesman, has 
closed his more than a century of usefulness. Colonel Parker 
has lived a life marked by conscientious faithfulness to many a 
trust. As an editor, as a lawyer, as an official, he gave the 
best he had to the fulfilment of his duties, and went down the 
path of a green old age with powers unimpaired, with faculties 
undiminished, to a reward laid up by years of honesty with him- 
self, his fellow-men and his God. 

At the close of the reading, on motion of Mr. Carter, a vote 
of thanks was tendered Mr. Blake for his interesting paper, 
and to Mr. Walker for his kindness in reading the same. 

E. C. Eastman then related some personal reminiscences of 
Colonel Parker, after which the meeting adjourned. 

John F. Kent, 

Secretary pro tern. 
A true copy, attest : 
John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. II., February 10, 1904. 
The third adjourned eighty-first annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society in Concord, Wednesday, February 10, 1904, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, President Wait in the chair. In the 
absence of the secretary, John F. Kent was chosen to act as 
secretary pro tern. 


Hon. Henry M. Baker of Bow was unable to be present but 
sent his address entitled, " New Hampshire in the Struggle for 
Independence," which was read by Rev. N. F. Carter. 


New Hampshire is small in extent but great in achievement. 
Its domain covers only 9,305 square miles. Its length is about 
170 miles with an average width of nearly 55 miles. It is 
diversified by many hills, mountains, valleys, lakes and rivers 
whose beauty and charm are acknowledged by all lovers of the 
peaceful and picturesque in nature. Its cities and villages are 
busy hives of industry and homes of comfort and joy. Its citizens 
are thrifty, energetic, honest, patriotic and religious. Schools 
of all grades are maintained and illiteracy is a disgrace. Only 
about one per cent, of the native population is unable to read 
and write. Temples of worship adorn the country and city 
alike. Piety, reverence for law and authority, the recognition 
of personal rights and obligations and self-respect, prevail. 
These are inheritances from the sturdy settlers of the state 
who, building their homes upon the ever-advancing frontier, 
reclaimed their farms from the primeval forest. They led inde- 
pendent lives but, by combination when necessary and patriotic 
insistence at all times, they resisted oppression, secured free- 
dom and established self-government in the new world for 
themselves and for us. 

Settlements were made at Odiorne's Point near Portsmouth 
and at Dover in the year 1623. It is probable that the former 
antedated the latter by a few weeks but the latter became per- 
manent and ripened into a prosperous city. The first meeting 
house in the colony was erected at Dover. In 1665 ^ was 
provided with a bell. Prior to that date the people had been 
summoned to worship by the beating of a drum. There also 
the first sawmill and the first corn mill in New England were 

The settlement of New Hampshire was impeded by conflict- 
ing claims of title. Massachusetts as early as 1633 claimed 
that her patent had priority over the grant in 1622 to Gorges 


and Mason and that her jurisdiction extended over nearly all 
the territory to which they asserted title. In 1629 Gorges and 
Mason divided their grant, which included the land between 
the Merrimack and Kennebec Rivers, — Mason taking the sec- 
tion known as New Hampshire and Gorges the territory east of 
the Piscataqua. Six years later, after earnest endeavors to 
colonize New Hampshire under his title, Mason died, leaving 
heirs too young to enforce promptly their inherited rights. 
Meanwhile the New Hampshire colonists were not harmonious 
and the authorities of Massachusetts, quick to recognize the 
opportunity, by much persuasion and many promises secured 
their consent to a union with the elder colony, which continued 
until 1679, wnen tne king, upon the petition of Robert Tufton 
Mason, grandson of Capt. John Mason, the original grantee, 
decided that the grant to Gorges and Mason was valid and 
hence that New Hampshire was an independent colony and 
should have a government as a royal province distinct from 
Massachusetts, yet until 1741 the same governor administered 
the affairs of both colonies. That year Benning Wentworth 
was appointed governor of New Hampshire and henceforth the 
government of the two colonies was distinct. 

During the nearly 40 years that New Hampshire was united 
with Massachusetts no new towns were incorporated, and the 
old ones remained so nearly stationary in population that when 
writs for the election of assemblymen were issued in 16S0 there 
were only 209 qualified voters in the province. 

The Assembly met promptly and proceeded to frame a series 
of laws for their government. They declared 16 crimes pun- 
ishable by death and 21 by imprisonment. Among the former 
were idolatry, blasphemy, witchcraft, cursing parents and re- 
bellion against parents; and among the latter were swearing, 
profaning the Lord's day, contempt of God's word or ministers, 
lying, burning or breaking down fences and drunkenness. 

The form of government established at the beginning of 
their independent colonial existence, consisting of a president, 
or governor, and a council, each appointed by the crown, and 
an Assembly elected by the people, continued until superseded 
by the Provincial Congresses which assumed control of public 


affairs, when Governor Wentworth abandoned the province in 


The early settlers of New Hampshire treated the Indians 
with kindness and respect, but as the land and rivers were 
more and more occupied and devoted to private ownership cur- 
tailing the fishing and hunting privileges of the Indians, ques- 
tions of individual and collective rights arose, which culmi- 
nated in bloody conflicts resulting in the extension of the 
colony and also in the increased hatred of the colonists. 
Under these conditions the Indians fell an easy prey to the 
wiles of the French who incited them to attack the settlements 
at Dover and elsewhere and for years the colony was in excite- 
ment and under arms. 

The colonists suffered severely during the French and In- 
dian wars but their courage and zeal were equal to any demand 
upon them. 

The expedition which captured Louisburg, June 17, 1745, 
was planned by Vaughan, a New Hampshire man, and on land 
was entirely executed by the troops of New England. Early 
in its siege Vaughan suggested and executed the dragging of 
the heavy cannon across a morass and the mounting of them in 
batteries advantageously situated. At the head of a detach- 
ment of New Hampshire troops he captured and burned a 
large quantity of stores in warehouses northeast of the harbor. 
They made a rapid fire with such dense smoke that the French 
abandoned their grand battery located near by which he, find- 
ing unoccupied the next morning, took possession of and wrote 
General Pepperell as follows : 

May it please your honor to be informed that by the grace 
of God and the courage of 13 men, I entered the royal battery 
about 9 o'clock aiiflam waiting for a reinforcement and a flag. 

The surrender of the city soon followed but under the treaty 
between France and Great Britain it was restored to the 
French to be recaptured in 1758 by Admiral Boscawen and 
General Amherst. 

By participation in England's wars with France and by fre- 
quent conflicts with the Indians the colonists became veteran 
fighters. They were accustomed to danger and skilled not 


only in Indian strategy but in all the arts then pertaining to 
civilized warfare. By loyal service to the crown and in defense 
of their homes from savage foes they were unconsciously fitted 
to maintain their liberties against the encroachments of king 
and parliament. The exigencies of the times had not only pre- 
pared them to resist force by force but had taught them to legis- 
late and to combine for the common defense. For many years 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire had deliberated with each 
other in times of emergency and danger and had cooperated for 
their general welfare. Occasionally other of the colonies 
had been associated with them in offensive or defensive war- 
fare but the first general meeting or congress of the colonies 
assembled at Albany, June 19, 1754. Delegates were present 
from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecti- 
cut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland. The ostensible 
object of the congress was to treat with the Indian tribes 
known as the Six Nations and to secure an abiding peace 
with them. They were the most formidable combination ever 
made by the red men and during the Revolution harassed the 
colonists until subdued by General Sullivan. 

This congress, after a general interchange of opinion, 
appointed a committee of one from each colony to formulate a 
plan of union. They reported in favor of an enactment by 
parliament which should authorize a grand council to be 
chosen by the legislatures of the several colonies but having a 
president appointed by the crown with power to veto the acts 
of the council. 

The council was to enact general laws, apportion quotas of 
men and money to be raised by each colony, determine the 
location and erection of forts, regulate the operations of 
armies and devise all measures for the common defense and 

This plan for the union of the colonies was adopted by the 
delegates July 4, 1754, just 22 years before the Declaration of 

Benjamin Franklin was the only one of these delegates who 
was also a member of the Continental Congress, which 
declared the colonies free and independent. The plan of 


union submitted by them was rejected by the colonies because 
it conceded too much power to the king, and by the king 
because it gave too much power to the assemblies of the peo- 
ple. Though the proposed union had failed the joint meeting 
of so many of the colonies was fortunate and instructive. 

Events soon to transpire affecting all the colonists would 
demand their united opposition and the meeting at Albany 
had taught them that union was possible and must be accom- 
plished. The God of the nations was preparing the way for a 
government of the people, by the people and for the people. 

The wars with France had been expensive and Great Britain 
finding her public debt greatly increased recognized the neces- 
sity for enlarged revenue. She naturally thought her prosper- 
ous colonies in North America, who were able to plan and 
execute such expeditions as that against Louisburg, were able 
to help bear the burdens occasioned by those years of con- 
flict. It is probable that the colonies would not have objected 
to bearing their just share of the national burdens had they 
been accorded a proportionate voice and vote in the home par- 
liament, but as independent, yet loyal subjects of the crown, 
they demanded representation as a concurrent requisite to 
taxation. This the crown refused and attempted to enforce 
the collection of the taxes it levied. 

It began by restricting the trade of the colonies with the 
West India Islands but that was of little profit as the colonists 
decided to consume other goods than those in which their 
trade was interdicted. Then followed the notorious Stamp 
Act, and George Meserve, at that time in England but a native 
of New Hampshire, was appointed the agent to distribute the 
stamps in that colony. In the debates in parliament those 
colonists who opposed taxation were termed " Sons of Lib- 
erty," an appellation which struck a popular chord in America 
and was adopted by numerous patriotic associations in every 
colony. The society at Portsmouth comprised almost the 
entire population and compelled Mr. Meserve to resign his 
commission before they would permit him to come ashore. 
The stamps entrusted to him were never landed in New Hamp- 
shire but were taken to Boston on the ship which brought them. 


Many citizens of Portsmouth and vicinity attended an 
emblematic funeral of the Goddess of Liberty and followed in 
procession to the cemetery, where she was lowered into a 
grave, but, just as the earth was about to cover her, one of the 
Sons of Liberty announced that she yet breathed. She was 
raised and, with Meserve's commission and instructions, mount- 
ed on a sword, was carried in triumph throughout the town. 

This \vas followed by an attempt upon the part of the loyal- 
ists to close the courts upon the allegation that' they did not 
comply with the requirements of the Stamp Act. Their 
endeavors were quickly suppressed and were not renewed in 
New Hampshire. 

On the 25th of June, 1774, 27 chests of tea, subject to duty 
under a recent act of parliament, were landed and stored in the 
custom house at Portsmouth. The people had no knowledge 
of this transaction until it was accomplished. 

A town meeting was held on the second day after, and a 
committee was appointed to guard the tea and to protect 
Edward Parry, its consignee, from insult. The committee 
informed him of the popular feeling on the subject and against 
him, and he agreed to re-ship the tea, which he did after paying 
the duty on it then due as the tea had been landed. It was 
shipped in its original packages to Halifax. A committee was 
selected to prevent any further importation or landing of tea, 
and the people entered into an agreement that neither they nor 
their families should " import, sell, purchase, or consume" any 
teas subject to tax. 

In the September following, 30 other chests of tea were 
consigned to the same person. The town immediately assem- 
bled, and Mr. Parry, in open town meeting, promised not to 
accept the tea or have anything to do with it, and the captain 
of the vessel agreed to send it at his own expense to Halifax. 
A committee was selected to see this done and faithfully 
attended to its duties. There was no other attempt to force 
the taxed tea upon an unwilling people who steadfastly kept 
their patriotic agreement concerning it. 

The king in council must have had serious apprehension of 
his colonists, for the next move on the part of the royal gov- 



ernment was to prohibit the exportation of gunpowder and 
military stores to America. 

When the news of this order arrived at Boston, Paul Revere 
made his first notable appearance in history. He rode a 
special trip to Portsmouth, carrying a copy of the order to the 
Sons of Liberty there. Upon its receipt they were much 
excited, and recognizing the danger to the colonists which it 
foreshadowed, decided at once that the public good demanded 
that they supply themselves with powder and stores to the full- 
est extent possible. They looked with envious eyes upon Fort 
William and Mary at the entrance to the harbor and noted the 
small garrison by which it was defended. They had heard 
that the troops there would be reinforced in a few days. 

The powder and guns in the fort were within their grasp, 
but to assault the fort and capture them would be high treason 
and probably precipitate a conflict which all prayed might be 
averted. On the one hand was the absolute necessity of the 
colonists in the event of an appeal to arms; on the other their 
loyalty to the mother country, which they had uniformly 
asserted and wished to maintain, and the private and public 
danger which a hostile demonstration upon the fort necessarily 

The hearts of the people stood still while duty wavered 
between loyalty and patriotism. The most thoughtful joined 
with excited patriots in discussing points of duty and questions 
of policy, the decision of which could not be postponed. The 
time for action seemed to have arrived. The necessity was 
great; the moment supreme. John Langdon, the patriot mer- 
chant of Portsmouth, proposed the immediate capture of the 
fort and the removal of its powder to places of safety, where 
in the possession of the patriots it would be available if 
required to defend the liberties of the colonies. As secretly as 
possible at first, but hnally with avowed purpose, a sufficient 
force was organized which under the leadership of Langdon 
captured the fort without loss on either side. The garrison 
was overpowered and locked without arms in one of the rooms 
of the fort while more than a hundred barrels of gunpowder 
were removed. Late that evening the news of the capture 



reached John Sullivan, who had just returned home from the 
Continental Congress. The next morning with several of his 
neighbors he marched to Portsmouth. That night he "led an 
assault upon the fort and captured all the small arms it con- 
tained and 15 small cannon. 

The next day Nathaniel Folsom, our other delegate in the 
Continental Congress, arrived from Exeter with a considerable 
force and< aided in removing the cannon to places of safety. 
All of these captures subsequently helped the patriots to secure 
their independence. Without some of them the battle of 
Bunker Hill would have been less glorious, and with more of 
them might have been a decided victory. 

This was the first act oi armed hostility against the British 
crown by her colonists in America, and Sullivan and Folsom 
were the first of all the delegates in Congress to bear arms 
against their king. It antedated the fight at Lexington and 
Concord by more than four months and the battle of Bunker 
Hill by more than six months. Its consequences were moment- 
ous and far-reaching. A well-equipped and strong, though 
weakly garrisoned fort, over which the British flag had con- 
tinuously floated, was assaulted and captured, despoiled of 
much of its equipment, and its officers and men imprisoned 
in their own defenses. There could not have been a more 
flagrant act of disloyalty or greater disrespect to the British 
flag. Sullivan was proclaimed a traitor, a reward offered for 
his capture, and himself informed from Canada that he would 
be the first one hung. He and his associates received the 
thanks of the colony by its convention assembled at Exeter, 
and everywhere throughout the colonies the bravery and suc- 
cess of the attack on the fort inspired the patriots with new 
zeal and greater courage and self-denial. 

At this time New Hampshire had only 82,200 inhabitants, 
and among them were few loyalists. Notwithstanding this 
small population our state furnished during the years from 
1775 to *7^3 inclusive, 18,289 soldiers, of whom 12,497 were 
of the Continental line. No colony was more united in resist- 
ance to British oppression, or more willing to contribute its 
share to the common defense. 


The War for Independence had actually begun, though no 
one knew it. Distrust was turning to hatred, and inaction was 
giving place to organization on the one hand and an increase 
of troops and supplies upon the other. The patriots watched 
every movement of the British forces and resolved to meet 
them by force whenever an armed attempt should be made to 
restrict their personal rights or to destroy their capacity for 
self-defense. Hence^ when the lanterns, hung from the belfry 
of the North Church in Boston, started Paul Revere upon his 
most famous ride, he found the sturdy yeomanry of Lexington 
and Concord ready to defend their homes and protect the 
military supplies the British had come to capture or destroy, 
and when the news of their successful fight spread among the 
towns and to the several colonies, everywhere there was an 
approval of their heroic conduct and a determination to co- 
operate with them until resistance should bring a recognition 
of their private and public rights. 

The news of the conflict and that the blood of patriots had 
mingled with their chosen soil soon reached New Hampshire. 
No one waited for an oliicial call to arms, but wherever the 
news came hearts beat quicker and sturdy men started to rein- 
force their brethren, and with them beleaguer the British army 
in Boston. Stark shut down his sawmill gate and jumping 
upon his horse rapidly rode toward Boston, calling the people 
to arms as he went. They knew him and had confidence in 
his leadership, and in a short time 2,000 New Hampshire men 
were encamped in Medford and Charlestown. They were 
organized by enlistment in regiments under the command of 
Stark and Reed, and in small numbers in various regiments of 

The battle of Bunker Hill soon followed. It is strange and 
unfortunate that the exact number engaged on either side of 
that memorable battle is not accurately known. Neither can 
it be stated with certainty how many men New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut had in the fight. This much 
is certain, that New Hampshire, under the leadership of Stark 
and Reed and in other commands, furnished at least one half 
of them. It is probable that the American force has been under 


estimated. It certainly has been, unless a considerable num- 
ber of Colonel Prescott's men who left at the suggestion of 
General Putnam before the fight began, to erect intreqchments 
on Bunker Hill (the battle being fought on Breed's Hill) failed 
to return. Bancroft says : " Of the large party who took the 
intrenching tools away few^ returned," and that Prescott had 
remaining with him "but about 700 or 800 men." It is now 
generally conceded that New Hampshire had fully 1,000 men 
engaged in the battle and some authorities claim that their 
number exceeded 1,900. The records of the War Department 
show that during 1775 New Hampshire furnished 2,824 sol- 
diers to the patriot cause. This fact and the equally well es- 
tablished one that about 2,000 New Hampshire men encamped 
in Charlestown, Medford and vicinity just before the battle in- 
dicate that our soldiers actually engaged in the fight were not 
less than 1,200 or 1,500 men. The New Hampshire troops 
fought with remarkable coolness and bravery, and retired in 
better order than any of the others. For that reason their loss 
was small in proportion to the whole number engaged, but more 
than forty of them died on the field of battle. 

Bunker Hill was not a victory. It was more. It was an 
inspiration, an example, a demonstration, a consummation. 
From that hour the American knew he could resist British 
aggression successfully. Independence, though not yet de- 
clared, was assured, and England had lost the brightest jewel 
in her colonial crown. 

The evacuation of Boston became a military necessity. The 
patriots occupied it and the war was transferred to New York 
and other colonies. Hesitation had departed. The stern 
realities of armed conflict had superseded doubt and confidence 
and hope ruled the hour. 

The New Hampshire tpoops under Sullivan, Stark and oth- 
ers, were ever at the front. No soldiers did better service. 
Sullivan won renown on many battlefields and closed a brilliant 
military career with the successful expedition against the Six 
Nations and their British allies, for which service he was 
selected by Washington, and thanked by him and by Con- 




» Stark was as active as when he was a lieutenant of " The 
**e£ngers " and did excellent service, but others were promoted 
over him who were his inferiors in rank and less worthy as offi- 
cers. He protested but continued to serve. While the army 
was in winter quarters at Morristown in 1776-77 he returned 
home to obtain recruits, and by March, such was his popularity, 
his regiment was full and he reported to the state authorities at 
Exeter for instructions or suggestions for the public good. They 
informed him that Congress had made further promotions of 
junior officers and that he had received no recognition. He 
resigned his commission at once, saying an officer who will not 
maintain his rank is unworthy to serve his country. Though 
he refused to render personal service in a degraded position he 
remained faithful to the cause and urged his friends to enlist, 
and sent every member of his own family into the army who 
was old enough to bear arms. He counseled with the Com- 
mittee of Safety and urged the necessity for the reenforcement 
of Ticonderoga and the defense of the Northern frontier. His 
fears were soon realized. The early summer saw the invasion 
of the states and the retreat of the American army from Ticon- 
deroga. The way seemed about to open for a union of the 
armies of Generals Howe and Burgoyne, thus securing for the 
British uninterrupted communication from Canada to New 
York via Lakes Champlain and George and the Hudson River, 
and as a necessary result the separation of the states into two 
sections without the power to dislodge the armies which would 
keep them apart. A crisis was imminent. The danger could 
not be overestimated. The authorities of Vermont informed 
those of New Hampshire that unless assistance could come to 
them at once they should be compelled to yield as they were 
too feeble to resist successfully. 

The Legislature of New Hampshire was not in session but 
was summoned immediately. In three days they had assem- 
bled. The emergency was great, their resources were few. Our 
people had done all they could. The public credit was ex- 
hausted and it seemed imposssible to equip another regiment. 
In this emergency John Langdon, who led the first assault 
upon Fort William and Mary, being speaker of the House, 


delivered that speech now so famous in which he pledged his 
private resources for the benefit of the state, and added, " We 
can raise a brigade, and our friend Stark, who so nobly sus- 
tained the honor of our arms at Bunker Hill, may safely be 
entrusted with the command, and we will check Burgoyne." 
His enthusiasm and faith pervaded the House. The necessary 
legislation was speedily enacted, a special messenger was dis- 
patched for Colonel Stark and he responded in person. He 
accepted the proposed command upon the condition that he 
should not be required to join the main army or be responsi- 
ble to any authority except that of New Hampshire, and was 
commissioned a brigadier-general by the state. 

A day of fasting and prayer was reverently observed. 

Col. Gordon Hutchins was the representative of Concord in 
the Legislature and as soon as the necessary legislation was 
completed mounted his horse and riding all night arrived in 
Concord on Sunday during the afternoon service. He walked 
up the aisle towards his pew while the pastor, Mr. Walker, was 
preaching. As soon as the preacher saw him he paused and 
said, "Colonel Hutchins, are you the bearer of any message ?" 

"Yes, sir," replied the colonel. "General Burgoyne with his 
army is marching on Albany. General Stark will take the 
command of New Hampshire men, and, if all turn out we can 
cut off Burgoyne's march." Rev. Mr. Walker then said, "My 
hearers, those of you who are willing to go better leave at 
once." Whereupon every man in the meeting house went out 
and many enlisted before going home. One man said, "I can't 
go for I have no shoes." A shoemaker replied, "Don't worry 
about that, you shall have a pair before morning," and was as 
good as his word. It is said that two volunteers wore shoes 
which were made Sunday night. 

The militia officers were ordered to disarm all persons who 
made excuses or refused to aid in defending the country. 

The name of Stark and the necessity of the hour filled the 
people with enthusiasm. In a few days more men had enlisted 
than had been authorized. They reported for duty at Charles- 
town, N. H., and thence marched to Vermont. The details of 
the battle of Bennington are too well known to justify repeti- 


tion here. The battle was hotly contested with an enemy 
skilfully intrenched upon chosen ground, yet after a conflict of 
two hours he was driven from his defenses with great loss and 
the battle won. The victory was complete. The British loss 
far exceeded that of the Americans and seven hundred and 
fifty prisoners were captured. Hastily enlisted and poorly 
equipped militia had met veteran troops, protected byintrench- 
ments, defended by artillery, and had defeated them at the 
point of the bayonet. 

About seventy per cent, of the Americans were from New 
Hampshire and the others were Green Mountain boys and vol- 
unteers from the Berkshire Hills. It is stated that one hun- 
dred and sixty-five of the New Hampshire men had fought at 
Bunker Hill. 

Stark's victory was opportune and decisive. It gave new 
hope and life to the people and courage to the army. An alli- 
ance with France became possible and the respect of the world 
was secured. Congress by public resolution thanked Stark 
and his troops and gave him the promotion so long delayed. 
Though he had stipulated for a separate command under state 
authority only and prior to the battle had refused to obey an 
order to report for duty under General Schuyler, Stark now 
joined his command to the Continental Army and did all he 
could to secure its success. Burgoyne was dispirited and har- 
assed on all sides. The defeat of Baum was an irreparable 
loss to him. The battles of Stillwater and the surrender of 
Burgoyne soon followed. These battles and the surrender at 
Saratoga have been known under the specific designation of 
Saratoga and as such have been classed among the decisive 
battles of the world. The event at Saratoga was the continua- 
tion of the campaign begun months before but tlje decisive 
battle was at Bennington. After that victory the others fol- 
lowed in the natural order of occurrence. Without it the others 
would have been impossible. 

Upon the evacuation of Boston by the British nearly all of 
the New Hampshire troops under Sullivan marched to New 
York and were engaged in the battles of Long Island and along 
the Hudson. When the campaign was transferred to New 


Jersey the New Hampshire men commanded by General Sulli- 
van and Colonels Stark and Poor, two of the lirst three colonels 
appointed by our state, were conspicuous for energy and brav- 
ery. Just before the battle of Trenton Colonel Stark is report- 
ed to have said to General Washington, "Your men have long 
been accustomed to place dependence upon spades and pick- 
axes for safety. If you ever mean to establish the indepen- 
dence of the United States you must teach them to, rely upon 
their firearms and their courage." It is said General Wash- 
ington promptly replied, "We are to move upon Trenton to- 
morrow and you are to command the right wing of the advance 
guard" and that Stark immediately answered, "I could not 
have been assigned to a more acceptable position." As a mat- 
ter of fact, the two divisions which won the battle of Trenton 
were under the immediate command of General Greene and 
General Sullivan. Washington was with General Greene and 
Stark with his regiment led the attack under General Sullivan. 
The victory was complete. The British surrendered as prison- 
ers of war. General Sullivan writing to Meshech Weare said 
of the New Hampshire troops, " General Washington calls them 
in front when the enemy are there; he sends them to the rear 
when the enemy threatens that way." Of course General 
Washington could have paid them no higher compliment than 
that. The battle of Princeton soon followed, and then the 
army marched to Morristown, where log huts were erected and 
winter quarters established. The army remained at Morris- 
town until late in May, 1777. From that time until the Sep- 
tember following Washington and Howe were engaged in that 
series of movements which demonstrated the ability of Wash- 
ington as a tactician. His skill as a commander and his genius 
for military affairs were never more apparent. He won the 
applause of the greatest generals of his time. 

The battles of Brandywine and Germantown soon followed. 
Neither was a victory nor yet a defeat. The moral effect of 
the New Jersey campaign of 1777 was favorable to the patriot 
army and the year closed better than it began. The army 
went into winter quarters at Valley Forge. The New Hamp- 
shire men there were under the immediate command of General 


Poor. Their fortitude in bearing the sufferings of that dread- 
ful winter need not be recounted. The pages of history 
record no greater heroism. 

Neither the British or American Army abandoned its winter 
quarters until past the middle of June. Then Clinton, who 
succeeded Howe in command of the British, moved out from 
Philadelphia, where they had had a comfortable winter enlivened 
by theatres and balls. Their ease and enjoyment was in 
marked contrast to the self-sacrifice and suffering of the pat- 
riots at Valley Forge. General Clinton was en route for New 
York. Experience had demonstrated that his army could be 
furnished with military stores and supplies at that port with 
less difficulty than elsewhere, and that, in view of the proposed 
transfer of the campaign to the Southern states, it would be 
difficult, if not impossible, to maintain an army of occupation 
at both cities. Washington was alert and quick in pursuit. He 
overtook the British near Monmouth. A battle ensued, in 
which neither army gained any decided advantage. The losses 
were about even. The New Hampshire troops were under the 
command of General Poor, and behaved splendidly. The Brit- 
ish continued their march to New York, and Washington estab- 
lished his headquarters at White Plains on the Hudson. 

The campaign in Rhode Island under General Sullivan soon 
followed, but was without decisive results. The next year 
General Sullivan led the expedition against the Six Nations of 
Indians, and General Poor commanded one of its brigades, 
which was composed of New Hampshire troops. The object 
of the expedition was accomplished and the power of the 
Indians broken. 

Except in the extreme South, the troops of New Hampshire 
were present upon every important battlefield of the Revolu- 
tion from Bunker Hill to Yorktown, and nowhere did they 
fail to do their full duty with discretion and bravery. New 
Hampshire furnished many soldiers beyond its actual quota, 
and met every demand for men and supplies with promptness 
and patriotism. This is the more creditable and inspiring as 
its population was small and its wealth still less. No sacrifice 
was too great to be freely offered upon the altar of liberty. 


The sons of the Granite State may well be proud of the patri- 
otic blood and military renown they have inherited. 

The naval history of the Revolution is brief but brilliant. 
New Hampshire was active on the sea, and bore a very con- 
spicuous part in building and manning our extemporized navy. 
More than a dozen armed vessels acting as privateers sailed 
from Portsmouth and captured many British vessels. One of 
these priyateers was named the Hampden, a staunch ship of 
400 tons and 22 guns. She was a splendid sailer and carried 
a picked crew. After chasing a ship all night she came up to 
her and found she was an East Indiaman of about 800 tons 
and 34 guns. Although the enemy was so much superior in 
tonnage and guns, Captain Pickering of the Hampden deter- 
mined to light her. The action continued for two hours and a 
half at close range. Captain Pickering was killed, the three 
masts and bowsprit of the Hampden were disabled, her rigging 
and sails cut to pieces, her heavy shot expended and 20 of her 
men killed or wounded. She then reluctantly drew off, having 
only her foresail with which to get away. The Indiaman was 
a complete wreck, her masts, yards, sails and rigging cut to 
pieces, and her hull riddled. She undoubtedly found rest with 
her brave crew at the bottom of the ocean. Cooper calls this 
fight the severest fought naval battle of the Revolution. Other 
of these vessels were more successful, but none of them had 
braver crew or more daring captain. 

Of the regular navy the Raleigh^ of 32 guns, and the Ranger 
were built at Portsmouth. In 1777 John Paul Jones and a 
crew composed of New Hampshire men took the Ranger on its 
first cruise across the Atlantic to St. George's Channel, where 
two years later several captures were made, including the 
Drake, a British man-of-war. While under the command of 
Jones the Ranger received the first salute ever given the stars 
and stripes by a foreign nation. 

Later, with the help of the French, he secured a squadron 
of four vessels and made the Bon Homme Richard his flagship. 
To it he took many of the New Hampshire men who had done 
excellent service on the Ranger, and captured the Serapis of 44 
guns, which in conjunction with the Conn/ess of Scarborough, of 



28 guns, was convoying a fleet of forty merchantmen. The 
Countess was captured by the Pallas, one of Jones' squadron. 
The fight between the Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis has 
never been equaled in the history of naval warfare. The ves- 
sels soon closed, and from 7 o'clock in the evening until 10.30 
at night a hand-to-hand fight was carried on, in which about 
one half of the men on each ship were killed or wounded. 
Nothing can exceed the courage of Jones and his men. His 
victory was hailed with delight in France and the United 
States, and alarmed England. For the first time in genera- 
tions one of her warships had surrendered to an inferior ves- 
sel. Her prestige as a naval power was threatened by the ris- 
ing republic in the West, and soon the freedom of the seas 
would be accepted as international law. 

Fresh courage animated our people and the success of Jones 
and others on the ocean was an important factor in the contest 
for American freedom and independence. 

But however great and glorious the military and naval his- 
tory of New Hampshire, its record in civil affairs is no less 
brilliant and honorable. 

Many of the colonies were settled under the patronage of 
English chartered companies, by which they were promoted 
and sustained in the hope that they would become profit- 
able, either through their productions or by the enhanced 
price of land to be sold to later settlers. The settlement of 
Jamestown in Virginia, for instance, would have been aban- 
doned on several occasions but for timely aid from the home 
company. The settlement of New Hampshire was begun 
under the grant to Gorges and Mason and continued under 
the authority of Mason after they divided their joint territory 
in 1629, but the death of Mason six years later and the con- 
flict of title between him and the Massachusetts Company 
prevented further promoted colonization, and the subsequent 
growth of the colony was for many years exceedingly slow and 
unsatisfactory. During this period such settlers as acquired 
new homes from unoccupied lands did so by virtue of their 
occupancy and thus inaugurated in America the principles of 
"preemption" and "squatter sovereignty " which more than 


two hundred years after so materially influenced the politics 
and prosperity of our people. When the boundary line between 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts was settled in 1740 and 
the heirs of Mason were decided to be the lawful owners of 
New Hampshire these settlers were much excited, fearing they 
might lose the lands to which they had no title except by pos- 
session, but their rights were respected and their occupancy 
made valid 1 : 

In the early township grants, provision was made for public 
worship and for universal education. One section of each reg- 
ular subdivided township was assigned to the pastor of the 
church, one was set aside for the benefit of the church itself 
and one was reserved for the support of public schools. It 
was provided in the early laws of the province that each town 
of one hundred families should maintain a grammar school, in 
which the learned languages should be taught and youth pre- 
pared for the university. The foundations of the state were 
laid in piety and wisdom. Such statutory provisions and 
requirements could not fail to produce an independent, self- 
reliant and prosperous community, ready to assert and main- 
tain its individual and collective rights. So when Governor 
Wentworth in 1775, for the purpose of securing the election of 
some personal friends and a larger vote to sustain royal author- 
ity, issued writs of election to towns not previously authorized 
to send representatives to the assembly, and omitted to sum- 
mon towns of greater population, the assembly which met on 
the twelfth of June, as its first act unseated the members thus 
summoned. The governor immediately adjourned the assem- 
bly to the eleventh of July. One of those expelled, having crit- 
icized the action of the assembly too freely, was assaulted on 
the street and sought protection in the governor's house at 
Portsmouth. The people demanded him and the governor 
refused to give him up, whereupon they brought; a mounted 
gun to the governor's door threatening to discharge it if he 
was not delivered, and repeated their demand, when he was 
surrendered. The governor thought himself insulted and 
retired to the fort. By his authority fishing boats were pre- 
vented from going out of the river to the ocean for fish under 


the pretense that the act in restraint of trade so required. In 
retaliation his boats were not permitted to come to town for 
provisions and one of them was fired upon by a guard stationed 
to prevent their landing. The boat returned the fire but no 
one was injured. 

On the eleventh of July the governor sent a message to the 
assembly adjourning it to the twenty-eighth of September and 
on the twenty-fourth pf August took passage for Boston, retuny- 
ing to the Isles of Shoals to further adjourn the assembly to 
April, 1776. This was his last visit to the colony of which he 
was governor. Upon his return to Boston kingly power ceased 
in New Hampshire. 

The people had not failed to notice the inevitable trend of 
public affairs — neither were they inactive. One hundred and 
two towns represented by one hundred and thirty-three dele- 
gates had met in convention in May, 1775, anc ^ na< ^ promptly 
taken action in behalf of the people. They were in session about 
six months and during that time they established post-offices, 
appointed a committee on supplies for the army and elected a 
Committee of Safety which after the flight of Governor Went- 
worth was the real executive power of the colony. They also 
ordered the royal secretary to deliver his records to the secre- 
tary they had elected, which he did, and they were removed to 
Exeter, where the convention was assembled. Upon like direc- 
tion the old treasurer of the province surrendered the funds in his 
hands amounting to ^1,5 16 to Nicholas Oilman, the new treasurer 
and for many years the financier of the people. Many other royal 
commissions were revoked and when necessary new appoint- 
ments were made. The courts were closed and the old magis- 
trates were no longer obeyed or respected. It was the duty of 
the Committee of Safety to provide for all emergencies, to fill 
vacancies occasioned by changes in the form of government or 
otherwise and to see that the government and the people suf- 
fered no harm. In fact, it was the executive power of the col- 
ony or state when the Legislature was not in session and was 
influential in all matters of legislation. Meshech Weare was 
its chairman from January, 1776, until it was discontinued in 
1782, having been elected eighteen times. That the committee 


was patriotic and efficient needs no demonstration. The name 
of Weare is in itself ample proof. That name was a tower of 
strength and no one is more honored in our history. 

As early as May 28, 1774, the House of Representatives 
selected a committee with its speaker as chairman to corres- 
pond with like committees of "sister colonies" as occasion 
might require. 

This committee soon issued a call to the several towns to 
elect delegates to meet at Exeter on the twenty-first day of 
July, 1774. Eighty-five delegates assembled in response to 
this call and are known as the first Provincial Congress. Four 
other congresses of like selection and authority were subse- 
quently chosen. The call for the election of the fifth 
and last Provincial Congress urged a full representation 
of the people and that they authorize their delegates to 
"establish such a form of government as in their judgment 
will best produce the happiness of the people and most 
effectually secure peace and good order in the province 
during the continuance of the present dispute between Great 
Britain and the Colonies." This congress assembled Decem- 
ber 21, 1775, at Exeter and adopted a temporary constitution 
on the fifth of January, 1776, which was the first written con- 
stitution of any of the colonies providing for representative 
popular government of the people by themselves. 

This constitution is introduced by a preamble, in which the 
necessity for their action is set forth in part as follows : 

" The sudden and abrupt departure of his Excellency John 
YVentworth, Esq., our late Governor, and several of the Coun- 
cil leaving us destitute of legislation ; and no executive courts 
being open to punish criminal offenders, whereby the lives and 
properties of the honest people of this colony are liable to the 
machinations and evil designs of wicked men ; Therefore for 
the preservation of peace and good order and for the security 
oi the lives and properties of the inhabitants of this colony, 
we conceive ourselves reduced to the necessity of establishing 
a form of government to continue during the present unhappy 
and unnatural contest with Great Britain." 

This was followed by the assertion that they never sought 


to throw off their dependence upon Great Britain while they 
could enjoy their constitutional rights and privileges, and that 
they would rejoice in a proper reconciliation. 

They then provided for an Upper House called the Council, 
to consist of " twelve persons, being reputable freeholders and 
inhabitants within this colony," to be elected from its several 
counties according to their respective population, and further 
provided " That qo act or resolve shall be valid and put into 
execution unless agreed to and passed by both branches of the 
Legislature. That all public officers for the said colony and 
each county for the current year be appointed by the Council 
and Assembly, except the several clerks of the Executive 
Courts, who shall be appointed by the Justices of the respec- 
tive Courts. 

" That all bills, resolves or votes for raising, levying and 
collecting money originate in the House of Representatives. 

"That at any session of the Council and Assembly neither 
branch shall adjourn for any longer time than from Saturday 
till the next Monday without consent of the other." 

The government was fully organized in all of its branches 
by the Provincial Congress in pursuance of the authority vested 
in it by the people under the call issued for its election, but 
these patriots had no desire to perpetuate their power except 
for the usual period under the customary sanctions, hence they 
specifically provided if " the present unhappy dispute with 
Great Britain should continue longer than this present year " 
for the continuance of the established government in its sev- 
eral branches and for the election of nearly all of its necessary 
officers by the people. This constitution remained the organic 
act of the state until it was superseded by the constitution of 
1784. Meanwhile there had been several constitutions framed 
and submitted to the people, but they rejected each of them. 

The constitution of January 5, 1776, was proclaimed to the 
people by Meshech Weare, who had been elected president of 
the Council. His proclamation required that every person 
conform to it or " be decreed inimical to their country," and 
closed by an appeal to every one while "our enemies are 
watching all opportunities to ensnare and divide us, to strive 


to prevent and, if possible, to quell all appearance of party 
spirit, to cultivate and promote peace, union and good order 
and by all means in their power to discourage profaneness, 
immorality and injustice." 

Events in those days were momentous and taught grave les- 
sons. As we have seen, New Hampshire as late as January, 
1776, when the constitution just described was adopted, hoped 
for reconciliation with Great Britain, and therefore provided 
for a temporary government only. A feeling of independence 
and the purpose to exercise and maintain it rapidly increased. 
Grievances produced irritation, and irritation bitterness, and 
bitterness hatred, and hatred resistance, which culminated in 

The Continental Congress of 1774 appointed a committee 
to draft a declaration of rights and a committee to prepare a 
statement of grievances. John Sullivan, one of the delegates 
from New Hampshire, was the first named member of each 
committee. On this subject John Adams wrote in his diary 
as follows : 

" The Committee of Violation of Rights reported a set of 
articles which were drawn by Mr. John Sullivan of New Hamp- 
shire ; and those two declarations, the one of rights and the 
other of violations, which are printed in the Journals of Con- 
gress for 1774, were two years afterwards recapitulated in the 
Declaration of Independence on the Fourth of July, 1776." 

As John Adams was one of the committee which drafted the 
Declaration of Independence, his statement should be conclu- 
sive. No one can read the documents of 1774 without noticing 
that the declaration of 1776 is similar in tone and sentiment. 

The first definite action in New Hampshire for its declara- 
tion was taken by its House of Representatives, or Assembly, 
as it was then called, in May, 1775, by an official letter to the 
Continental Congress, in which it recommended a Declaration 
of Independence. No action appears to have been taken 
upon this suggestion other than the documents already men- 
tioned, and therefore the next year, June 11, 1776, it passed a 
resolution for the appointment of a committee, with such as 
the Council might join, " to make a draft of a declaration of 


this General Assembly for independence of the United States 
on Great Britain." Their action was approved by the Council 
on the same day, and four days later their joint committee 
reported a draft of a declaration of independence, which was 
unanimously adopted, in which the delegates in the Continen- 
tal Congress from New Hampshire were instructed " to join 
with the other colonies in declaring the thirteen United Colo- 
nies a free and independent State, solemnly pledging our faith 
and honor that we will, on our parts, support the measure with 
our lives and fortunes," and further authorized the Continental 
Congress to "form such alliances as they may judge most con- 
ducive to the present safety and future advantage of these 
American Colonies : Provided, the regulation of our internal 
policy be under the direction of our own Assembly." 

It is noted here that while the intention to unite with the 
other colonies for the purpose of securing and maintaining 
independence and as a riecessary corollary a union for national 
government is clearly expressed and unqualified in itself, that 
special care is exercised to preserve local self-government in 
all matters not essential to national life. It is a happy coinci- 
dence that the Legislature of New Hampshire appointed its 
committee to draft its declaration of independence upon the 
same day that the Continental Congress authorized Thomas 
Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman 
and Robert B. Livingston to prepare the National Declaration 
of Independence; that the preamble of each is based upon 
like grievances, and that the result recommended by each com- 
mittee is the same. 

It is worthy of note also that the delegates from New Hamp- 
shire signed the Declaration before they had received the 
instructions of their Legislature to give it their approval and 
support. It is evident that the voice of New Hampshire was 
potent in these deliberations. 

Therefore, when a month later the National Declaration of 
Independence was received by President Weare at Exeter and 
publicly read by John Taylor Gilman, it was greeted with 
enthusiasm, and all felt that a new nation was born which 
would maintain freedom and justice in the world. 


In a few days it was proclaimed in each of the shire towns of 
the colony at the tap of the drum and everywhere met the ap- 
proval of the people who made good the declaration of their 
Legislature that they would support it with their lives and for- 

On September 19, 1776, the National Congress resolved 
that the designation "United Colonies" should be discontin- 
ued and^that the new nation should henceforth be known as 
"The United States." Upon the receipt of this resolution 
New Hampshire adopted the new name and style and became 
a sovereign state. 

In the formation and adoption of the Federal Constitution 
New Hampshire bore a worthy part. No state was represented 
in the Constitutional Convention by better men than John 
Langdon and Nicholas Gil man. Others were more prominent 
in discussion and more tenacious for personal triumph, but no 
delegation was more united for the establishment of a firm 
government which would preserve the nationality and freedom 
acquired by valor. Their names will endure and be honored 
so long as fidelity and patriotism are revered and constitutional 
free government is the hope and pride of men. 

The people of New Hampshire ratified the Constitution by a 
decisive vote and completing the requisite number of states 
made it operative throughout the land. Joy reigned. The 
hope of all who believed in personal rights and free government 
was realized and the oppressed in every nation took fresh cour- 
age. Ever since the world has marched with light step toward 
the time when men everywhere shall govern themselves in the 
name of justice. 

The subsequent history of New Hampshire fully sustains the 
high and honorable standard established in Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary times. In all patriotic, moral, educational, progressive 
and other noble aims and purposes the Granite State maintains 
her proud record. 

In closing, permit me to recapitulate a few of the many just 
claims New Hampshire has to a high rank in the patriotic his- 
tory of the struggling colonies which became states. 

First. New Hampshire was the first colony to suggest a 


Declaration of Independence. As early as May, 1775, the 
Provincial Assembly of New Hampshire addressed the Conti- 
nental Congress officially on that subject. 

Second. New Hampshire was the first colony to permanently 
rid herself of a governor appointed by the crown. 

Third. New Hampshire was the first colony to establish 
independent self-government upon a constitutional basis. 

Fourth: New Hampshire was the first to commit an overt 
hostile act against the military power of Great Britain, to as- 
sault a fort in possession of His Majesty's troops, to compel 
them to surrender and to capture and remove the military sup- 
plies and equipments of her king. This was done not to repulse 
an attack made by the British but was of itself an original 
attack upon His Majesty's troops in garrison, who were inac- 
tive and not hostile except through loyalty to their king. More- 
over, it antedated the Declaration of Independence by more 
than a year and a half. 

Fifth. New Hampshire supplied more than one half of all the 
American troops engaged in the battle of Bunker Hill — the 
first hotly contested battle of the Revolution. 

Sixth. New Hampshire furnished two thirds of all the troops 
under Stark at the battle of Bennington. His victory there 
culminated in the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga and was 
the decisive battle of the war for independence. 

Seventh. New Hampshire, after 1777, issued no bills for 
currency and in 17S1 returned to coin payments. A record 
unsurpassed in the history of other states. 

Eighth. New Hampshire in times of great anxiety and doubt 
ratified the Federal Constitution by a decided majority and 
being the ninth state to do so gave life to the Federal govern- 
ment and made perpetual the liberty won in battle. 

Such is a brief and imperfect statement of some of the brave 
deeds and wise acts of a small but patriotic state. It is a record 
of which every son of New Hampshire and every lover of hero- 
ism and genius everywhere may be proud and from which all 
may learn wisdom, patriotism and devotion. 

35 8 


Hon. J. B. Walker, after the reading was finished, gave inter- 
esting reminiscences of Daniel Livermore of this town, who 
was with General Stark at the battle of Bunker Hill, and 
offered a vote of thanks to General Baker for his admirable 
summary of the patriotic deeds of New Hampshire men in the 

■ Voted, To adjourn to the call of the president. 

John F. Kent, 

Secretary pro tern. 
A true copy, attest: 

John C. Or d way, 


Concord, N. H., March 9, 1904. 
The fourth adjourned eighty-first annual meeting was held 
in the rooms of the Society in Concord, Wednesday, March 9, 
1904, at two o'clock in the afternoon, Vice-President Rev. 1). 
C. Roberts presiding. A paper had been announced for this 
meeting, the subject of which was to be " A Chapter in the 
Life of Gen. Fitz John Porter," by Maj. W. M. Mills of Wash- 
ington, D. C. The author died quite suddenly before com- 
pleting the address, but the paper, as far as prepared, was for- 
warded by the family of Mr. Mills and read by the librarian, 
Rev. N. F. Carter. At the conclusion it was 

Voted, That the Society return its thanks to the family of 
the late Major Mills for the very interesting paper which it had 
listened to, with an expression of its sincere sorrow and con- 
dolence for the great loss which they had sustained.* 

On motion, adjourned to the call of the president. 

John C. O row ay, 


* It is not deemed advisable to print this address, as it is a fust draft and incom- 


Concord, N. H., May n, 1904. 

The fifth adjourned eighty-first annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the. 
Society in Concord, Wednesday, May 11, 1904, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon, about fifteen members being in attendance, 
Rev. D. C. Roberts, vice-president, presiding. 

Mr. John C. Thorne made a verbal report of the receipt by 
this Society of the Sabine library of about four thousand vol- 
umes, a bequest from the late Hon. Lorenzo Sabine of Rox- 
bury, Mass., ratified and confirmed by his family and heirs- 
at-law. The report was accepted, the thanks of the Society 
voted Mr. Thorne for his efficient services in the matter, and 
the committee discharged. 

Miss Ella Carr of Andover was elected a member of the 

On motion of Hon. S. C. Eastman, it was 

Voted, That the majority and minority report of the special 
committee for the disposition of certain books in the library 
not thought to be needed by the Society be taken from the 
table and both reports read by the Secretary. 

A motion by Mr. Thorne to substitute the minority report 
for the report of the majority was lost by a tie vote, the chair- 
man voting in the negative, after which the majority report was 
amended by adding the following resolution introduced by Mr. 
Eastman : 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed to dispose 
of the publications of the United States, and of the states out- 
side of New England, with the right to retain such volumes as 
come within the purpose of the Society. 

The report as thus amended was adopted, and Joseph B. 
Walker, Samuel C. Eastman and Henry McFarland appointed 
a committee to recommend a committee of five for that pur- 
pose, and report at the annual meeting of the Society. 

Voted to adjourn. 

John C. Ordwav, 




John Ballard, son of Nathan Ballard, Jr., and grandson of 
Lieut. Nathan Ballard, was born in Concord, January i, 1818. 
He was the youngest boy in a family of eleven children. His 
entire life was spent on the farm where he was born. His edu- 
cation was received in the district school in his own neighbor- 
hood. In early life he united with the North Congregational 
Church and was a constant attendant. In 1864 he was elected 
deacon and served in that capacity for twenty-three years, 
resigning in 1887. 

He served three years in the city government, and for two 
years represented his ward in the general court. 

He passed on to the life beyond this, September 19, 1902, at 
the ripe old age of eighty-four years, eight months and eigh- 
teen days, respected by all who knew him. 

He was elected a member'of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, September 16, 18S9. 


Mrs. Cora Kent Bell, widow of Hon. John J. Bell, died at her 
home in Exeter, November 25, 1902. 

Mrs. Bell was born in Lawrence, Mass., July 17, 1850, the 
third child of Hervey and Eliza J. (Hanson) Kent. Her early 
childhood was spent in her birthplace, in Great Ealls, and Pitts- 
field, and in Lewiston, Me., where her father was prominent in 
the management of cotton mills. Since 1862 she had resided 
in Exeter. 

She was valedictorian of the first class graduated from Rob- 
inson Seminary in 1870 and had since been active in the alum- 
nne association. 

VlKtilL (-. CxILMAN. 


On April 13, 1881, she was happily married to John J. 
Bell, Esq., who died suddenly in Manchester, August 22, 1893. 
She succeeded to the management of his large estate, which 
included the Deer Park Hotel property at North Woodstock, 
real estate in Manchester and other property. In early life 
Mrs. Bell joined the Congregational Church and was ever zeal- 
ous in all church work. It was largely through her efforts and 
munificent 'gifts that the stately granite edifice of the Phillips 
Church was built in 1899. Later she gave the church an organ 
costing $10,000 in memory of her sister. 

She was also deeply interested in the general religious and 
mission work of her church and gave largely to such purposes. 
She also found time for work in various town enterprises, such 
as the Cottage Hospital, the Music Club and the Golf Club. 

Her chief pleasure was in her beautiful home, which was 
replete with treasures of art and literature" gathered through 
years of careful selection at home and abroad. 

Of her private life it need only be said that she was the ideal 
daughter, sister, wife and mother. She has left beside her 
aged parents, two sons, Samuel Kent Bell and John Kent Bell, 
and one brother, George E. Kent. 

She became a life member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society on June to, 1885. 


Hon. Virgil Chase Oilman died at his home in Nashua, 
N. II., April 28, 1903. He was born in Unity, N. H., May 5, 
1827, and was the third child and eldest son in a family of 
eight children of Emerson and Delia (Way) Oilman. The fam- 
ily was prominent in civil office and took a commanding part 
in the early affairs of the country. Mr. Oilman was ten years 
of age when he became a resident of Lowell. He was educated 
in the public schools, entering the High School but not com- 
pleting the course. In 1843 ne removed to Nashua, and in 
185 1 entered into business for himself. He became associated 
with Charles P. Gage and O. D. Murray under the firm name 
of Gage, Murray & Co., in the manufacture of printers' cards, 


embossed and marble papers. Out of this firm grew the pres- 
ent Nashua Card & Glazed Paper Co. 

Mr. Gilman became one of the finest penmen and accurate 
bookkeepers of his day and after selling out his business inter- 
ests was much in demand as an expert accountant. In 1876 
he became treasurer of the Nashua Savings Bank in place of 
Dr. Edward Spalding, which he held for eighteen years with 
the complete confidence of the public. 

Mr. Gilman was identified with the growth and the pros- 
perity of Nashua in many ways during his long and eventful 
life. He was a director in the Underhill Edge Tool Co. and 
the Amoskeag Axe Co., a director in the Indian Head National 
Bank, and was for many years a director in the Nashua Iron 
& Steel Co., and president of the Nashua Saddlery Hardware 
Co., and the Peterborough Railroad Co. 

He wrote for newspapers and other publications valuable 
articles on the industrial importance of the city. 

Mr. Gilman took a decided interest in military matters. He 
was a member of the famous Governor's Horse Guards and an 
honorary member of the Foster Rifles. He never was a self- 
seeker in the field of political preferment, but in various instan- 
ces was besought by his party to accept important office. He 
was mayor of Nashua in 1865 and served long and faithfully 
on the board of education. In 1879 ne was a member of the 
Legislature and in 1881 was elected a member of the New 
Hampshire Senate. 

Mr. Gilman was one of the most active workers in aid of a 
free public library and it was mainly through his efforts that 
such an institution was organized and became successful in 
Nashua. He was the oldest trustee of the Library Associa- 
tion, served as clerk and treasurer many years, and was largely 
instrumental in bringing about the erection of the new library 

During all his life Mr. Gilman was intensely interested in 
agricultural and horticultural matters. For years he maintained 
one of the best equipped green houses in this section of New 
England. He owned and controlled a large and valuable farm. 
He took a keen interest in fairs devoted to agriculture and 


horticulture. He was one of the first three men to breed and 
develop the now famous Plymouth Rock fowl and was one of 
the best known prize winners of the country at prominent 
poultry shows. 

In company with Dr. Edward Spalding, he and a number of 
other prominent Nashuans built the first fish hatchery ever 
known in southern New Hampshire. Out of it grew the pres- 
ent fish hatchery now owned by the United States Fish Com- 

Mr. Oilman was a member of the First Congregational 
Church and very active in its affairs. He was a member of the 
building committee which erected the present church edifice. 
He was elected on the board of deacons in 1873 and served 
continuously up to the time of his death. Mr. Oilman married 
Miss Sarah Louisa Newcomb of Roxbury in 1850, who sur- 
vives him. Two children were born of this marriage, Harriet 
Louisa, wife of Judge Charles W. Hoitt of this city, and Alfred 
Emerson, who died September 29, 1857. He was elected a 
member of the New Hampshire Historical Society, June 12, 
1872, and was an active and useful member. 


Isaac Andrew Hill, the youngest son of Gov. Isaac Hill, 
was born in Concord, September 16, 1827, and died at his 
home on Pleasant Street, in the same place, February 28, 1903. 

He received his education in the public schools of Concord, 
the Concord Literary Institution and Phillips Academy at 
Andover, Mass. He learned the printer's trade in the office of 
the New Hampshire Patriot, of which his father was editor and 
proprietor. After leaving school he spent five years in Boston, 
in the employ of Sayles, Merriam & Brewer, wholesale mer- 
chants. On his return to Concord in 1S49 he worked in the 
Patriot office till 1856 and was then for a short time in the 
Statesman office. About this time he left the Democratic 
party on the slavery question and was always thereafter a con- 
sistent and zealous Republican. His change of allegiance 

caused some coldness between him and the other members of 


his family, who adhered to the stalwart democracy of Governor 

From 1856 to 1874 he filled with general acceptance the 
office of register of probate. The records in his legible and 
neat handwriting are a pattern for his successors, which may 
be equaled but cannot be excelled. He was removed from 
office by address in common with many other Republican office 
holders, when the Democrats got control of the state in 1874. 
From 1876 to 1883 he was deputy collector of internal revenue 
of the United States. 

He was always interested in anything which contributed to 
the welfare of his native city, and devoted a great deal of time 
and energy to such enterprises as the Board of Trade Building, 
the Concord Shoe Company, the Public Library and the exten- 
sion of Pleasant Street. He was a trustee and the first deposi- 
tor in the Merrimack County Savings Bank. 

He carried constantly a silver half dollar, given to him by 
Andrew Jackson on his visit to Concord, with the words : 
" Flere, my boy, is the eagle of your country, which during my 
life I have endeavored to honor and defend. Keep it in remem- 
brance of me ; and if ever it should be assailed by a foreign or 
domestic foe, rally under its pinions and defend it to the last." 

He was a member of the Blazing Star Lodge of A. F. and 
A. M. 

He married October 5, 1859, Sarah Ann Sanderson, who 
survives him. He leaves five sons, Walter B., Josiah F., 
Charles S., Isaac and Lawrence R. One son died in infancy. 

He became a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, June 13, 1900, and was always deeply interested in its 
welfare and a regular attendant, at the meetings. 


Leonard Allison Morrison, A. M., son of Jeremiah and 
Eleanor Reed (Kimball) Morrison, was born in Windham, 
February 21, 1843, and died in Derry, December 14, 1902. 

Early in life he succeeded to the ownership and care of the 
ancestral farm, first owned by his great grandfather, Lieut. 


Samuel Morrison, and this was his home until his removal to 
Derry a few years ago. For most of his life he was promi- 
nently identified with all the interests of his native town. He 
was moderator of a score of town meetings, was instrumental 
in the establishing of the Nesmith Town Library, and in secur- 
ing for its housing the Armstrong Memorial building. In 1885 he 
represented Windham in the state Legislature, and was made 
chairman of the committee on education, in which position he 
was aided effectively in securing the adoption of the town sys- 
tem of schools. Two years later he was a member of the Sen- 
ate, representing the Londonderry district, and was chairman 
of the committee on education. 

Mr. Morrison will be chiefly remembered as a local histor- 
ian and writer, his published works of town and family history 
being numerous and of high merit. The first was the " History 
of the Morison or Morrison Family," issued in 1880, followed 
three years later by the " History of Windham." Then in 
quick succession came histories of the Allison, Norris, Sinclair 
and Kimball families; "Supplement to the History of Wind- 
ham;" Proceedings of the Celebration of the 150th Anniver- 
sary of the Incorporation of Windham ; " " Poems of Robert 
Dinsmore, the Rustic Bard," and other books. In 1884, and 
again in 1889, he traveled extensively in Great Britain, Ireland 
and on the continent, partly for pleasure, partly for genealogi- 
cal research and as a result issued "Rambles in Europe" and 
"Among the Scotch-Irish and a Tour of Seven Countries." 

Mr. Morrison was given the honorary degree of A. M. by 
Dartmouth in 1884. He became a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society, and for several years a member and 
vice-president for New Hampshire of the Scotch-Irish Society 
of America. He took great pride in the sterling character and 
heroic achievements of his Scotch-Irish ancestry, whose mem- 
ory he did so much to perpetuate. Mr. Morrison was unmar- 
ried. He was elected member of the New Hampshire Flistori- 
cal Society, June 14, 1882, and was made a life member July 
10, 1894. 



Joseph Pinkham, Esq., of Newmarket, died February 27, 
1903. He was born in the old garrison house at Newmarket 
Neck, February 26, 1827, and was the son of John and Betsey 
(Smith) Pinkham. He received his early education in the 
public schools of his native town. When a young man he 
entered the employ of Col. James B. Creighton, a merchant of 
Newmarket}" and was later in the employ of Z. Don Creighton. 
For a time he engaged in the daguerreotype business ; later he 
opened a general store and combined with this the manufacture 
of clothing. About a quarter of a century ago he retired from 
active business. Mr. Pinkham was a Republican, long promi- 
nent in town and county politics, and had served in the Legisla- 
ture and in numerous conventions. Through his efforts Lam- 
prey River Grange, No. 240, P. of H., was instituted in 1896, 
and he was its first worthy master. He was also chancellor 
commander of Pioneer Lodge, No. 1, Iv. of P., at the time of 
his death. He was well versed in local history and also took 
a deep interest in general historical and genealogical matters, 
being a member of the New Hampshire Historical Society, the 
New England Historical and Genealogical Society, the New 
Hampshire Society Sons of the American Revolution and the 
Society of Colonial Wars. He was elected member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society, June 11, 1890. 

Mr. Pinkham never married, and his nearest surviving rela- 
tives were four nephews and one niece. 


Hon. Cyrus Sargeant died at his home in Plymouth, July 24, 
1902, after a long illness. 

He was one of the town's most prominent and wealthy men, 
and while not an active participant in her every-day life, was a 
keen observer, clear thinker and well informed on the affairs 
not only of the town but of the state and nation. 

Mr. Sargeant was twice sent by the Democratic party to the 
Legislature, in 1889 and 1891. lie served as a member of the 
board of trustees of the Normal School for several years. 


Dr. Claudius B. Webstek 


Me was born in Candia, N. H., August 24, 1824, the son of 
Riifus, grandson of Moses, and great-grandson of Capt. John 
Sargeant of the War of the Revolution. His ancestors have 
all adhered to the English spelling of their surname. 

Mr. Sargeant's earliest years were spent on the farm and in 
the country store. Later, like so many of his contemporaries, he 
left the state to engage in city industries. 

He remained in Boston from 1840 until 1862, when he retired 
from active business. In 1856 he married Sarah J. Emerson 
of Boston, who died after three years of happy married life, 
leaving one daughter, Caroline, the wife of Dr. Robert Burns 
of Plymouth. 

From 1862 he passed ten years in travel, alternating between 
Europe and America. In 1873 he married Mary E. McQues- 
ten of Plymouth. Of their four children two only survive : 
Cyrus Sargeant, Jr., and Miss Louise. The Sargeant homestead, 
originally the property of Mrs. Sargeant's father, James Mc- 
Questen, sheltered George Thompson of England for one night 
during his first memorable visit to this country, as the guest of 
N. P. Rogers, its builder. 

Cyrus Sargeant was a man who cared very little for the sur- 
face praise and popularity of his fellow men, but was content 
with quiet deeds of charity and the surroundings of his home ; 
a man beloved by all and who will be greatly missed. 

He was elected a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, June 8, 1892. 


Claudius Buchanan Webster, M. D., A. M., was born in Hamp- 
ton, December 10, 1*815, an< ^ died in Concord, September 7, 
1902. He was the son of Rev. Josiah and Elizabeth (Knight) 
Webster. His father graduated from Dartmouth in 1798, and 
was pastor of the Congregational Church in Ipswich, Mass., 
for eight years, subsequently of the church at Hampton until 
his death. Claudius B. fitted for Dartmouth at Hampton, and 
graduated in 1836. He afterwards received the honorary 
degree of master of arts. Among his classmates at Hanover 


were the Rev. Samuel C. Bartlett, D. D., LL. D., ex-president 
of the college; Prof. Erastus Everett, LL. D., of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. ; ex-Governor and ex-Senator James W. Grimes", LL. I)., 
of Iowa; Prof. Edmund R. Peaslee, M. D., LL. D.~ of New 
York; and Hon. John Wentworth, LL. 1)., member of Congress 
from Illinois. 

For a short time after graduation he was principal of the 
■South Berwick, (Me.) Academy, lie was then for three years 
engaged as a civil engineer on railroad work in the West, sub- 
sequently returning East to study medicine at the New York 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, whence he graduated in 
1844. He practised medicine for a time but soon gave it up, 
and was for sixteen years principal of the Norwich, (Ct.) Female 
Academy. In 1862 he resigned to become an assistant sur- 
geon in the army. After the war he returned to Norwich, and 
in 1870 he was appointed United States Consul at Sheffield, 
England, holding the position until 1886, and gaining consid- 
erable wealth therein. Returning to the United States after a 
tour of the world, he subsequently spent his time in a leisurely 
way, residing generally in Concord. 

October 31, 1844, Dr. Webster married Mary Elizabeth 
Webster of Pembroke, who died at Sheffield, forty-two years 
later, without children. He was always strongly interested in 
Dartmouth College, and was president of the Dartmouth 
Alumni Association of Concord. He became a member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society, March 9, 1898. 


Concord, N. H., June 8, 1904. 

The eighty-second annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held at the rooms of the Society in Con- 
cord, Wednesday, June 8, 1904, at half past ten o'clock in the 
forenoon, about twenty members being in attendance and Pres- 
ident Wait in the chair. 

The records of the last meeting held during the year were 
read and approved. 

On motion of Hon. Lyman D. Stevens a committee of three 
to nominate a list of officers for the ensuing year was ap- 
pointed by the chair as follows: Lyman D.Stevens, John C. 
Thorn e and James E. Randlett. 

The report of the secretary of the membership of the Society 
was as follows : 

Number of members June 10, 1903, 1S9 

New members qualified during the year, 5 

Less number of members deceased during the year, 


Present membership, 186 

Names of members who have died during the year: 

William C. Todd, Atkinson, June 26, 1903. 
D. Arthur Brown, Penacook, Sept. 9, 1903. 
Fletcher Ladd, Lancaster, Dec. 12, 1903. 
Mrs. Mary E. Pell, Exeter, Feb. 3, 1904. 
Dr. William G. Carter, Concord, March 7, 1901. 
Charles C. Danforth, Concord, March 8, 1904. 

The annual report of the treasurer, William P. Fiske, was 
read and accepted, together with the certification of the 
auditors, John C. Thorne and Giles Wheeler. 



Receipts credited to general inco??ie : 

Income from permanent fund, 



New members, 




Books sold, 


State appropriation, 


Income from Todd Fund, 





Expenditures charged to general income . 

Printing and binding, 


Printing volume of Proceedings, 




Books purchased, 



5 8o 5 



Salary of librarian, 


Incidental expenses of librarian, 

5 2 -3o 




i 00.50 


37- 10 

Expenses, account Sabine Library, 


l >5 1 3 

1 1 

$ ] 5 

•4 1 

Permanent fund, 

$1 1 ,500.00 

Current funds, 

1 ,05 l -43 

l ^S5 l 



To new account : 
Permanent fund, $11,500.00 

Current funds, 1,066.87 

— $12,566.87 

The William C. Todd Futui. 

To investments, $.1,500.00 

income, 58-05 


By paid for genealogical works, 58-05 



Securities in hands of the treasurer : 

2 Ifewa Loan & Trust Co.'s debentures, 

$500.00 each, $1,000.00 

Johnson Loan & Trust Co.'s receipt, 550.00 
2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rail- 
road bonds, $500.00 each, 1,000.00 

2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 

. road bonds, $1,000.00 each, 2,000.00 

1 New York & New England Railroad 

bond, 1,000.00 

1 Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad 

bond, 1,000.00 

13 shares of Concord &: Montreal Rail- 
road stock, 2,268.50 
5 shares of Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

Fe Railroad stock, 500.00 

3 shares of Concord Electric Co., 300.00 
Deposit in the New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 2,526.00 

Deposit in National Bank, 4 22 -37 

■ $12,566.87 

The William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific & Great Northern 

Railroad bond, $1,000.00 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings Bank, 500.00 

>i ,500.00 

Building Fund. 

Subscription of William C. Todd, $5,000.00 

Other subscriptions, 4,980.00 

Interest received, 1,061.07 

$1 1, 041:. 07 
Deposited in the New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, $10,941.07 

Note, 100.00 


We have this day examined the account of William P. Fiske, 
treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, for the 
year ending June 8, 1904, and find the same correctly cast and 
sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We have also examined 


the securities constituting the funds of the Society and find 
them correct. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
Standing C vm m ittee. 
Concord, N. H., June 8, 1904. 

The annual report of the librarian was read and accepted, 
and verba] reports were made by the necrologist, the standing 
committee and the committee on publication. 

report oe the librarian. 

In presenting his annual report the librarian takes great 
pleasure in announcing with congratulations the reception after 
so many years of waiting of the Sabine library of 3,517 vol- 
umes. The library has been classified, and according to the 
original agreement put upon shelves in a room of its own, and 
made ready for book-plates specially prepared for it, which 
will be inserted as fast as time left after the necessary routine 
work will permit. While a small portion of this large accession 
is in duplicate, the remainder furnishes an exceedingly valuable 
acquisition to the permanent treasures of the Society, consist- 
ing largely of American and English history, biography, trav- 
els, standard literature, poetry and classic fiction. The library 
was accompanied by a large and nicely-framed portrait of the 
donor, Hon. Lorenzo Sabine, and several other pictures of 
greater or less interest. It will remain as a perpetual memorial 
of his thoughtful remembrance. 

A few weeks later the valuable historical library of late Rev. 
Charles Langdon Tappan, librarian, 1890-95, was donated to 
the Society by Miss Eva March Tappan, who received it by 
bequest, in his memory, on condition that a suitable book-plate 
be put in every volume ; that the books are never to leave the 
library unless for the temporary use of the donor; that they are 
never to be sold, nor merged in any other library ; that in sell- 
ing duplicates already in the Society's possession the proceeds 
shall constitute the "Tappan Fund," the income of which shall 
be used perpetually to increase the collection. This acquisi- 
tion is all the more valuable in that it gives the Society a com- 
plete set of the New England Historical and Genealogical Reg- 
ister, the four rare volumes having previously been lacking. 
Also a nearly entire set of the New Hampshire Register, in fine 
binding, Heinmenway's Vermont, long needed, Dawson and 
Lamb, in addition to all the New Hampshire histories. It con- 



tains a full set of the Granite Monthly, elegantly bound, and a 
few miscellaneous works of value, in ail 1,136 volumes. Nearly- 
all are durably bound. A book-plate satisfactory to the donor 
has been prepared, and in due time will be inserted in every 

The reception of these two libraries richly supplements and 
makes notable the year's accessions, and furnishes not only oc- 
casion for rejoicing, but an inspiration for speedy and strenuous 
endeavors to secure a new and fireproof building to house suit- 
ably such enriching treasures. Verbum sat sapientibus. 

Other miscellaneous accessions for the year have fallen off 
nearly one half that of preceding years. This can be satisfac- 
torily accounted for only on the supposition that an impression 
has gone abroad that the society does not care to receive what 
individuals have to offer, and, therefore, donations are withheld 
which otherwise would naturally come to us. Thus while we 
may have been saved the trouble of examining some valueless 
matter, we have also failed to receive much that is valuable. 
As many in making contributions say in substance, " do with it 
as you like," it would seem wisest to pass over in silence the 
nature of offerings, receive and sift as there may be occasion. 

Miscellaneous accessions have been 427 volumes, and 1,067 
pamphlets. One hundred and sixty-seven volumes have been 
bound, which with the 427 donated make the total in the library 
18,571 bound volumes. Eighty-three bound volumes of histor- 
ical and genealogical works have been purchased. 

Donations have been received from the following individuals : 

Abbott, Miss Frances M. 
Aiken, Rev. E. J. 
Anderson, Rev. Asher 
Ayer, Rev. F. D. 
Bachelder, Nahum J. 
Bacon, Horace S. 
Bacori, John L. 
Bailey, J. Warren 
Baird, David 
Baker, Henry M. 
Barnwell, James G. 
Hartley, J. D. 
Bascom, Robert O. 
Battle, William 
Bellows, J. G. 
Benton, Joseph 
Beveredge, Albert J. 





Blanchard, Miss Grace 
Brentnall, R. H. 
Brickett, Elizabeth A. 
Brigo-s Frank O. 
Buckshorn, Rev. Louis H 
Caldwell, William H. 
Calvin, Samuel 
Campbell, William H. 
Carpenter, Rev. C. C. 
Carter, Rev. N. F. 
Carter, Mrs. N. F. 
Carter, Solon A. 
Cate, E. E. 
Chandler, George B. 
Chandler, William D. 
Chase, Harry G. 
Clark, Rev. Frank G. 












Clark, Mrs. Frank G. 


Jack, D. R. 


Clark, Henry II. 


Jewell, Miss M. Blanche 


Clay, Ithiel E. 


Johnson, Mrs. Henry 


Conn, Dr. G. P. 


Jones, John F. 


Cousins, Rev. E. M. 


Keeler, I. Eugene 


Cowan, Andrew 


Kiimmel, Henry S. 


Crisp, Fred A. 


Lake, Rev. George E. 


Currier, Miss Mary M. 


Lamb, Fred W. 

2 5 

Dodge, James II. 


Lamprey, Maitland 


Donelly, Richard A. 


Lasher, George F. 


Eastman, Samuel C. 


Linehan, John C. 


Ellms, Rev. Louis 

Little, Brown & Co. 

r 9 

Emerson, C. F. 


Little, Cyrus H. 


Evans, B. D. 


Little, George T. 


Evans, G. H. 


Lord, Charles C. 


Eyler, Mrs. M. B. 


Ludlow, Henry H. 


Fiske, Miss Abbie G. 


Mason, Miss Helen 


Fiske, William P. 


McGann, Edward W. 

1 1 

Fitts, Mrs. Mary C. 


McGlenen, E. W. 


Folsom, Capt. A. A. 


McKean, H. G. 


Francis, A. F. 


McLeer, George 


Gallinger, Jacob H. 


Metcalf, Henry II. 


Garrison, W. C. 


Minot, Mrs. James 


Gerould, Rev. S. L. 


Mitchell, Henry 


Gibbs, William D. 

1 1 

Morrison, Rev. N. J. 


Goddard, George S. 

3 2 

Morse, Fred W. 


Green, Dr. Samuel A. 

j 3 

Morton, Mrs. Jennie C. 


Flackett, Frank VV. 


Musgrove, R. VV. 


Harper Brothers 


Newlands, Francis G. 


Hay, John 


Noyes, Harriet E. 


Haynes, John C. 


Olin, William M. 


Hayward, Rev. Silvanus 


Ordway, John C. 


Hemmenway, Herbert D. 


Owen, Thomas M. 


Herbert, Miss Alma J. 


Parker, Isaac A. 


Hicks, Harry W. 


Parvin, N. R. 


Hill, TVIrs. J. C. A. 

2 5 

Patterson, Samuel F. 


Hill, Mrs. Mabel W. 


Pearson, Edward N. 


Mill, Miss M. Pearl 


Perkins, Miss A. J. G. 


Hobbs, William J. 


Pidgeon, Charles F. 


Houston, William C. 


Pills bury, Albert E. 


Howard, Gen. 0. 0. 




Howe, Miss S. A. 


Quarles, R. T. 


Ide, Lemuel N. 


Rand, Thomas C. 


Ives, Rev. Joel S. 


Rogers, Mrs. Fairman 





Rollins, Mrs. Nellie A. 
Root, Azariah S. 
Rosengarten, J. G. 
Sargent, Rev. O. C. 
Scott, John F. 
Scott, N. D. 
Sellers, Edwin J. 
Shoemaker, Julian^ 
Slafter, Rev. E. F." 
Sloan, j. J. 
Smiley, Albert K. 
Smith, Frank B; 
Smith, Jeremiah 
Stearns, Charles A. 
Stearns, Henry P. 
Stitt, Rev. W. C. 
Streeter, Mrs. Lilian C. 
Swan, Robert T. 
Swett, Charles E. 
Thayer, Miss Kate M. 
Thayer, William F. 
Tibbets, Charles W. 
Tufts, James A. 
Waldron, Rev. Daniel W. 
Walker, Adair 
Walker, J. B. 
Watkins, D. O. 
Watson, Dr. I. A. 
Weeks, Miss Mary L. 
Wheeler, Everett P. 
Whitcher, William F. 
Whitcomb, Frank H. 
White, Miss Almira L. 
Willis, Dr. J. M. L. 
Woodbury, F. D. 
Woodbury, John 
Wright, Dwinell Co. 

Received from historical soci- 
eties : 

American Antiquarian 
American Catholic 
American Philosophical 





Bureau of Ethnology 

Canadian Antiquarian 







Iowa Historical Department 






New England Genealogical 

New Flaven Colony 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Dakota 

Ohio Archaeological 


South Dakota 




Worcester Antiquarian 

Worcester Society of Anti- 
quity ( 

Wyoming Commemorative 
Association i 

The following libraries have 
contributed : 








Dos Angeles Public 


Maine State 



Mercantile Association 





New York Public 



New York State 











Received from educational in- 
stitutions as follows : 

Abbott Academy i 
Amherst College i 
Andover Theological Semi- 
nary * i 
Boston University i 
Bowdoin College i 
Brown University . i 
Colby University i 
Dartmouth College i 
De Paw University i 
Drew Theological Seminary 4 
Harvard College 2 
Johns Hopkins University 10 
Kansas Agricultural College 1 
Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology 6 

Mount Holyoke College t 

Oberlin College 1 

Ohio State University 2 

Tufts College 1 

U. S. Naval Academy i 

University of Iowa 1 

University of North Carolina 1 

University of Toronto 2 

University of Toulouse 5 

Wellesley College 1 

Wesleyan University 4 

Yale University 2 

Received from other sources 
as follows : 

Adams Nervine Asylum 1 
American Board 14 
American Congregational 

Association 2 

American Sewage Co. 1 
American Sunday School 

1/nion 1 
Appalachian Mountain Club 2 

Associated Charities 1 

Barnard Memorial 1 


Benevolent Fraternity of 

Churches 1 
Benevolent Society 1 
Boston Provident Associa- 
tion 1 
Bunker Hill Monument As- 
sociation 1 
Butler Insane Hospital 2 
Children's Aid Society 1 
City Mission 1 
Daughters of the American 

Revolution 1 
Elliot Hospital 1 
G wynne Temporary Home 1 
Hawaii Promotion Commis- 
sioners 2 
Home of Little Wanderers 2 
Indian Aid Society 1 
Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission 1 
Knights of Columbus 1 
Lawrence General Hospital 1 
Library Bureau 2 
Maine General Hospital 2 
Massachusetts Art Com- 
pany 1 
Massachusetts Eye and Ear 

Infirmary 1 
Massachusetts Hospital for 

Epileptics 1 
Massachusetts Infant Asy- 
lum 2 
Massachusetts Reform Club 1 
Massachusetts Soldiers' 

Home 1 
Massachusetts State Hos- 
pital 1 
National Sound Money 

League 1 

New England Hospital 1 
New Jersey Commissioners 

of Public Roads 1 
New York Congregational 

Club 1 



Vols. V-ols. 

New York State Reforma- Society of Colonial Wars 1 

tory i State Farm i 

Northampton Insane Hospi- St. Luke's Home ■ i 

tal i Superintendent of Docu- 

Pennsylvania Prison Disci- ments 137 

pline Society 1 Taunton Insane Hospital 1 

Public Record Commission- U. S. Geological Survey 1 

ers % 1 U. S. Government 68 

Purchased 223 Young Men's Christian 

R. R. Y. M. C. A. 3 Association 1 
Smithsonian 14 

The Society regularly receives the following publications: 

Boston Advertiser. 
Boston Journal. 
Nashua Telegraph. 



Bristol Enterp rise. 
Canaan Reporter. 
Exeter A ews- Letter. 
Kearsarge Independent '. 
Littleton Courier. 
Meredith News. 
New Hampshire Patriot. 
New Hampshire Statesman. 
Plymouth Record. 
Somersworih Free Press. 
Woodsville News. 


American Missionary. 
Atlantic Monthly. 
Bible Society Record. 
Granite Monthly. 
Home Missioiu try." 
Life and Light. 
Missionary Herald. 
Nature Study. 
New Hampshire Issue. 
North American Review. 
Pennsyh ania Magazine. 


Sailor's Magazine. 
Sunday School Missionary. 
Traveler's Record. 


American Catholic Historical Record. 

American Historical Review. 

Annals of Iowa. 


Dedham Historical Register. 

Essex A n tiqu a rh 1 n. 

Historic Quarterly. 

Iowa Historical Ixegister. 

Iowa Journal of History and Politics. 

Mayflower Descendan t. 

Medjield Historical Register. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register. 

Texas State Association Quarterly. 

1 'ransallegheny Magazine. 

West Virginia Historical Magazine. 

William and Mary Quarterly. 

The Society has received from the estate of Crosby Kimball 
Haines, a native of Concord, by the hand of Mrs. Harriet B. 
Sanders, executrix, framed portraits of " Benjamin Franklin in 
His Study," and "Abraham Offering up Isaac," in colored 
worsteds, made by the testator's wife, Mrs. Lavina Ann Davis 
Haines, in Lowell, Mass., in 1850-51 ; of Charles C. Lord, of 
Hopkinton, an " aristotype " portrait of James C Rowe, of 
Wilmot Flat, N. H., a veteran of the War of 1861, and a paint- 
ing of the " Old Pine " of Kensington, brick schoolhouse of 
Seabrook, and four photographs of the Congregational Church, 
parsonage, schoolhouse, and house of Gen. B. F. Butler, all of 
Deerfield ; of Rev. L. H. Buckshorn, a framed steel engraving of 
the "Death Bed of Hon. Daniel Webster," and a picture of 
Concord ; of Mrs. Calvin C. Webster, of Concord, a vest of 
Gen. George Washington, and a dress of his wife, Martha 
Washington ; of P. Senter Frisbie, of Penacook, a bronze 
medal of the Society of Cincinnati ; of Miss Helen G. Robin- 
son, of Concord, a pair of spectacles worn in 1775 by isa i an 
Thomas, the Boston printer ; of Reuben C. Danforth, of Con- 


cord, a large piece of petrified red oak from the farm of Dea. 
Henry F. Gerrish, of Webster, N. H. ; of lion. Henry M. 
Baker, of Bow, N. H., a fine framed portrait of Gen. Ulysses S. 
Grant ; of Hon. Frank W. Rollins, of Concord, the original 
document given by Hon. C. H. Bell and others, to his father, 
pledging him indemnification for any loss accruing from the pur- 
chase oj: Merrimack County Bank building for the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society; of Hon. Nehemiah G. Ordway, of 
Warner, N. H., a framed commission given him by Pres. Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes on his appointment as governor of Dakota ; of 
Mrs. Horace Berry, of Windham, N. H., an oldtime " sampler," 
wrought by Miss Achsah Kimball, about 1810 ; of Rev. Tilton 
C. H. Bouton, of Henniker, N. H., the graduation diploma of 
Mrs. Lucinda S. Hall, M. D., of Concord, dated June 23, 1852, 
being the first one ever given to any woman in New England; 
of James E. Tucker, of Concord, Spanish and Filipino car- 
tridges, and keys of various forts, gates and powder magazines 
in Manila ; of Mrs. J. C. A. Hill, of Concord, four sheets of 
unsigned currency of various denominations, of dates 1737, 
1742, 1756, and 1775 ; and of Hon. Gordon Woodbury, of 
Manchester, N. H., a map of Derry, Ireland, as it was when it 
was besieged in 1688. 

During the year the biographical, historical and genealogical 
works of the library have been catalogued. Labels have been 
prepared for the two libraries received, and will be inserted as 
fast as the routine work will allow. As the greatest need of 
the Society is a new fireproof building to allow its treasures to 
be properly arranged in due order, and to facilitate its annual 
expansion, the time seems ripe for harmonious action to this 
end, for "a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all together" 
to accomplish this most desirable consummation for its best 
welfare. The dilatoriness of the past has wrought to the great 
disadvantage of the Society. 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. F. Carter, 



The committee to recommend a list of officers— through its 
chairman, L. I). Stevens — reported the following, and by a vote 
of the Society Mr. Stevens was authorized to cast one -ballot 
for the several persons named, who were thereupon declared 
the duly elected officers of the Society for the ensuing year : 

Albert S. Wait. 


Henry M. Baker, 
Rev. D. C. Roberts. 

Recording Secretary. 
John C. Ordway. 

Corresponding Secretary . 
Charles R. Corn inc. 

William P. Fiske. 

Rev. N. F. Carter. 

Dr. Eli E. Graves. 

Stc 7 nding Com in ittt v. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
Edson C. Eastman. 

Library Committee. 

Amos Hadley, 
Frances C. Stevens, 
Rev. George H. Reed. 


1 hthlish ing Co nun ittcc. 

Samuel C. Eastman, 
Rev. N. F. Carter, 
John Dowst, 
Joseph 13. Walker, 
Otis G. Hammond. 

Committee on New Members. 

Rev. N. F. Carter, 
John C. Ordway. 
Howard M. Cook. 

Committee on Speakers. 

Joseph B, Walker, 
Lyman D. Stevens, 
Rev. Howard F. Hill. 

Committee on Nai>al History of A T ew Hampshire. 

Albert S. Wait, 
Joseph C A. Wincate, 
Charles R. Corning. 

The committee appointed at a previous meeting to nominate 
a committee of live " to dispose of certain books in the library " 
made report recommending the following for appointment : 
Samuel C. Eastman, Charles R. Corning, Otis G. Hammond, 
Albert S. Batchellor, J. Eastman Pecker. The latter declining, 
Rev. Alfred L. Elwyn of Portsmouth was substituted, and the 
committee as thus fixed was duly elected. 

Rev. N. F. Carter offered the following preamble and reso- 
lution, which was adopted by a unanimous vote : 

Whereas, Miss Eva March Tappan has recently given to 
this Society, in memory of the late Rev. Charles Langdon 
Tappan, librarian, 1890-95, his valuable historical library, on 
condition : 

That a suitable book-plate be put in each volume; that the 
books are never to leave the library unless temporarily for her 


special use ; that they are never to be sold nor merged in-any 
other library ; and that if any duplicates are sold the proceeds 
shall constitute a " Tappan Fund," the income of which shall 
be used to perpetually add to the collection, therefore: 

Resolved, That this Society gratefully accept and greatly 
appreciate the gift so worthily bestowed, supplying as it does 
a long felt need, and tender the generous donor a hearty vote 
of thanks. 

Resolved, That the secretary be instructed to send Miss 
Tappan a copy of this vote, and that the same be spread upon 
the records of the Society. 

Resolved, That in return Miss Tappan be made a life mem- 
ber of this Society. 

A ballot being taken, Miss Tappan was unanimously elected 
a life member of the Society. 

The following resolution, offered by the secretary, was 
adopted by a unanimous vote : 

Resolved, That Joseph B. Walker, Samuel C. Eastman and 
Wiliam P. Fiske be a committee to ascertain what arrangements 
can be made to procure a portrait of William C. Todd, late 
president of the Society, and report at some future meeting. 

On motion of L. D. Stevens, it was voted that the librarian 
be requested to secure for preservation in the archives of this 
Society such early church records — original or copied — as can 
be obtained, and copies of the annually printed records of all 
the religious denominations in the state. 

On motion of Otis G. Hammond, voted that Ezra S. Stearns 
be designated as the representative of this Society on a pro- 
posed committee, to be constituted of members of the several 
historical and patriotic societies of this state, to devise means 
to secure a better preservation and publication of town 

At the suggestion of the librarian, it was voted that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed to solicit a copy of the inscrip- 
tions on tombstones in the older cemeteries in the several 
towns in the state, where such can be obtained without expense 
to the Society, and Giles Wheeler, John C. Thorne and John 
Dovvst were appointed such committee. 


On motion of William P. Fiske, it was voted that the annual 
assessment of three dollars be levied upon the members of the 
Society for the year ensuing. 

On motion of J. E. Pecker, it was voted that a corrected list 
of the officers and members of the Society be published each 
year, omitting from such list names of members who have not 
paid their annual dues for two or more years preceding. 

On motion of Joseph B. Walker, it was voted that the pub- 
lishing committee be requested to make an examination of the 
original matter in the possession of the Society with a view to 
publishing another volume of Collections. It was also voted 
that Joseph B. Walker and Otis G. Hammond be added to the 
publishing committee. 

Voted that the field-day committee of last year be continued, 
with J. E. Pecker added to the committee. 

Voted that the monthly meetings of the Society, as held 
during the last two years, be continued the present year. 

Voted to adjourn to the call of the president. 

John C. Ordway, 


The first adjourned eighty-second annual meeting and field- 
day of the New Hampshire Historical Society was held in 
Dover, N. H., with headquarters at the American House, on 
Tuesday, September 27, 1904, with the attendance of about 
forty members and other friends. 

The weather was all that could be desired. The party 
arrived at the station in Dover, about jo. 15 a. m., where car- 
riages were taken for a drive about the city. 

Visits were made to the- site of the ancient Otis garrison, 
which was burned by the Indians, June 28, 1689, when Mr. 
Otis and two of his family were killed, and others carried cap- 
tive to Canada ; to the Ham house at the foot of Garrison Hill, 
formerly the Varney house, and the Guppy house on Portland 
Street, which is the oldest and best preserved of the ancient 
houses in Dover. The visitors were cordially received and 
delightfully entertained, and at the latter house were shown 


the valuable collection of antiques and heirlooms, with which 
the house was filled. 

Returning to the city, the site of the Maj. Richard Wal- 
dron garrison was visited, and the old burying ground on 
Chapel Street, in which were interred the remains of Major 
Waldron after the massacre of 1689. 

Dinner was served at noon at the American House, follow- 
ing which a brief session for business was held. Hon. Albert 
B. Wood worth was chosen president pro tern., and Rev. N. F. 
Carter acted as secretary. The following named persons were 
elected members of the Society : 

Charles A. Hazlett of Portsmouth, 
Miss Sara M. Haley of South Lee, and 
Mrs. Eva Gordon Hurd of Dover. 

In response to a desire for instructions asked for by the 
librarian with reference to certain duplicate volumes taken 
from the library in his absence and carried to the State Library, 
including New Hampshire duplicates over which the recent 
vote of the Society gave the special committee no authority, on 
motion of Frank W. Hackett, it was voted to refer the whole 
matter to the library committee to make investigation and take 
such action in the matter as seemed best. 

In the afternoon carriages were again taken for a drive to 
Dover Neck and Dover Point. The route was past the 
Cocheco Mills which occupy the site of the first gristmill in 
the state; the new City Hall ; the Carnegie Library and the 
High School building ; the Governor Martin place ; the Pel- 
knap School on the site of Dr. Jeremy Belknap's house; and 
the former home of Hon. John P. Hale, and the fine estate of 
ex-Governor Sawyer. 

At Dover Neck, about five miles out of the city, further 
visits were made to the site of the old First Congregational 
Church, which dates from 1633, now marked by a substantial 
stone wall with bronze tablet, erected by the local chapter of 
the Dover Daughters of the American Revolution. The loca- 
tion is a charming one, on a high ridge of land between t lie 
Salmon Falls and the Bellamy rivers, with a wide outlook 

mr. cowley's address. 3S5 

toward the Kittery Navy Yard, the towns of Eliot, South Ber- 
wick, Newington, and the blue hills of Strafford and Deerfield 
beyond. This was the second time that the Society had visited 
Dover, the first field-day having been held there 21 years ago. 
The party left Dover, returning home about 5 p. in., having 
greatly enjoyed a pleasant and profitable outing. 

N. F. Carter, 
„ Secretary pro ton. 

A true copy, attest, 

John C. Ordwav, Secretary. 

Concord, December 7, 1904. 

The second adjourned eighty-first annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society in Concord, Wednesday, December 7, 1904, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

The meeting was called to order by the secretary, and 
John C. Thorn e was chosen president /vv tern. 

Charles Cowley of Lowell, Mass., delivered an address on 
"The Life and Public Service of the Late Admiral Belknap of 
the United States Navy," at the close of which a vote of 
thanks was tendered the speaker for his very instructive and 
entertaining paper, and a request made for a copy of the same 
for preservation. 


Rear Admiral George Eugene Belknap was born in Newport, 
N. H., January 22, 1832, and was the descendant in the sixth 
generation of Ebenezer Belknap, who, as he believed, immi- 
grated from Warwickshire, England, about 1636, and settled 
in Lynn, Mass. Other American homes of the Belknaps have 
been in Salem and Haverhill, Mass.,* and Atkinson, Bedford 
and Newport, N. II. The five ancestors of the admiral in 
New England have been (1) Ebenezer, (2) Moses, (3) Ezekiel, 
(4) Moses and (5) Sawyer. 

The subject of this paper was appointed by President Polk 



as a midshipman in the navy in 184.7, ar) d served on the west 
•coast of Africa in the brig Porpoise until 1850. The purpose 
for which American cruisers were then kept on the African 
coast was the suppression of the slave trade, but no slaver was 
captured by the Porpoise, probably because our cruisers were 
then denied the power to search suspected slavers Hying our 
flag. Horatio Bridge's "Journal of an African Cruiser," edited 
by Nathaniel Hawthorne, was read by Belknap, as it was by 
many other naval officers, with intense interest. 

In 1850-53 he served in the frigate Raritan in the Pacific 
squadron, and was one of those sent ashore at Valparaiso, in 
1851, for the protection of American citizens during a Chilian 

In 1853—54 he was at the Naval Academy at Annapolis. 
He graduated as passed midshipman in 1854, and served on 
the coast survey on the steamer Corwi/i. 

In 1855 he was promoted first as master, and later as lieu- 
tenant, and served on the receiving ship Ohio at Boston. 

In 1856-58 he served on board the sloop-of-war Portsmouth 
in the Asiatic squadron. During the attack on the four Bar- 
rier forts in the Canton River, China, in November, 1856, he 
commanded a launch and assisted in undermining those forts 
and blowing them up, though they had 176 guns mounted and 
used in their defence. In 185S he was again attached to the 
Ohio in Boston. In 1859-61 he served on board the Si. Louis 
in the home squadron ; commanded Si. Louis boats at both 
reinforcements of Fort Pickens in April, 1861, and piloted 
Gen. Harvey Brown and Capt. M. C. Meigs into that fort. 

Later in 186 1 he was assigned to duty as executive officer 
of the steam gunboat Huron in the South Atlantic blockading 
squadron, and served in the expedition which resulted in the 
capture and occupation of Fernatidina, St. John's, St. Mary's 
and St. Augustine in March, 1S62. In May, 1862, the Huron 
captured the blockade runner Cam&ria off Charleston, and 
Belknap took her to Philadelphia as a prize. 

In July, 1862, he was promoted to lieutenant commander, 
and from that time till September,- 1S64, he was executive offi- 
cer of the ironclad steam frigate New Ircmsrih's, the most for- 

mr. cowley's address. 387 

vnidable battleship in the world in her time, first under 
Commodore Turner and later under Commodore Rowan, off 
Charleston, S. C, in the South Atlantic blockading squadron. 
That squadron was commanded first by Rear Admiral Dupont 
and later by Rear Admiral Dahlgren. She was engaged on 27 
different days in bombarding Fort Moultrie, Battery Wagner 
and other defences of Charleston, and both her commanders 
warmly commended Belknap for his services as executive offi- 
cer, or second in command, on all those days, which included 
the battle of the 7th of April, of which I shall speak hereafter, 
and the terrific bombardment of Battery Wagner, July 18, 
1863, in which the Seventh Regiment of New Hampshire 
Volunteers suffered severely. It was in the assault which 
followed that bombardment that General Strong was mortally, 
and General Seymour severely, wounded, and Colonel Putnam 
of New Hampshire, Colonel Shaw of Massachusetts, were 
killed, and Colonel Chatfield of Connecticut was fatally 
wounded. About fifteen hundred of our men were killed or 
wounded in that ill-advised assault. The power of the New 
Ironsides was never more signally displayed than in that bom- 
bardment, notwithstanding her flat bottom and her pilot house 
misplaced on her berth deck. 

On the night of August 21, 1S63, a Confederate torpedo 
steamer called the Torch approached the New Ironsides and 
attempted to blow her up, but failed, her engine getting "hung 
on the centre." On the night of October 5, 1863, the Con- 
federate torpedo boat David succeeded in exploding a heavy 
torpedo under the starboard bilge of the A T eu< Ironsides, but 
inflicted no serious damage to the frigate, notwithstanding 
reports to the contrary. Acting Master Howard of Stonington, 
Conn., who stood in the gangway and hailed the David, was 
mortally wounded by a shot from the torpedo boat fired by 
Lieut. William T. Glassell. 

After commanding the steam gunboat Seneca for a short time, 
in November, 1864, Belknap was transferred to the Canon ieus, 
and engaged Howlett's Battery for two days, after which he 
joined Rear Admiral Porter's fleet off Fort Fisher, and partici- 
pated in both attacks on that work at the closest range, direct- 


ing the movements of his ship from outside the pilot house 
and turret. The Canonicus received many hits ; one of her 
officers was wounded by grapeshot from the fort ; men were 
knocked down inside the turret by the impact of shot; the 
flag was shot away three times; boats and smokestacks, guys 
and davits were shot away, and much other damage sustained. 

After the capture of Fort Fisher, he proceeded with the 
Canonicus to .Admiral Dahlgren's fleet off Charleston, and on 
February 4 received the last shot from the Confederates 
directed against that fleet. He also fired the last shot from 
the fleet at the defences of Charleston. On February 18 he 
accompanied Admiral Dahlgren to that city. On the following 
evening, by a shrewd ruse, he and the late Commodore Barrett 
captured the blockade runner Deer, the last prize captured oil 

In the following April he went to Havana with the Canonicus, 
as one of Acting Rear Admiral Godon's special squadron, in 
quest of the Confederate ironclad Stonewall, which, however, 
had already been surrendered to Spain. This closed his Civil 
War record. Fie was then promoted to commander. But 
some of his later services were too important to be omitted 

In 1867-68 he commanded the Hartford in the Asiatic 
squadron, and commanded the squadron expedition against 
the savages of Southern Formosa, during which many of his 
men were stricken with sunstroke, and Fieutenant Commander 
Alexander Slidell Mackenzie was killed. He participated in 
the ceremonies incident to the opening of the ports of Osaka 
and Kiobe in the inland Sea of Japan, and then returned with 
the Hartford to New York, at which place and at Boston he 
was on shore duty till [872. 

He then took command of the Tuscarora and proceeded to 
the Pacific. In 1S73 ne cooperated with Commander Sel- 
fridge in a survey for an interoceanic canal across the Isthmus 
of Panama, and in July landed seamen and marines to protect 
transit across the isthmus during a revolution there. 

v In the same year (1873) he wastassigned to make deep-sea 
soundings between the western coast of the United States and 


Japan, to determine the practicability of laying a submarine 
cable on the bed of the North Pacific Ocean. He ascertained 
•the " True Continental Outline" from Cape Flattery to San 
Diego, making soundings from San Diego to Yokohama, via the 
Hawaiian and Bonin islands. Returning, he sounded from Cape 
Flattery, via the Kurile Islands and the Aleutian group, and 
found off the east coast of Japan one of the deepest and most 
extended troughs in any of the great oceans. It is called the 
Tuscarora Deep. The deepest cast was 4,655 fathoms, or 
more than live and a quarter statute miles. In these deep-sea 
soundings, Belknap used the inventions of Lord Kelvin, and 
added others of his own. What has become known as the " Sigs- 
bee cup" was one of his inventions, useful in bringing up 
specimens of the bottom of the sea. 

Belknap's soundings in the Pacific are better appreciated 
now than ever before. The existence of the Atlantic Ocean 
eastward of this continent has heretofore been regarded as the 
greatest geographical fact relating to the United States. Now, 
however, we are beginning to see that the existence of the 
Pacific Ocean westward of the United States is a much greater 
fact in American geography. In the future, therefore, Bel- 
knap's deep-sea soundings will be better appreciated than they 
are now. They opened the way to similar soundings in the 

In 1877 Rear Admiral Schley, then commander of the Essex, 
crossed the Atlantic in that vessel from St. Paul de Loanda in 
Africa to Cape Frio in Brazil, and ran a line of deep-sea sound- 
ings all the way between those two points; and in his book, 
"Forty-five Years Under the Flag," published since Belknap's 
lamented death, Schley tells us that he had an outfit of piano- 
wire, sounding-drums, sounding-apparatus, perforated shot, 
deep-sea thermometers, and many other things, which Belknap 
had used in sounding the Pacific. 

Schley's soundings are but little less interesting and impor- 
tant than those of Belknap. They discovered a great basin 
between St. Paul de Loanda and St. Helena, about 2,000 
fathoms, or two nautical miles deep, traversed by a range of 
.submarine mountains extending from the Azores to Tristan 


d'Acunah. The island of St. Helena is one of the peaks of this 
range of submarine mountains. It rises almost precipitously 
out of a depth of two miles to a height of 1,200 feet above the 
sea. It is well known to be of volcanic origin. Other peaks 
of this vast range are Madeira, the Canary Islands, the Cape 
de Verds, St. Paul's Rock and Ascension Islands.* 

The results of Belknap's soundings, enlarging our geograph- 
ical and hydrographieal knowledge, excited great interest in 
Great Britain and France, as well as in the United States. 
Lord Kelvin, on several public occasions, complimented Bel- 
knap alike on the important results which he had achieved and 
on the skilful methods which he had employed. 

In 1881 Belknap took command of the Alaska and served on 
the coasts of Bern and Chili, making deep-sea soundings. He 
carried from Panama to Callao Maj.-Gen. Samuel A. Hurl- 
burt, our minister to Bern, and soon afterwards carried his 
body from Callao to Panama. General llurlburt was a native 
of Charleston, S. C, who removed to Illinois, where he formed 
an acquaintance with Abraham Lincoln, by whom he was 
appointed a major-general. After serving with distinction dur- 
ing the Civil War he was employed in the diplomatic service, 
lie was the first commander-in-chief of the G. A. R. To him, 
as to Belknap, death came suddenly. He had risen from his 
bed and was dressing himself in presence of his son at Lima, 
when, putting his hand to his heart he exclaimed, " angina pec- 
toris," and fell to theiloor dead. The admiral and the general 
held each other in the highest esteem, each finding in the other 
a thoroughly congenial spirit. 

In 1885 Belknap became a commodore, a rank now abolished, 
and was superintendent of the Naval Observatory at Washing- 
ton. In 1886 he was commandant of the navy yard at Mare 
Island, California. 

In 1889 he became a rear admiral, and until 1892 com- 
manded our Asiatic squadron. He had served in China and 
Japan before, and he witnessed with great satisfaction the 
awakening of the Island Empire. Had he lived till now his 

*See " Schley's Forty-five Years Under the Flay," pp. 120-122. 


39 1 

warmest admiration would surely have been bestowed on the 
brave Japanese. 

In 1894 he was retired on account of the age limit, after 
more than twenty-four years service at sea, and more than eigh- 
teen years on shore. In 1S94 and until his death he was pres- 
ident of the Board of Commissioners of the Nautical Training 
School of Massachusetts. In 1S95 Dartmouth College conferred 
upon him the well-merited degree of LL. D. 

He was a member of the New England Historic Genealogi- 
cal Society, the American Historical Society, and the Massa- 
chusetts Military Historical Society, and read three valuable 
papers before the last-named body, which are printed in the 
twelfth volume of its Papers. He was commander of the 
Massachusetts Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion, and of the Naval Order of the United States, a mem- 
ber of the Sons of the American Revolution, of the Order of 
Foreign Wars, of the Grand Army of the Republic, and of 
other learned and patriotic organizations. 

During his last years he was in great demand for Memorial 
Day orations and similar functions. Without prejudice to his 
well-merited reputation as a naval officer, he played in his time 
many parts, and played them all well. Two other rear admirals 
have characterized him as "the incomparable Belknap." 

Among his literary remains is an excellent memoir of his 
friend and companion-in-arms, Commodore George Hamilton 
Perkins, a man after Belknap's own heart. At the unveiling 
of the noble statue of Commodore Perkins in your capital 
grounds, Admiral Belknap made the presentation address, and 
received well-deserved encomiums from Governor Jordan and 
President Tucker, praise from whom is praise indeed. 

The admiral died of heart failure, at Key West, on the 
seventh day of April, 1903, precisely forty years after the great 
battle between our ironclad fleet under Dupont and the fortifi- 
cations of Charleston under Beauregard. Jt so happened that 
a few days before he left home for Key West I had a conversa- 
tion with him in Boston in relation to that battle. Paymaster 
Read, who also participated in that attack, was present. 

The Confederates had placed in the channel of Charleston 


harbor an old steam boiler filled with powder, with which they 
expected to blow up the Neiv Ironsides, and kill all her officers 
and her crew of 400 men. The ship ran upon that boiler and 
remained there about an hour before she could be got off. 
The electric battery which was to destroy her was worked to 
the utmost, and the Confederates looking on wondered why 
the boiler did not explode. Three explanations have been 
suggested: 1. That it did not explode because the electric 
circle was too large ; 2. That the wires had been cut by loaded 
wagons passing up the beach near where the battery stood ; 
3. But a more probable explanation was sent to me from 
Charleston by Maj. Robert C. Gilchrist, a Confederate officer 
who was present on that occasion. It was that the mechanic 
who was to have connected the battery with the torpedo boiler 
purposely refrained from doing so, because he did not approve 
of that mode of warfare, and because a kinsman of his was 
attached to that ship. Major Gilchrist sent me several inter- 
esting letters, which I showed to the admiral. This was the 
last. Soon after writing it, he died. A few months more, and 
the admiral followed him to that world where Federals and 
Confederates meet as friends. 

The most remarkable fact connected with this battle was the 
disappointment caused by the great ironclad steam frigate, 
New Ironsides, which carried Admiral Dupont's Hag, and was 
the most powerful battleship in the world at that time. Of the 
32 guns mounted in the nine ships of the attacking fleet, she- 
carried j 6, one half of the whole number, and was as formid- 
able to the forts and batteries as all her consorts put together, on 
account of the rapidity of her lire. Commodore Turner, who 
commanded her, was a thoroughly competent officer. So, also, 
was Belknap, his executive officer, (second in command). They 
had both been attached to this ship ever since she went into 
commission, and had become familiar with all her peculiarities, 
which were very marked, making it extremely difficult to steer 
her in a narrow channel, ami'd shoals, cross-currents, under- 
currents and counter-currents. Acting Master Godfrey, her 
pilot, also knew her peculiarities well, better, indeed, than Fleet 
Pilot Haffards, having been with her ever since she arrived 


on this station. All her officers were well fitted for their parts. 
Each of her regular line officers afterwards became a rear 
admiral. Her crew was well chosen and well organized. In 
later engagements, on 26 different days off Charleston, and in" 
both the bombardments of Fort Fisher, the New Ironsides made 
a record for fighting capacity of which her officers and crew were 
justly proud. 

During this battje, however, as the Confederate historian 
says : " Not a gun [from her] was fired at Fort Sumter, only 
seven at Fort Moultrie, and one at Battery Wagner. The ship 
was struck [50 times] very often; but being twice as far off as 
the monitors, her injuries were comparatively slight."* She did 
not approach within a mile of Sumter. 

Forty years have passed since this first battle between iron- 
clad ships and forts took its place in history, and it is high 
time that the people should know why their expectations were 
disappointed by this famous ship. Admiral Dupont, his tleet 
captain, and his fleet pilot, well qualified as they were for their 
duties, were unacquainted with the peculiarities of the New 
.Ironsides, and did not duly appreciate her power as a battle- 
ship. Dupont, of course, took his proper place in the pilot 
house, badly misplaced as it was on the berth deck ; but as 
only two persons, other than himself and the wheel man could 
enter that small structure, he should have taken Turner and 
Godfrey with him into that house (instead of C. R. P. Rogers 
and Half aids), on account of their greater familiarity with the 
peculiarities of the ship. Perhaps he would have done so, had 
Turner suggested it. 

doing up the channel thus handicapped, beset by all sorts 
of difficulties, '"yawing " now to starboard and now to port, she 
became a serious impediment to the movements of the moni- 
tors. The chagrin and mortification of her officers and crew 
on seeing their powerful ship " last in the fight and first out 
of it," half her guns firing but one shot apiece, and half her 
guns firing no shot at all, was too great for description ; but 
the failure of their ship was due to no fault of theirs or of the 
ship herself. 

•Johnson's Defense of Charleston Harbor. Appendix, p. xxiv. 



It was suggested by the late Admiral Belknap that, had 
Dupont anchored the New Ironsides in the channel between 
Sumter and Moultrie and given his whole attention to. that 
part of Sumter's wall which covered her southeastern maga- 
zine, he might have made a breach in that wall and perhaps 
have blown up the magazine. In confirmation of this, I have 
been told by Confederates, both officers and men then on duty 
in Sumter, that during the whole night after this battle they 
were hard at work strengthening that part of the wall, and 
throwing overboard surplus ammunition, expecting a renewal 
of the battle on the following day. Great was their gratifica- 
tion on learning that the conflict was not then to be renewed. 
For more than three months not another shot was fired at the 
defenses of Charleston. 

Admiral Belknap was one of the most genial and amiable of 
men. When free from service at sea, he loved to read before 
patriotic societies historical papers carefully prepared by him 
on naval events in American history, and was in great demand 
among such societies. The Sons and Daughters of the Revo- 
lution and of the War of 1812, as well as Loyal Legion Com- 
manderies and Grand Army Posts, miss his genial presence 
and his abounding reminiscences. He formed many friend- 
ships in the navy and in social life, and kept them intact to 
the last. It was his hope that he might renew these friend- 
ships on a brighter shore. " So mote it be." 

Friend of 40 years, farewell ! 

Subsequently John Duncan Bryant of Boston was elected an 
honorary member, and Capt. William II. Jacques of Little 
Boars Head, James M. Killeen, De Witt C, Howe and George 
M. Fletcher of Concord, were elected active members of the 

Voted to adjourn until Wednesday, January 11, 1905. 

John C. Ordwav, 



Concord, N. H., January n, 1905. 

The third eighty-second annual meeting of the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society, 
Wednesday, January 11, 1905, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, 
Henry M. Baker, first vice-president, in the chair. 

On motion of S. C. Eastman, it was voted that the Society 
accept the bequest of $5,000 given by William C. Todd, by 
his will in accordance ''with the terms thereof, and that the 
treasurer be authorized to receive and receipt for said bequest 
and to execute in behalf of the Society any bond or agreement 
that may be desired to the executors and to Mount Holyoke 
College to secure compliance with the terms of the will. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker delivered a historical address the 
subject of which was " New Hampshire's Five Provincial Con- 

A vote of thanks was tendered the speaker for his very inter- 
esting and instructive paper and a copy of the same requested 
for preservation. 

Voted to adjourn. 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. H., February 8, 1905. 

The fourth adjourned eighty-second annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society, Wednesday, February 8, 1905, at two o'clock in the 

Samuel C. Eastman was chosen president pro ton. 

Col. Daniel Flail of Dover delivered an address on " The 
Civic Record of New Hampshire in the Civil War." 

* Privately printed. 




Mr. President and Gentlemen : 

" Two voices are there ; one is of the sea. 
One of the mountains ; each a mighty voice. 11 

The voice of New Hampshire is of the mountains — sounding 
always the full diapason of Freedom and Independence. 

It is always a joyous service to the state to which, by nativity 
or adoption, we owe allegiance, to present her claims to the 
respect and gratitude of the world, by setting forth her long 
array of great names and deeds connected with the wars of 
the nation ; but, wide as might be its general scope, the subject 
chosen for a brief discussion before you points more particu- 
larly, not to her martial achievements, but to the valuation set 
upon them by her people. Your attention is invited for a short 
time not to the heroism which New Hampshire, true to her his- 
toric renown, displayed on every field of the Rebellion whereon 
the hosts of freedom and oppression confronted each other, — 
not to the valor of this chivalrous little Switzerland of America, 
whose fiery crest gleamed in the van of every battle, — but we 
are rather to ask the question what the state has done in peace 
for the men who bore her standard aloft through the thick of 
the fray, and brought it home to her unsullied. 

When purposing to tell you today something of the story of 
what has been done for the veterans of New Hampshire, I felt 
some" misgiving lest, from my own position as a soldier, I might 
fail to appreciate the paternal care of our state, for whose sake 
her sons encountered privations, hardships, wounds and death, 
But it is not the least of my good fortune that my own memory 
easily spans the whole period of struggle and victory, including 
a large part of the great era of discussion, excitement and 
moral awakening for twenty years before the war. I can, there- 
fore, speak in large measure from personal recollection, and the 
knowledge that comes from active participation in the most 
momentous event of modern times. 

New Hampshire from the outset entered into the war with no 
mistaken view of its magnitude, its importance, or its real issues. 

col. Ball's address. 397 

The first of the old thirteen to resist by overt act the usurpations- 
of the British crown nearly a hundred years before, pouring out 
her blood like water in the colonial strife and the Revolution, 
and for the century following the select repository of the best 
principles of democratic government, leading the way for her 
sister commonwealths in humanitarian progress and many civic 
reforms which cannot here be particularized, when the revolt 
against' the government broke out into open resistance to the 
laws of the Union, New Hampshire was already prepared for 
the conflict. By the general intelligence of her people, the fruit 
of free schools and religious liberty, she had come to see clearly 
that, whatever might be the official pretext, the real question 
at issue was a vitally radical one, and that men were really 
righting, not to try the claim of each state in the Union to auton- 
omy, but to decide whether human slavery, odious alike to 
God and man, should still be numbered among the established 
institutions of the American republic. 

And so she embarked in the war with a zeal commensurate 
to her fixed and unalterable devotion to free institutions, and 
her determination to keep the jewel of liberty in the family of 
nations. To every roll call her intrepid spirit answered 
" Here!" and she sent one of every ten of her entire popula- 
tion, men, women and children, to the war. The endurance, 
constancy and valor of her troops, on the march, in camp and 
on the field of battle, fill an ineffaceable page of history, and 
make her the peer of the proudest commonwealths that have 
fought for liberty in the world. While all her regiments did 
nobly, it was the austere glory of one to place the capstone upon 
her martial fame by sacrificing more men in battle than any 
other infantry regiment in either army during the war. 

But the other nine of every ten performed duties at home no 
less patriotic and imperative. No state did more in support, 
and charity, and tender care for the soldier himself and his 

Almost before a battle had been fought, our Legislature 
gave full authority to our towns and cities to raise money by 
taxation or loan, and apply it for the aid of the Wife and chil- 
dren of any citizen who had already enlisted, or might there- 


after enlist in the military service of the United States, and 
provided for a full reimbursement of the towns and cities out of 
the treasury of the state. 

At the same time the state placed herself on record, pledging 
all her resources for the integrity of the Union, the support of 
the constitution, and the enforcement of the laws of the general 
government, — declaring those unalterable principles upon which 
the war was fought to a triumphant issue, — that the constitu- 
tion is the supreme law of the land, and no state has the right 
to secede therefrom and dissolve the Union the constitution was 
made to secure ; that the duty of the general government to 
suppress all attempts to dissolve the Union is imperative and 
cannot be evaded — and that neither the president nor Congress 
can entertain any proposition having for its object a dismem- 
berment of the government, or a severance of the political 
relations established by the constitution. 

Thus New Hampshire declared that the day of weakness and 
compromise was past; and she never wavered in her support 
of those declarations, but from beginning to end stood unfalter- 
ingly by Abraham Lincoln, a pillar of support to that great 
man ; and our state never swerved from the line in which she 
had placed herself, or recorded a vote in either house of Con- 
gress, or our own Legislature, deviating in the slightest degree 
from her loyalty, or that could bring discouragement to the 
sorely-tried heart of the great emancipator. 

This was followed within a year by an act making it compul- 
sory upon towns and cities to raise money for the aid of the 
wives and children of soldiers, and prescribing a fairly liberal 
support of all the soldier's dependents whom he had left at 
home when going to fight the battles of his country — making 
the state a gratuitous custodian and disburser of all moneys 
remitted by volunteers in the United States service, exempting 
all such moneys from attachment by trustee process or other- 
wise — providing for paying a large interest by the state for all 
funds entrusted by the soldier to its custody — and also author- 
izing the raising and application of money for the aid of the 
dependents of New Hampshire men filling the quota of other 

col. hall's address. 399 

This same act provided for extending such aid to the widow 
and children of any soldier who may have died in the service 
of the United States, or who may have returned home discharged 
for disability, and providing that no civil disabilities whatever 
should be incurred by reason of aid so furnished and received. 

In 1862 the Legislature also authorized the general govern- 
ment to order the militia out of the state to suppress armed 
rebellion, and reiterated the devotion of New Hampshire to 
the Union by applauding the president's call for 300,000 
troops, and pledging to it a prompt response. 

This legislation was immediately followed up in the same 
year, when the prospect of overcoming the Rebellion was 
shrouded in gloom, by extending the benefits previously given 
to volunteers to drafted men and their substitutes, and author- 
izing towns and cities to raise money to be appropriated as 
bounties to men drafted or conscripted under the laws of the 
United States. 

These unmistakable acts were supplemented by making it 
obligatory upon the state to pay when the towns refused, by 
appropriating money to pay expenses incurred in sending to 
their homes or friends any discharged or disabled soldiers, or 
refugees from the seat of war, and for rent of suitable build- 
ings for the* accommodation and relief of sick and wounded 
soldiers, and by resolutions of sympathy for the gallant men 
who had fallen, and pledging anew the entire resources of 
New Hampshire "to the continued prosecution of the war, 
until victory crowns our arms, and until the supremacy of the 
federal government shall be reestablished throughout our entire 

One of the most honorable and significant of her legislative 
acts was the Soldiers' Voting Bill of 1S64, which enabled 
every soldier in the field to cast his vote in camp for president, 
without dropping his musket, thus meeting the enemy with 
bullets and ballots at the same moment, and insuring to every 
soldier his rightful share in the control of the government he 
was defending with his life. 

These acts were supplemented by various other enactments 
showing the deep and abiding interest of the state in the care 


and welfare of her citizens engaged in the public defence, and 
her fidelity in keeping all her engagements and more for the 
care and support of the families they had to leave behind in 
going to the field. 

Some approximate idea may be formed of the sacrifices 
made by New Hampshire in the war, when I give*you the fol- 
lowing figures : 

The amount paid by the state alone for bounties was 

The amount paid for " State Aid " to the families of Volun- 
teers was $1,837,000. 

The state assumed war debts of the towns and cities, and 
issued bonds to them to the amount of $2,206,000. 

And those of them outstanding constituted for a long period 
the bulk of our state debt. 

I have no reliable data for the additional amount paid by 
towns, but it cannot be less than $2,000,000. 

That some portion of this was subsequently reimbursed is 
nothing to the argument — when made it was a pure gratuity — 
it was " bread cast upon the waters," with no prospect of a 
return even " after many days." 

These sums aggregate the cost of the war in mere money to 
the little state of New Hampshire to from eight to ten million 
dollars in addition to her direct and indirect taxation by the 
general government, the loss and interruptions of her industry: 
and this takes no account of the loss of lives, and lacerations 
of hearts and homes, that can never be computed. 

Truly, "pearls were dissolved" in that cup of sacrifice. 
Such is the record of the state while the war was still in 
progress, and since its close she has not failed to manifest in 
every possible way her gratitude to the men who maintained 
her honor in the field and bared their bosoms to the storms of 
death in behalf of the principles which animated her people 
At an early day after the return of peace, the Legislature au- 
thorized all our cities and towns to raise money by taxation to 
erect monuments to deceased soldiers and sailors, carried on 
to completion the reimbursement by the state of municipal war 
expenditures, and exempted from the payment of poll taxes all 


soldiers who served in the War of the Rebellion. This was 
soon followed by legislative authorization to cities and towns 
to appropriate money without limit to decorate the graves of 
soldiers who lost their lives in defending the flag; Memorial 
Day was made a legal holiday ; and the state has again and 
again contributed with no niggard hand to defray the expenses 
of burying her soldiers, and appropriately marking their graves 
in the national cemeteries, and raising monuments to the sac- 
rifice of her dead and the valor of her living sons on the his- 
toric battlefields of the Rebellion. 

Action was taken 30 years ago for the preservation of her 
battle-flags, and they were deposited in Doric Hall in the 
rotunda of the State House, where, torn by shot and shell, and 
tattered by "Time's effacing fingers" they are proudly dis- 
played as memorials of the bravery and patriotism of her sons, 
living and dead. 

The veteran soldiers of New Hampshire have a most unique 
institution under the name of the "New Hampshire Veterans' 
Association." Twenty-five years ago the happy thought of a 
few of her surviving soldiers was realized in the formation of 
a rural camping-ground on the shores of our beautiful Lake 
Winnipiseogee, where the veterans congregate for a reunion of 
several days every year, each regiment having its organization 
and its handsome building, free to the occupation of all its 
survivors — the whole forming one of the most interesting and 
charming groups of buildings to be found in the country. 
There every year Veterans' Week is observed, and it is safe to 
say that the country in all its broad extent affords no other 
such interesting rendezvous of sacred persons and associations. 
All the great soldiers of the war have from time to time 
been entertained by the association, and they pronounce it 
unequalled and inimitable by any other state. 

1 speak of this simply to say that while the soldiers have, of 
course, done much by individual effort to realize all this, they 
have found the state ready at all times to aid them with lavish 
appropriations. Year after year in her political capacity the 
state lias voted money to embellish these grounds and make 
them delightful, and she makes a regular annual appropriation 


from the treasury to support what all agree places New Hamp- 
shire far in the lead of her sister states in rendering official 
homage to her veteran soldiers. 

Twenty years ago the state took another step for the relief 
of her disabled soldiers and sailors who are indigent and 
unable to provide for themselves, by providing that such sol- 
diers, and their wives and minor children, shall be supported 
at the public expense at their own homes, or such place other 
than town and county almshouses as the selectmen may think 
proper; and the pride of the disabled soldier is preserved, 
and he is protected against every possible stigma by providing 
that the expenses of such support shall not be entered in 
pauper accounts, and punishing by a severe penalty any officer 
daring to violate this law. Such is the law of New Hampshire 
today, and no official dares to set down in a pauper account 
any expenditure incurred in the support of a veteran soldier. 

A complete record of the names and service of the soldiers 
of the American Revolution would be invaluable in this coun- 
try today, and be worth millions of dollars to her history. 
Such is the development of the historical spirit, and the spirit 
of reverent patriotism combined, that such a record of the ser- 
vice of New Hampshire men in the Rebellion has been antici- 
pated and fully supplied. Long ago the state began to pre- 
pare for this work by preserving her muster rolls, and authoriz- 
ing and paying for abstracts and searches of official archives. 
This has been followed up year after year, and stimulated by 
liberal appropriations, till at length, ten years ago, a record of 
the service in all its details of every New Hampshire soldier 
has been published, which, I believe, surpasses in complete- 
ness, and general excellence and usefulness, anything done in 
this direction by any other state in the Union. It is a mam- 
moth volume from the adjutant general's office of 1,350 pages, 
in which appears the name and service of every New Hamp- 
shire man who in any capacity served his country in the regi- 
ments or batteries of New Hampshire, or in the navy, with 
such absolute fulness and accuracy that I know not of a single 
error that has been discovered in it. While this record, un- 


•equalled in value, is a monument to the industry of the com- 
pilers, it is the state and her people, who have recognized the 
obligation and paid the bills, and are entitled to all the credit. 

In addition to this, the state has aided liberally the publica- 
tion of all the regimental histories. 

But the crowning work of the state to manifest her gratitude 
to the veteran soldier, and her determination to keep good not 
only the letter but the very spirit of her promise to him, was 
the creation by law, 15 years ago, of the New Hampshire Sol- 
diers' Home. The representative soldiers of the state had only 
to speak the voice of their comrades, and make known their 
wishes to the Legislature, that a place of refuge, having all the 
blessings and attractions of a home, shall be provided by and 
in the state where every veteran, disabled, wounded, shattered, 
worn out, or wrecked in whatsoever manner on the ocean of 
life, should find a safe and comfortable refuge, a warm bed, 
good food, good raiment, nursing and medical care, for the last 
days of his life. 

The heart of our noble little commonwealth beat in quick 
response to this demand, and the creative act, with its ade- 
quate appropriation, came at once, and we have today, and 
have had for 15 years, a Soldiers' Home not surpassed, if 
equalled, by any home in the Union. I will not call it the 
best, but you can divine my opinion, and I have seen many of 
them. It occupies a commanding site on one of the loveliest 
spots in that picturesque lake county of our state. The cli. 
matic influences, the beautiful prospects embracing lake and 
valley, forest, farm and ^stream, with Kearsarge (a name sugges- 
tive at once of grand scenery and of glorious memories of war) 
standing out bold and lifting its majestic head towards the 
clouds a few miles away, with hamlets and villages sleeping in 
quiet beauty at its feet, with an outlook of lovely and varied 
country bounding the vision for a score of miles on all sides, — 
all these make the New Hampshire Soldiers' Home at Tilton 
an enchanting retreat. 

Since its establishment some 550 men have been cared for, 
the number in constant attendance varying from 60 to 100, 


according to the season. There are now about seventy-five 
men within its walls, enjoying as many comforts, it is safe to 
say, as any body of men in the country. Questions have 
arisen touching the management of the Home, more or less 
perplexing, and its managers have not escaped criticism, but 
all problems have been solved rightly and satisfactorily, and 
New Plampshire may well claim it to be one of the noblest 
charities any where founded for the relief of poverty and the 
disabilities incident to a military service which secured higher 
results than any war in human annals. 

In speaking of the New Hampshire Soldiers' Home, I may 
truly say, as Grattan said of the Parliament of Ireland, that 
"I have in it a parental interest, for I stood by its cradle," 
and there is nothing in my life in which I take a prouder satis- 
faction than in the part I have had in the establishment and 
management of that Home. And I believe no act in all her 
legislative annals is more honorable to the state of our birth 
than this, supplemented year by year by adequate appropria- 
tions for its support. 

At the same time the state has been awakened within a few 
years past to her duty to preserve the memory of the Revolu- 
tionary heroes in which her history is so rich, and she has 
appropriated her money with commendable liberality for the 
erection of visible memorials to their fame. A noble statue of 
General Stark has been set up in the Capitol grounds at Con- 
cord, and was dedicated a few years ago with imposing cere- 
monies and eloquent speech of our honey-tongued and lamented 
orator, James W. Patterson ; and becoming monuments have 
been raised to Meshech Weare, out earliest president, at Hamp- 
ton ; to Matthew Thornton, one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion, at Merrimack; and to General John Sullivan, a pre- 
eminent Revolutionary soldier, patriot and statesman, at Dur- 
ham; and these, with the numerous monuments to our soldiers 
of the Civil War, which have been erected on public squares 
all over the state, are standing and conspicuous proofs, which 
all men may read, of the honor New Hampshire bestows, with- 
out stint, alike upon those who established and those who pre- 


served her public liberty and her place in "an indestructible 
union of indestructible states." 

I have passed in something like a review the salient points of 
the record of New Hampshire as it relates to her treatment of 
her soldiers in the field, and in these later years when live to 
ten thousand veterans exercise the rights of her honored citi- 
zenship; and, on a full view and comprehension of her policy 
touching this body of her citizens, I aver that her whole legis- 
lation, from start to finish, has been clear, enlightened, scien- 
tific, systematic, directed in the most intelligent manner to the 
ends in view, and those ends of the highest and most patriotic 
nature, such as place her in the very forefront of modern com- 

Thinking of tlie forty years since this chalice of sacrifice was 
pressed to the lips of New Hampshire for that Union which 
her decisive act created a century ago, and to which she has 
ever been faithful, how much has she done and suffered ! For 
rive agonizing years the Angel of Death was abroad throughout 
her borders. You might almost hear the beating of his wings. 
"Less fortunate than of old when the first-born was slain, there 
was none merciful enough to sprinkle with blood the lintel and 
the side-posts of our doors, that he might spare and pass on." 
His victims were taken from every home, from the mansion of 
the wealthy and the cottage of the poor and lowly,— in every 
house there was mourning, and in many a home the light was 
extinguished, never more to be rekindled. Mindful of their 
good service, New Hampshire has mourned and honored her 
children who faced death in her behalf, and now that the sur- 
vivors of that time are white with age, and approach the con- 
fines of their mortal day, their evening is cheered by the con- 
sciousness that their service is appreciated, and that they will 
rest in the warm and grateful bosom of a state whose honors 
and benedictions will be laid upon their graves. 

And for our comrades who have already gone out into the 
Unknown, in the gray masses of monumental stone that rise 
over their ashes, the state that bore them keeps unending vigil 
and chants perpetual requiem : 


" Their glory dies not, though the grief is past — 
They are at rest ; 

We may not stir the heaven of their repose 
By rude invoking voice, or prayer addrest 
In waywardness to those 
Who in the mountain grots of Eden lie, 
And hear the four-fold river as it murmurs by." 

It must be recognized as "the conclusion of the whole mat- 
ter " that New Hampshire though a small state, has acted a 
great part in the American epopee consisting of two indissolu- 
ble parts, the Revolution and the Rebellion. By fidelity in 
great crises, and a moral courage and might, in the presence of 
which physical power has again and again crumbled to pieces, 
a state as well as an individual is, of course, to be tried. That 
is the test of heroism and virtue. Small states have met that 
test successfully, and, whether they won or perished, have given 
themselves an immortality of fame, and left names that are 
inextinguishable beacons along the shores of Time. Athens,. 
Holland, Hungary, the South African Republic, and glorious 
little Japan, are examples of small states with great souls that 
fitted them for great trials and destinies. Tried in that cruci- 
ble, and by that test, we have no reason to fear the verdict of 

We measure states, and will ever do so perhaps, by their 
martial spirit. Let us, indeed, honor the courage and sacrifice 
of the soldier,— but let us not, in this twentieth century, glorify 
war. It is but a relic of barbarism, and more humane senti- 
ments are making steady progress in the world. Even now 
we have to a great degree outgrown the savageness under 
which wars were possible. Today all the jingoists of both con- 
tinents would be powerless to embroil England and America in 
war, and everything augurs the early coming of the day when 

" The war-drums shall throb no longer, 
And the battle-flags be furled, 
In the Parliament of Man, 

The Federation of the World. 1 ' 

"No!" says ATctor Hugo, "it cannot be that Eife should 
forever be in travail for Death ! No, O mothers that surround 


col. hall's address. 407 

me ! it cannot be that War, the Robber, is to continue to seize 
and immolate your offspring! it cannot be that women are to 
bear children in anguish, that men are to be born ; that com- 
munities are to plow and sow and reap ; that the farmer is to 
fertilize the fields, and" workmen enrich and adorn the cities; 
that thinkers are to indite, and instructors to teach ; that 
industry is to perform its marvels ; that genius is to accomplish 
its prodigies ; that this vast human activity is to multiply its 
efforts and creations, in order to produce that frightful interna- 
tional exhibition which is called a held of battle ! No ! the true 
field of battle is here around us, in every city and state where 
work is being done for humanity." We have seen the trophies 
of a grander struggle at Chicago and St. Louis! Those were 
the true battle-fields of the human race, the rendezvous of the 
masterpieces of human labor and genius which the Columbian 
and Louisiana Expositions presented to the world ! 

The movement of civilization is far more influenced by the 
silent thinker in his closet, the inventor, the discoverer, the 
poet, the philosopher, the scientist, than by those who are 
appealed to in the last resort as the "ultima ratio regu'm" The 
sword may occasionally even yet be used to cut a knot that 
bafiles all other means; but more and more certainly the steady 
progress of the world, the softening of manners, the constant 
amelioration of human conditions, are the work of the intel- 

In proof of this proposition, if I were enforcing the general 
claim of New Hampshire to character and influence, I might 
advert to what perhaps should never be forgotten, her weight 
in the national councils. In that connection I might claim for 
her a greater influence than any other American state has 
exerted. She, more than any and all oilier states, instructed, 
prepared and armed the nation, through its public opinion, 
for the great ordeal it was to undergo. Do we not know, and 
is it not the general consensus of the world, that here were 
bred and germinated the great forces of argument, persuasion 
and conviction that finally discomfitted all the power of dis- 
union, and consolidated the republic into an indestructible 
union of indestructible states? Here, almost within cannon 


shot of this platform, Webster, New Hampshire's greatest son, 
"mewed his mighty youth," and built up in his brain the 
'oratorical and argumentative power which was to sweep away 
and crush the serried strength of armies. The irresistible 
strength of the Union was found in the underlying sentiments 
which drew their nutriment from this soil, prepared and stored 
up like the coal deposits in the cavernous depths of the earth 
for the support of future ages ; and hereafter the historian of 
the American epoch will find the stimulus of the fervid nation- 
ality of 1 86 1 in the argument in the Dartmouth College case, 
the discourses at Plymouth, the Bunker Hill orations, the 
masterly logic of Gibbons v. Ogden, the impassioned defence 
of the Greek republics, the debates with Calhoun, the eulogies 
of Adams and Jefferson, the addresses on Washington, on 
Kossuth, on Slavery, the Hulsemann letter, and the Reply to 
Hayne. These were the great guns of nationality which broke 
the center of the Rebellion. In this laboratory was forged the 
hammer of the Union. These efforts of New Hampshire's 
greatest son became the landmarks of American patriotism, 
and the high-water mark of our intellectual and oratorical 

And so, it is not to be denied that New Hampshire has 
illustrious annals, and is great in that past so remote that we 
dignify it as history par excellence. 

But she is great, also, in her immediate past, and at every 
stage; and therefore I have thought it not irrelevant in this 
Society whose aim is to preserve all that is noble in her life at 
every age, to call to mind not only her titles to remembrance 
in colonial and revolutionary times, but also her conspicuous 
career in modern days — days, as Macaulay says, "within the 
memory of men now living." Therefore, at the risk of noting 
facts not yet having a full historical perspective, and so familiar 
to older men still living as to be trite and somewhat common- 
place, I have asked your attention briefly to some things which 
ought not to be forgotten. But want of time, lack of strength 
and enterprise, and the lassitude of years and varied interests 
have limited me to only a slight effort in this improvised 
attempt to fill in a gap in your program, and to speak of a few 



things cursorily, for which I have to do but little more than 
•consult my own memory. 

It is noteworthy that with a free, and liberal, and modern 
spirit, New Hampshire has/ remained conservative. There, 
have been here no sudden revolutions of law or of custom. 
An enduring state must be conservative. Whenever any soci- 
ety ceases to be truly conservative it treads on dangerous 
ground. Humanity advances slowly, and by successive steps 
— and only by holding fast its gains can great and permanent 
results be garnered in. 

"A citizen," says M. Thiers, "has four duties: to instruct 
himself, which is the first and most essential, to pay, to vote, 
to fight: school, taxation, the ballot-box, military service in 
defence of the country. Only those nations among whom 
these four duties are thoroughly organized, and thoroughly 
carried out. are free peoples." 

I submit that New Hampshire is an example of the organiza- 
tion of these four duties, and by this standard may justly be 
called a free people. Try her by these criteria. Are her 
schools anywhere excelled ? Is not her system of taxation 
wise, equal and confined in scope to legitimate objects? As 
to voting — do we not all vote ? It is well-nigh a crime in New 
Hampshire to be absent from the ballot-box — and I believe it 
will soon be a statutory misdemeanor. And in military power 
and efficiency, what state, ancient or modern, has a superior 
record ? 

But even patriotism does not warrant or excuse indiscrim- 
inate panegyric — and we may readily admit on the part of 
New Hampshire an occasional lapse of her public virtue in 
matters non-essential. But if she occasionally halts or falters, 
she recovers herself, and advances anew. Hers is no "fugi- 
tive and cloistered virtue, unexercised and unbreathed, that 
never sallies out and sees her adversary." The people of New 
Hampshire do not believe they have no further work to do, 
and may lie on their oars. But in her public policy she is 
conservative and radical at the same moment, like those plants 
that present ripe fruit and blossoms on the same bough. 
Holding fast to her noble history, her early " plain living and 



high thinking" — and steadfastly maintaining all that has been 
achieved, and building it into solid foundations of character 
and precedent, — her face is still turned to the sunrise, and she 
is not insensible to the demands of these later days. She 
feels the pressure of new interests and new duties. She sees 
new and legitimate subjects for legislation, and the operation 
of law — new questions that must be grappled with if the state is 
to be a modern commonwealth, and be kept in the forefront of 
human progress, where she has always been. New Hampshire 
is meeting these new emergencies with new and advanced 
policies ; and the redemption of her abandoned acres — the 
building of scientific roads, and preservation of her forests, 
that shall make the state the health resort and pleasure ground 
of the nation, the development of her system of public educa- 
tion, her libraries and schools, the extension of her philan- 
thropic institutions, the organization of her industry, so as to 
harmonize the relations and adjust the disturbed balances of 
labor and capital, the finding of new objects and a new inci- 
dence of taxation; such subjects as these are to challenge her 
attention and engage her public policy in the future. 

I was deeply interested in listening the other day to our new 
governor's address, in which all these topics, and more that 
were new, were treated in a broad and statesmanlike spirit, and 
with a master hand. Some of the governor's\discussions and 
recommendations would have sounded strangely to the ears of 
our fathers, and would have been regarded as entirely beyond 
the realm of legislative cognizance. ]3ut, in the phrase of the 
day, these new questions are up to us, and we have no fear that 
the great history and political apprenticeship of New Hamp- 
shire have been inadequate to prepare her for what is to come. 
The governor and the state realize that we are living in the 
twentieth century, and that in the evolution of society these 
great problems, and more still, will be found to be within the 
scope of the powers of the modern state — and those powers 
will be found elastic enough to deal with and embrace the new 
world of economics, science, education, industry and politics in 
which we live. 

Till I should have filled up the time allotted me in touching 


upon the rather miscellaneous topic I have chosen, I have post- 
poned the apology with which I should have prepared you for a 
liberal indulgence to what I had to say. But it is well, perhaps,, 
to have brought you along with me to this point where a full 
apology is found in the treatment itself of the topic— in its obvious 
immaturity for want of time and health ; and the pressure, apparent 
enough, of other duties so exigent as to brook no denial or 
postponement. My,. plan was simply to present a mere digest, 
or elementary sketch of New Hampshire in the war, but I have 
been led afield by lack of a very definite purpose into rather 
more discursive details touching our state. After all is consid- 
ered, I have no misgivings in pointing to New Hampshire as a 
model to any state, present or future, of the care a common- 
wealth should take of her citizens who have rendered conspic- 
uous public service — her regard for the actors who have served 
her in a great crisis, and graven the story of her public life 
indelibly on the tablets of history and in the traditions of 

We are not speaking, however, of a dead state, or an expiring 
one, but of a living and growing organism. The history of New 
Hampshire is not yet completed. It is still in the making — it is 
fluid, it is not yet cool — it is still warm, and not yet hardened 
in the matrix. There is a continuity in history. We ourselves 
are making it every day, and, with our ancestors and our pos- 
terity, are a part of the chain gang of humanity. We can 
neither break from the past nor the future. We are^indissol- 
ubly tied to both. The past is our precious inheritance, and 
the future ! ah ! we have not yet closed and sealed the book of 
progress ; but, with Pastor Robinson in his parting sermon to 
the Pilgrims, we are convinced that " the Lord hath more light 
and truth yet to break forth out of His Holy Word." 

I may say here what all of us interested in this pursuit know, 
that the history of New Hampshire while not yet treated elabo- 
rately as a whole, has not been neglected ; and there are valu- 
able materials awaiting some master hand. " Belknap's History" 
is a standard work, nobly done and always reliable, but closing 
a century and a quarter ago. Since then Parstow, Professor 
Sanborn, McClintock, Waite and Pell have made worthy con- 


tributions, some of them only compilations, and some original 
investigations. The brilliant little book of the American Com- 
monwealth series, written by Mr. Frank B. Sanborn and 
recently published, though in a small compass, is a fascinating 
book of characteristic originality. It is a valuable addition to 
our history, which, it must be said, has not yet received its final 
and elaborate treatment, but is still fragmentary. Some good 
biographies, like those of Plurner and Smith, have appeared, 
some regimental histories have been well presented, and some 
local histories, like the recent one of Concord, have been 
admirably done and shown powers equal to broader and more 
comprehensive work. It is to be regretted that Portsmouth, 
Dover and Exeter have not yet found their historians; but there 
are some rich materials preserved in the amber of well-authenti- 
cated records, sketches and compiled memoranda, which will 
reward somebody, though the pen has fallen from the nerveless 
hand of one (Pev. Dr. A. II. Quint), who was most cunning for 
moulding them into shape and consistency. You may felicitate 
yourselves, Mr. President and Gentlemen, that when the New 
Hampshire historian shall arise, he will find your labors ready 
at his hand and his work greatly facilitated by the investiga- 
tions of this Society ; and find in your collections a priceless 
treasury of facts, which but for this Society would never have 
been available. 

But New Hampshire men and members of this Society " have 
given hostages to fortune," as saith my Lord Bacon of him who 
"hath wife and children." Those of us who are still, as 
Whittier says, 

" Content to live where life began, 11 

and have not yielded to the allurements of more gainful fields 
of life, are joined irrevocably to the destinies of our native state. 
It seems to me no one was ever ashamed of being born in New 
Hampshire; and we take license here and always to give full 
rein to our enthusiasm for this grand little state, out of whose 
teeming loins we are sprung, and which has still so many 
unspent arrows in her quiver to light the battles of civilization 
and progress in the world — the state that has sent out the seed 


corn for the planting of so many enlightened communities, and 
yet has not depleted herself of the virility which is the spring 
of great deeds. Her " lines are gone out into all the earth" — 
and there is yet no surcease of her fecundity in great names and- 
deeds. It is natural and fitting that we find our point of union 
in the soil that bore us, and to which our hearts and our faith 
return in every impulse that has in it health and strength. 
Says Renan, "memory is to every man a part of his moral 
being; woe to him who hath no memories." This association 
continually draws us back to the early hours that were saddened 
by no forebodings; and all the things that recall to us our 
beginnings, our may be humble but honest origin, make of our 
native state a sort of mother to whose bosom we always return. 
It is the old, old story of the world's patriotism. 

And then we are bound forever to the personality of New 
Hampshire as a state by an outward charm of feature unequalled 
and unapproachable. The majesty of her mountains, the pen- 
sive picturesqueness of her lakes and valleys, her limpid streams, 
her autumnal glories, when the flaming heart of all Nature 
seems to have burst into color, all these make her the Paradise 
of the tourist no less than of every one " to the manor born." 
Every season has here its own subtle and indefinable charm. 
Even this winter season seems more glorious in New Hamp- 
shire than anywhere else. Who that has stood at the foot of 
Mount Washington and his companions in winter, and seen the 
perfectness and peace of the sweet, saintly, stainless marble of 
its peaks outlined against the sunlit sky, can ever cease to 
yearn for the return of that vision ? And does not the man 
reared — at least reared as long ago as I was — in a country 
town of New Hampshire retain ever the aroma of the old 
schoolhouse, — 

" The huskings and the apple bees, 
The sleighrides and the summer sails, 11 

and the scent of clover and apple blossoms, and find in that 
winter idyll, " Snow Bound," a perfect New Hampshire ana- 
logue to the "Cotter's Saturday Night," which has immortalized 
Burns and touched the heart of the world ? 


It is, indeed, 

From scenes like these New Hampshire's grandeur springs, 
That makes her loved at home, revered abroad. 

In these rural scenes every healthy nature finds an enduring 
charm, and it is no marvel or miracle that she has been so pro- 
lific in noble men and women, for have not the exhausted veins 
of Freedom and Power, Intellect and Empire renewed their 
strength, like Antaeus, in all times, from the open fields and 
mountains? Aye, did not the Lord say unto David, the 
founder of the royal house of Israel, " I took thee from the 
sheep-cote, and from following the sheep, to be ruler over my 
people, over Israel ?" 

On motion of J. B. Walker, it was voted that the thanks of 
the Society be presented to Colonel Hall for his delightful 
address, and a copy of the same be requested for preserva- 

Adjourned to March 8, at the same hour. 

Concord, N. II., March 8, 1905. 
The fifth adjourned eighty-second annual meeting, on account 
of the absence of the speaker, was postponed until April 12, 
and so stood adjourned. 

John C. Thorne, 
Secretary pro tern. 
Attest : 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. H., April 12, 1905. 

The sixth adjourned eighty-second annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society, Wednesday, April 12, 1905, at 2 o'clock in the 

In the absence of the president and both vice-presidents, 
Maj. Henry McFarland was chosen president pro tern. 


On motion of Samuel C. Eastman, it was voted that the 
thanks of the Society be tendered to the trustees of the John 
H. Pearson fund for the gift of $5,000 towards a new building 
for the Society, and to John C. Thorne, for his efforts in- 
securing the same. 

The matter of a new building being under discussion, re- 
marks were made by Messrs. Thorne, Fiske, Eastman, Wheeler, 
Parker, -Killeen and others, all present participating, and a 
large majority expressing the feeling that we should build, and 
on the Society's adjoining land. 

On motion of Mr. Eastman, it was voted that the question 
of location be deferred until the annual meeting. 

On motion of John C. Thorne, it was voted that the stand- 
ing committee, with four others appointed by the chair, should 
be a committee of seven to consider the proposition of a new 
building and plans, make recommendations, and report at the 
annual meeting, or some subsequent meeting. 

The chair appointed the following gentlemen as this com- 
mittee: Giles Wheeler, John C. Thorne, Edson C. Eastman, 
John Kimball, Charles R. Corning, John C. Ordway and Will- 
iam P. Fiske. 

The secretary was requested to notify the members of the 
Society of the annual meeting, and state that the question of 
location of the new building will be acted upon at that time. 

Voted to adjourn to May 10, 1905, to meet at the same 
place and hour.* 

John C. Ordway, 


Concord, N. H., May 10, 1905. 

The seventh adjourned eighty-second annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society, Wednesday, May 10, 1905, at 2 o'clock p. m. 

Vice-President Rev. D. C, Roberts called the meeting to 

* The above, inscribed by John C. Thorne, appointed secretary pro tern, by the 
standing committee, was from notes left by Mr. Ordway, who died, after a brief ill- 
.ness of pneumonia, April 23. 


John C. Thome, appointed by the standing committee to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of John C. Ordway, secretary, 
and take charge of the books and papers of that office, acted 
as secretary pro ton., and, according to the by-laws of the 
Society, will so continue till the annual meeting.* 

On motion of Rev. N. F. Carter, voted that John Dowst of 
Manchester be chosen a member of the committee on building 
in place ok John C. Ordway, deceased. 

On motion of John C. Thome, voted thatMaj. Henry McFar- 
land be chosen a member of the committee on building in 
place of John Kimball, resigned. 

The following letter was read by the secretary : 

To the New Hampshire Historical Society ; 

Appreciating very much your action in making me a member 
of the committee on a new library or Society building, I feel 
that another should be put in my stead. I am now so engaged 
as to make my service to you of no value whatever, and recog- 
nizing the importance of the work before the committee and 
the personal attention it demands, I am unwilling to burden 
the committee by retaining my membership. 1 must request 
you to accept my resignation as one of the building committee. 

Very truly, 

Charles R. Corning. 

In accordance with the above request, upon motion of John 
C. Thome, it was voted that Judge Coming's resignation be 
accepted and James M. Killeen become a member of the build- 
ing committee in his place. 

On motion of Giles Wheeler, it was voted that the further 
disposal of any books whatever of this Society be discontinued 
until further action at the annual meeting. 

The following resolution was presented by Rev. N. F. Carter 
and unanimously passed by a rising vote : 

Whereas, since our last meeting a month ago we are called 
to chronicle, with profound regret, the death after a distressing 
illness of ten days of John C. Ordway, a most valued member 
and efficient secretary, 

Resolved, That while we sadly deplore his sudden departure 

♦Article IV, section 4. 


from us, we would bear cheerful testimony to his uncompro- 
mising loyalty to this Society, his unfailing cooperation and una- 
bated zeal in any movement to advance its best interests, and 
hasten the time when its increasing historic treasures shall be 
housed in an ample, well-furnished and fireproof home. 

Resolved, That we remember with gratitude and commenda- 
tion his faithfulness in the performance of his duties as secre- 
tary of this Society for the last fourteen years, his gentlemanly 
demeanor,- unfailing courtesy, his judicious counsels and salu- 
tary influence as a 16ng-time member of the Board of Educa- 
tion, the soundness of his judgment in business and financial 
matters, and his worth to society as a citizen and a man. 

Resolved, That we tender to his widow and daughters an 
expression of our abiding appreciation of his sterling character, 
our sense of the greatness of our common loss, and our heart- 
felt sympathies. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the records 
of this Society, and a copy sent to the aflhcted family. 

On motion, adjourned. 

John C. Thorne, 

Secretary pro tern. 



Mary Eastman Bell, widow of ex-Gov. Charles H. Bell, was 
born in Boston, April 14, 1826, the daughter of Harrison and 
Clarissa (Eastman) Gray. After her marriage, October 2, 1850, 
to John Taylor Gilman, her life was spent in Exeter, N. II., and 
in her summer home at Little Boar's Head, Hampton Beach. 
Mr. Gilman was a partner in the house of Russell & Co., 
engaged in the China tea trade, living before his marriage for 
eleven years at Canton, where he accumulated what was then 
considered an ample fortune. He died April 4, 1862, greatly 

In June 3, 1867, Mrs. Gilman married Hon. Charles II. Bell, 
who at different times tilled the office of speaker of the House, 
president of the Senate, governor, and senator in Congress. 
For several years he was president of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society, and gave to the Society a collection of upwards 
of 1,200 volumes and many pamphlets. His wife was elected 
a member of the Society June 8, 188 1. She was a woman of 
fine culture, cheerful disposition, gracious manners and thought- 
ful kindnesses. She delighted in the best in literature and 
art and from her wide range of reading and observation in 
travels at home and abroad she became an accomplished 
scholar. She was greatly interested in historical and antiquarian 
researches relating to the town and state, and was an expert 
judge of the ceramic art, enriching her home with a valuable 
collection of curios and china. 

In her house in Exeter, dating back to colonial times, she 
died February 3, 1904, and is survived by two children and a 
sister. Many mourn her loss. 



David Arthur Brown was born in Attleboro, Mass., May 
4, 1839. He was tne son °f Henry H. Brown, one of the 
descendants of Peter Brown, who came over in the Mayflower 
in 1620. His father removed to Fisherville, now Penacook 
(Concord), in 1843, anc ^ ne resided there to the time of his 
death. He' received h[s education at the public schools and at 
the New London Literary and Scientific Institute. He was in 
the piano factory of Lincoln, Dearborn & Co., at Concord, for a 
year and then in the repair shop of the Penacook Mill till 1861. 

At the opening of the war he enlisted in the Third Regiment 
of New Hampshire Volunteers, as a musician, for three years. 
He was immediately commissioned as band master, by the gov- 
ernor. After his discharge from the army he went into the 
firm of A. B. Winn & Co., machinists, and followed this busi- 
ness under different associations as long as he lived. In 1880 
the business was incorporated under the name of the Concord 
Axle Company and Mr. Brown became the manager. The com- 
pany was widely known by the Concord axles which it manu- 

Mr. Brown was an active member of the Baptist Church ; of 
the Grand Army of the Republic ; of several clubs and fraternal 
organizations, including the Masons. He was elected a mem- 
ber of this Society June 11, 1902. 

He wrote the History of Penacook, which was published in 
1902, and which is a valuable and interesting collection of facts 
relating to the people of that village. 

He died September 9, 1903, leaving a widow and one son, 
Henry Arthur Brown. 


By the death of Dr. Carter, March 7, 1904, the Society lost 
one of its most valued members. 

William Gardner Carter was born in Concord, August 8, 
1838, the son of Dr. Ezra Carter. His preliminary education 
was in the schools of this city and at Pembroke Academy. 


After leaving the academy he went to Portland, Me., to work 
in his uncle's bookstore. From there he entered Bowdoin 
Medical College, but took his degree from the Medical, School 
of Harvard University in 1869. He commenced practice in 
Concord with his father and at once became deservedly popu- 
lar with his patients. 

. About fifteen years ago he was obliged to give up active 
practice, by reason of failing health, although he kept up his 
interest in medical as well as other subjects until his death. 
Among these latter was music, for which he had great talent, 
which led him to serve for many years as organist of the North 
Congregational Church. 

Dr. Carter was married May 13, 1869, to Harriet E. Pecker, 
who survives him. They had one son, Robert E., who also 
survives him. 

Always a man of boundless generosity and engaging person- 
ality, Dr. Carter endeared himself to the large group of devoted 
friends who mourn his death. 

He became a member of the Society June 12, 1872. 


Charles C. Danforth was born in Amherst, N. H., April 12, 
1 83 1. He died in Concord, N. II., March 8, 1904. 

Mr. Danforth was active in the social, religious, fraternal and 
political life of his city and state. 

Fie served as assistant clerk of the New Hampshire House 
of Representatives in 1873, 1875, anc ^ as clerk in 1876, 1877. 
In 1879 ne was a m ember of the House, and in 1899 was a 
member of the state Senate from the tenth district. He was a 
member of the constitutional convention in 18S9, and was a 
colonel upon the staff of Governor Straw in 1872, 1873. 

He was greatly interested in the Masonic fraternity, having 
received all the degrees in both the York and Scottish rites up 
to and including the 33d degree. He was an enthusiast in all 
Masonic matters and his great interest in these and in public 
affairs called for much energy, time and strength. As a man, 
a citizen and a Mason, he was respected and honored. 



William O. Todd. 


His funeral was held at the Unitarian church at Concord 
and was very largely attended by men in public and fraternal 
life. The last service was performed by Mt. Horeb Com- 
mandery, Knights Templar. 

He became a member of this Society December S, 1897. 


Fletcher Ladd was the son of Hon. William S. Ladd, one of 
the most distinguished lawyers of New Hampshire and for 
many years one of the leading judges of the Supreme Court. 
His son, who was born in Lancaster in TS62, possessed many 
of the mental characteristics of his father. Like him Fletcher 
Ladd was a sound lawyer and showed scholarly tastes and 
decided ability in dealing with legal questions. He was edu- 
cated at Phillips Academy, Andover, graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1884, and received the degree of LL. B. from Har- 
vard Law School in 1890, having also spent two years at 
Heidelberg University in Germany between the beginning and 
and close of his course in Cambridge. 

He was admitted to the bar in New Hampshire and Massa- 
chusetts in 1889, and to the bar of the United States Supreme 
Court in 1892. He practised law in Boston from 1889 to 1892, 
when he went to Lancaster, N. FL, becoming a member of the 
firm of Ladd & Fletcher. In 1900 he was appointed a justice 
of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Ill health compelled 
him to resign this position and he returned home in August, 
1903, to die December 12 following. 

He was elected a member of this Society June 13, 1894. 


William Cleaves Todd was born in Atkinson, N. II., Febru- 
ary 26, 1823, the son of Ebenezer and Betsey Kimball Todd. 
He was prepared for college at Atkinson Academy, and was 
graduated from Dartmouth in 1844. As was the custom at 
that time he taught school during the winters of his college 
life, thereby earning the cost of his education. 


After his graduation he became a teacher, and continued in 
his chosen profession till 1864. He was principal of Atkinson 
Academy for six years and the last ten years of his teaching 
was as principal of the Girls' High School of Newburyport, 
Mass. In this career he was eminently successful. While his 
compensation was small, never exceeding $1,000 a year, his 
expenses were small also. He was very fortunate in his invest- 
ments and became one of the most adroit and sagacious 
financiers in New Hampshire. As a result he accumulated a 
considerable fortune, which enabled him to make large and 
generous gifts. One of the most notable was $50,000 to the 
Boston Public Library for the establishment of a newspaper 
room, supplied with newspapers from all parts of the world. 
This has proved to be one of the most popular departments of 
the library. 

Mr. Todd twice visited Europe, one of his journeys extending 
over two years. He occasionally traveled on foot for the pur- 
pose of becoming better acquainted- with the people and the 
countries. He was generally able to acquire enough of the 
languages to make his way without trouble. He also visited 
Alaska and California. For several years he spent his winters 
in Washington. 

He was independent in politics though generally affiliated 
with the Republicans. He twice represented Atkinson in the 
Legislature, and in 1889 was a delegate to the constitutional 

Besides his gift to the Boston Public Library, and others not 
here mentioned, he gave a library to Atkinson Academy, and a 
soldiers' monument to the town. He gave $10,000 to the New- 
buryport Public Library and $50,000 towards the hospital in 
that city. He gave $5,000 for a new library building to the 
New Hampshire Historical Society and $1,500 for a fund for 
the purchase of books of history and genealogy. These were 
given in his lifetime. By his will he gave $10,000 to the 
New England Historical Genealogical Society of Boston and 
$15,000, — $10,000 of this sum conditioned on the raising of 
$10,000 additional for a new building, — to the New Hampshire 
Historical Society. 


He always bore in mind the strenuous life of the students at 
Dartmouth in his day, and lamented the lapse, as he regarded 
it, into more generous conditions. He recorded his views in 
his will as follows : 

" I give no more to colleges as I had intended. The whole 
trend encouraged by the authorities seems to be towards extrava- 
gance and ease, athletics and amusements, clubs and dinners, 
and away from the hard study and simplicity of my own 
college life." 

In 1901 he published a book entitled "Biographical and 
Other Articles," containing articles written by him and pub- 
lished in the Atlantic Monthly, the Green Bag, and the New 
England Historic al and Genealogical Register and other essays 
that had not been previously published. 

Mr. Todd was elected a member of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society June 13, 1883, and was its president from 1899 
to 1903. 


Addresses and papers: Baker, Henry 
M., "Gen. Nathaniel Folsom," 253; 
" New Hampshire in Hie Struggle 
for Independence," 333; Blake, 
Amos J., " Life and Character of 
Amos A. Parker," 324: Burnham, 
E. J., "John Dudley," 239; Cowley, 
Charles, "The Life and Public Ser- 
vice of Admiral George E. Bel- 
knap," 385; Hall, Daniel, "Civic 
Record of New Hampshire in the 
Civil War," 396; Home, John, 
"Book Binding," 322; Knowles, 
Rev. D. C, " The Life and Charac- 
ter of Bishop Osman C. Baker," 
216; Lord, John K., " Nathan Lord," 
66; Mills, Maj. W. M., "A Chapter 
in the Life of Fitz John Porter," 
358; Morris, George P., " Maj. Ben- 
jamin Whitcomb, Ranger and Par- 
tizau Leader in the Revolution," 
299; Murkland, Rev. Charles A., 
"Col. Alexander Scammell," 17; 
Parsons, Charles L. "The Capture 
of Fort William and Mary," 17; 
Rolfe, Col. Abial, " Concord in the 
Olden Time," 47; Niles, Bish. W. 
W., "The Life and Character of 
Bishop Carlton Chase," 48; Scales, 
John, " Master John Sullivan of 
Somersworth and Berwick, and his 
Family," 180; " Col. Stephen Evans 
a Distinguished Patriot of the Rev- 
olution." 251; Talbot, Thomas H., 
"A Part of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill— The Fight at the Rail Fence," 
65; Walker, Joseph B., " Concord's 
Solemn League and Covenant of 
1774," 267; Wiley, Rev. Frederick 
L., "Rev. Benjamin Randall, 
Founder of the Free Baptist De- 
nomination," 252; W o o d b u r y , 
Gordon, " The Scotch-Irish Pres- 
byterian Settlers of New Hamp- 
shire," 143. 

Assessments, 16, 113, 169, 214, 321, 383. 

Auditor, Report of, 3, 99, 133, 203, 284, 

Baker, Osman C, 216-231; birth and 
education, 216; health feeble, 217; 
conversion, 217; licensed to preach, 
218; enters college, 218; teacher 
seminar}', 219; elected president, 
219; enters the ministry, 220; 
professor Biblical Institute, 220; 
gives lectures, 221; elected pres- 
ident, 221; ordained bishop, 222; 
characteristics, 222; traveling, 223; 
last oliicial work, 223; death, 
224; marriage and children, 221; 
family life, 225; wise counsellor, 
225; sound judgment, 225; sensi- 
tive, 226; not a great orator, 226; 
prince of teachers, 227; pulpit min- 
istrations, 227; preaehing sound 
and orderly, 2 - z8; teaching his true 
sphere, 228; did much literary 
work, 229; published book of Disci- 
pline, 229; greatest work establish- 
ing Biblical Institute, 230; led to 
many similar institutions, 230. 

Belknap, Admiral George E., 385-391: 
birth and ancestry, 385; appointed 
midshipman, 385; various services, 
386; promoted to lieutenant com- 
mander, 386; in blockading squad- 
ron, 387; New Ironsides torpedoed, 
3*7; off Fort Fisher, 387; off Charles- 
ton, 388; at Havana, 388; in Asiatic 
squadron, 388; at Panama, 388; deep- 
sea soundings in the Pacific, 389; 
ditto, on coasts of Peru and Chili, 
390; made commodore, 90; and 
rear admiral, 390; retired for age 
limit, 391; member of different 
societies, 391; literary remains, 391; 
death, 891; reasons for boiler not 
exploding, 392; disappointment in 
New Ironsides, 392; Dupont unac- 
quainted with her peculiarities, 393; 
officers mortified, 393; Belknap's 
suggestion, 394; socially compan- 
ionable, 394. 

Bradley monument, concerning, 16, 

Chad wick property, purchase of, 3; 



appropriation for, 4; filling 1 cellar, 

Chase, Carlton, first bishop of New 
Hampshire, 48-64; birth and ances- 
try, 48; education and baptism, 48; 
teacher, 49; theological studies, 49; 
settled at Bellows Falls, 49; 
consecrated bishop, 49; feeble in 
health, 49; a man of quiet humor, 
50; meeting an infidel, 50; syrnpa- 

• the tie, &1; hunting- up members, 52; 
priest's missionary journey and 
report, 52; firm but conciliatory, 53; 
not always successful, 53; quiet 
and unostentatious in his work, 54; 
raising money for improvements 
not in vain, 55-50; steadfast, 56; 
guilt}' of no mistakes, 57; words 
weighty, 57; conference of bishops, 
58; called to the diocese of New 
York in its need, 58; did successful 
work, 59; meek and humble, 59; 
salary small, 59; lived on it and 
sent sons to college, 60; did much 
manual labor, 61 ; erected a church, 
61; injured by a fall, 62; large de- 
nominational increase under his 
care, 63; friendly advice, 63; of 
antique mould, 61. 

Check lists, act for preservation, 172. 

Church records, preservation of, 382. 

Cincinnati, Society of, records asked 
for, 113; referred to committee, 113; 
report of, 167. 

Collections, concerning publishing, 

Committee on disposal of books, re- 
port of, majority, 295, 359, and mi- 
nority, 296, 593; voted, 5, 359; of nom- 
ination, 359; on new members, 
vacancy Idled, 215; on speakers, 
report of, 323. 

Constitution, amendment proposed, 
16; adopted, 111; and by-laws au- 
thorized to be printed, 17. 

Contributions, committee to solicit, 
112, 239, 252; building fund, 164. 

Corning, Charles R., letter of resig- 
nation, 411. 

Corresponding members, election of, 
16, 167, 171, 212. 

Disposal of books discontinued, 414. 

Dudley, John, 239-251: birth and par- 
entage, 239; married, 239; moved to 
Raymond, 240; petitions Assembly, 
240; chosen delegate, 240; raises 
volunteers, 241; on committee to 

draftact for Committee of Safety, 
241; also to regulate militia, 242; to 
apportion representation, 242; to 
draft petition to Congress, 242; on 
committee on rules, 243; appointed 
justice, 243; on various committees, 
243; on committee to reconcile Cols. 
Hobart and Stark, 244; again on 
committees, 215; held various town 
offices, 246; served as muster-mas- 
ter, 247; humane to tory prisoners, 
248; first on committee on taxation, 
249; on investigation, 249; work on 
committees ends, 250; death, 251. 

Field day, 16, 113, 170, 215, 322, 383; 
committee, 383. 

Folsom, Gen. Nathaniel, 253-267: of 
good English stock, 253; marriage, 
254; early joined the militia, 254; 
scouting, 255; victorious in light, 
255; elected brigadier-general, 256; 
appointed major-general, 257; 
Stark refuses obedience, 257; yields, 
258; training band and alarm list, 
259; given chief command, 259; 
member of the provincial con- 
gress, 260; committee service large 
and varied, 260; member of state 
council, 261; delegate to first conti- 
nental congress, 261; on board of 
the treasury, 262; opposed articles 
of confederation, 263; on committee 
for increased efficiency of the 
army, 264; congressional career 
ended, 265; member of constitu- 
tional convention, 265; elected sec- 
ond justice of court of common 
pleas, 266; Congregationalist, 266; 
death, 267. 

Fort William and Mary, Capture of, 
18-47: attack and removal of pow- 
der, 18; causes interest and contro- 
versy, 18; refusal of necessary sup- 
plies, 18; Assembly dissolved, 18; 
tea brought to Portsmouth, 18; ex- 
ported, 18; ditto, a second time, 19; 
growing unrest, 19; reinforcements 
to come, 19; plan to capture pow- 
der, 19; 400 men attack, 20; fort 
captured, 20; 100 barrels of gun- 
powder taken away, 20; lighter 
cannon and small arms taken, 20; 
Governor Wentworth's letter to 
General Gage, 21; Captain Coch- 
ran's report, 22; order to enlist 
30 men to protect fort, 22; order 
fails, 23; second letter to Geueral 



Gage, 23; descriptive letter of 
surrender, 24; second letter, 24; 
letter to Earl of Dartmouth, 25; 
government no power to punish 
offenders, 27; another descriptive 
letter to Mr. Rivington, 27; king's 
order prohibiting exportation of 
arms cause of seizure, 29; ships 
with soldiers arrive, 30; Governor's, 
proclamation, 30; letter to Lord 
Dartmouth, 31; efforts to restore 
order futile, 31*, Belknap's account, 
32; disposal of the powder, 33; 
General Sullivan reimbursed, 34; 
his account of proceedings, 34; 
Thompson and Sullivan's contro- 
versy, 36; Thompson's defense and 
Sullivan's reply, 37; trouble set- 
tled, 38; letter of Sullivan, 39; 
military stores taken to Durham, 
40; afterwards distributed to sev- 
eral towns, 40; the participants, 41; 
little known of actual leaders, 41; 
the act open treason, 41; Bennet's 
account inaccurate, 42; powder at 
Bunker Hill, 43; the fact probable, 
48-44; the capture first overt act of 
the Revolution, 45; previous acts 
local, 45-40; Quint's opinion, 46; 
historic references, 46-47. 

Historic sites, committee to mark, 
231, 232. 

Honorary members, election of, 212, 
323, 394. 

Librarian, report of, 4, 99, 134, 203» 
286, 372; vacation voted, 214. 

Library accessions, 5, 10, 100, 105, 134, 
139,209,291,378; binding, 9, 100, 134, 
204, 286, 373; donors, 5, 100, 134, 204, 
209, 286, 291, 373, 378; enlargement, 
committee on, 167, 214, 2S2; report of, 
laid on table and printed, 215, 238. 

Lord, Nathan, 66-95: athletic and 
famous skater, 66; physical activ- 
ity retained to old age, 67; personal 
appearance, 67; ancestry, 68; edu- 
cation, 69; orthodox in theology, 
70; called to pastorate, Amherst, 
N. H., 70; plan of work, 71; mar- 
riage, 71; preaching causes seces- 
sion, 72; chosen president of Dart- 
mouth College, 72; college in ex- 
hausted condition, 73; youngest 
college president, 74; raising funds, 
74; two dormitories built, 74; scien- 
tific department, 75; growth made, 
75; a great college president, 76; 

belief practical, 77; supported by 
trustees, 77; essentials of a college, 
78; conscience supreme, 79; hence 
abolition of college prizes, 80; of 
deep convictions and religious, 80; 
initiates matters of policy, 81; rela- 
tions to faculty, 82; to students, 83; 
government must be supremo, 83; 
gentle with those in distress, 83; 
terror to evil doers, 84; resourceful 
and courageous in discipline, 84; 
play for stakes, 84; his humor, 85; 
in the class room, 85; always per- 
suasive, 86; remarkable in prayer. 
86; gifted as an orator, 87; thinking 
clear and logical, 88; his stamp on 
college was manhood, 89; confer- 
ence resolutions, 89; resigned, 90; 
action of trustees, 91; his beliefs, 
91; son's statement, 92; slavery the 
penalty of sin, 93; millenarian, 94; 
his death, 95. 

Meetings, adjourned, 17, 47, 48, 65, 170, 
214, 215, 231, 251, 252, 267, 322, 323, 332, 
358, 359, 383, 385, 395, 414, 415. 
Annual, 1, 97, 131, 179, 283, 369. 
Monthly, 214, 323. 

Members, election of, 47, 65, 95,99, 167, 
211, 215, 251, 267, 298, 323, 359, 382, 384, 
394; corresponding, 19, 167, 171,212; 
honorary, 212, 323, 394; number of, 
1899,1; 1900, 97; 1901, 131; 1902, 179; 
1903,283; 1904,369; died, 131, 179,283, 

Military chaplains, 169; surgeons, 
N. H. Association of, 169. 

Monument to mark first religious 
service, 95. 

Naval History of N. H., all serving 
invited to communicate, 12; ap- 
pointment of c mmittee, 11; death 
of member deplored', 13; legisla- 
tive enactment, 13; publication de- 
sirable, 11; report of committee, 11, 
99, 164; resolution, 13. 

Necrology: Balcom, George L., 122; 
Ballard, John, 360; Bell, Cora K., 
360; Bell, Mary E., 418; Bingham, 
Harry, 268; Brown, D. Arthur, 419; 
Busiel, Charles A., 274; Carter, Dr. 
William G , 419; Danforth, Charles 
C, 420; Downing, Lewis, Jr., 271; 
Fitts, Rev. James H., 173; Gilnian, 
Virgil C, 361; Hartshorn, Fred G., 
175; Haselton, John B.. 174; Hill. 
Isaac A., 363; Hill, Joseph C. A., 176; 
Holden, Farwell P., 280; Humphrey, 



Moses, 272; Ladd, Alexander H., 
124; Ladd, Fletcher, 421; Means, 
Charles T., 276; Morrison, Leonard 
A., 364; Noyes, John W., 281; Pear- 
son, John H., 126; Perry, John T., 
275; Pinkham, Joseph, 366; Run- 
nels, Rev. Moses T., 278; Sargeant, 
Cyrus, 366; Tappan, Mrs. Alruira R., 
114; Tappan, Rev. Charles L., 277; 
Todd, William C, 421; Tredick, 
• Titus Si, 119; Webster, Dr. Claudius 
13., 367; White, John A., 115. 

New Hampshire, Civic Record of in 
the Civil War, 396-114: what the 
state has done in peace, 396; not 
mistaken in issues, 396; her zeal 
commensurate, 397; home duties 
patriotic, 397; towns authorized to 
raise money to aid families, 397; 
made compulsory, 398; pledged 
resources for the integrity of the 
union, 398; aid to dead soldier's 
family, 399; state to pay when 
towns refuse, 399; soldiers' voting 
bill, 399; amounts paid by state, 
400; aggregate cost, 400; has shown 
gratitude, 400; battle Hags pre- 
served, 401; veterans' associat.on, 
401; poor soldiers supported at 
home, 402; muster rolls printed, 402; 
regimental histories, 403; soldier's 
home, 403; monuments erected, 401; 
ranks thinning, 405; N. H. faithful 
in great crises, 406; war not to be 
glorified, 406; N. H. weighty in 
national councils, 407; Webster, 
greatest son, 408; great at every 
stage, 408; four duties of a citizen, 
409; failures ensure new advances, 
409; able to cope with new prob- 
lems, 410; her history not com- 
pleted, 411; still fragmentary, 412; 
lines gone out into all the earth, 
413; grandeur of scenery, 413; pro- 
lific in noble men and women, 414. 

New Hampshire in the Struggle for 
Independence, 333-357: small, but 
great in achievement, 333; flrst 
settlements, 333; impeded by con- 
flicting titles, 333; independent, 334; 
punishable crimes, 331; form of 
government, 334; kind to Indians, 
335; capture of Louisburg, 335; re- 
stored to the French, 335; plan of 
union, 336; grand council, 336; 
taxed without representation, 337; 
Stamp Act, 337; tea landed and re- 

shipped, 338; capture of Fort Will- 
iam and Mary, 339; cannon and 
small arms, 340; first act of hostil- 
ity, 310; population, 340; war for 
independence, 341; battle of Bunker 
Hill, 311; not a victory, 312; Boston 
evacuated, 342; Stark resigns, 313; 
a crisis imminent, 343; Langdon's 
pledge, 344; Hutehin's message and 
result, 344; Stark's victory decisive, 
345; Burgoyne's surrender, 345; 
victory at Trenton, 346; at Valley 
Forge, 346; Six Nations conquered, 
347; N. H. troops in nearly every 
battle, 347; naval history brilliant, 
318; victory of Paul Jones, 319; in 
civil affairs equally brilliant, 319; 
conflicting titles render growth 
slow, 349; public worship and edu- 
cation, 350; delegates in conven- 
tion, 351; result in the interest of 
the people, 351; provincial con- 
gresses, 352; establish form of gov- 
ernment, 352; provide for Council, 
353; constitutions framed, 353; 
declaration of independence recom- 
mended, 353; constitution adopted, 
351; N. II. a sovereign state, 356; 
claims to high rank, 350; constitu- 
tion ratified, 357; proud record, 357. 

Nominating Committee, appointment 
of, 14, 97, 133, 179, 298, 369; report of, 
14, 109, 162, 212, 321, 380. 

Officers, election of, 11. 109, 162, 212, 
321, 380; list of for publication, 383. 

Ordway, John C, resolutions on 
death of, 414. 

Parker, Amos J., 324-332: birth and 
ancestry, 324; lather's marriage 
and settlement, 325; held town 
ollices, 325; commissions, 325; coun- 
cilor, 326; death, 327; son's educa- 
tion, 327; admitted to the bar, 328; 
on staff of governor, 328; publica- 
tions, 328; trustee, 329; representa- 
tive, 329; of fine physique, 329; 
writer and scholar, 330; anecdote, 
330; marriage, 331; death, 332. 

Proceedings to be continued, 170, 213, 

Publication Committee, Report of ,298. 

Sabine Library, relating to, 16, 64, 107, 
10&, 359. 

Scotch-Irish and Scotch Presbyterian 
Settlers of New Hampshire, 143-162: 
Scotch-Irish element, 143; suggests 
peculiarities, 143; Earls of Tyron 



and Tyrconnel, 144; guilty and lands 
confiscated, 144; new comers Prot- 
estants and Anglo-Saxon, 144; pop- 
ulation, 1580,145; hall settlers Scotch 
Presbyterians, 145; English Revolu- 
tion, 1649, 145; Revolution, 1646, 145; 
siege of Londonderry, 146; record of 
Ulster men, 146; their reward, 147; 
severe test act, 1704, 147; deter- 
mined to go to America, 148; their 
character, 148; petition to Gov- 
ernor Shute, 148 1 ; embarked for 
America, 148; motive for change, 
149; settled in various localities, 
149; some in Maine, 150; poverty 
great, 150; petition for relief, 150; 
part return and settle at Nutfield, 
151; land the gift of King William, 
152; organize religious society, 152; 
first frame house, 152; Indian 
routes, 152; famous fishing place, 
153; titles to laud difficult to obtain, 
153; Wheelwright's purchase, 153; 
petition for township, 154; name 
changed to Londonderry, 154; set- 
tlement grows, 154; potatoes lirst 
introduced, 155; foot spinning 
wheel, 155; manufacture linens, 
155; all clothing home-made, 156; 
market day provided, 156; parson 
Clark succeeds McGregor, 157; 
church records, 157; people Calvin- 
istic, 157; prevents alliliation with 
other sects, 158; resent being called 
" Irish," 158; baths rarely taken, 
159; love of home a national trait, 
159; rigid Presbyterians, 159: other 
settlements, 159; roll of descend- 
ants long and honorable, 160; at the 
front in the Revolution, 160; many 
serve through the war, 160; Thorn- 
ton, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, 161; influence of 
Horace Greeley, 161; lessons to be 
learned, 162. 

Secretary, Report of, 1, 97, 131, 179, 
283, 369. 

Special Committee, Report of, 164. 

Standing Committee, Report of, 3, 
108, 164, 291. 

Sullivan, Master John, 180-201: birth- 
place, 180; of children, 181; occu- 
pation, 181; farm, 181; moved to 
Berwick, 182; signs petition to be 
set off from Berwick, 182; account 
of children, 183-188; married, 189; 

teacher, Dover, 189; origin of name 
Somersworth, 190; raise money for 
schoolmaster, 191; domestic trouble, 
191; wife's advertisement, 192; sum- 
mary to prove place of birth,- 193; 
birthplace, 194; sailed for New 
England, 194; ancestry, 195; exiled 
to France, 196; returned to Ireland, 
196; mother aristocratic, 196; op- 
posed his marriage, 196; led to his 
emigration, 197; birth of wife, 197; 
courtship and marriage, 198; Gen. 
Sullivan's description, 199; death, 
199; obituary, 200. 

Tappan Library, resolution relating 
to, 381. 

Thanks voted, 17, 65, 143, 201,251-253, 
267, 298, 322, 332, 358, 385, 395, 414. 

Todd, William C, bequest of, ac- 
cepted, 395; letter of, 111; relative 
to portrait of, 382; resolution 
adopted, 112. 

Tombstone inscriptions, committee 
to secure, 382. 

Town records, representative to aid 
in securing, 382. 

Treasurer, Report of, 1, 97, 131, 179, 
283, 3(i«; authorized to make trans- 
fer of R. R. bonds, 169. 

Webster's letters, permission to pub- 
lish, McClure & Co., 169, 214, 215; 
Little, Brown & Co., 231, 232; por- 
trait, relative to copyrighting, 214. 

Whitcomb, Benjamin, Ranger, 299- 
320: ancestry, 299; birth, 301; entered 
thearmy,301; residence, 302; broth- 
ers in army, 302; in the Revolution, 
302; assigned to courier service, 
303; abstract from journal as scout, 
304; shot Gen. Gordon, 306; sets out 
again, 307; British account of shoot- 
ing, 308; commissioned captain, 309; 
the fear of tories, 310; rangers in 
Dearborn's battalion, 310; Bedel 
ordered to capture St. Johns, 311; 
result of political troubles, 312; on 
duty at Coos, 313; vote reeuforee- 
ments for him, 313; captured and 
escaped, 314; public services ended, 
315; secreted in log, 315; among 
scrub oaks, 315; strange Indian dis- 
appeared, 316; settles down to pri- 
vate life, 317; dealer in real estate, 
317; marriage and children, 318; 
death, 318; personal appearance, 
319; brave as the bravest, 320. 


Abbott, Edward A\, 134; Frances M., 

105, 134, 204, 210, 286, 292, 372; Isaac N., 

166; Mrs. J. S., 5. 
Adams, Charles F., 286; George S.. 

100, 204; John, 184, 186, 265, 354-355; 

John Q., 408; Rev. Mr., 38, 40, 42; 

Samuel, 265; Winborn, 42. 
Aiken, Rev. Edwin J., 5, 100, 134, 204, 

286, 373; Nancy, 282. 
Ainsworth, Rev. Laban, 210. 
Albertson, Ralph, 100. 
Aldrieh, Charles, 204, 286; Edgar, 303; 

George, 309 310. 
Alexander, Captain, 305; Randall, 150. 
Allen, Ethan, 312; Francis O., 134, 111, 

286; Frederick J., 5, 134; F. W., 204. 
Allison, Samuel, 150. 
Amen, Harlan P., 5, 134, 204, 286. 
Ames, Bishop, 222. 
Amory, Frederic, 134; Thomas C, 

Anagnos, M., 5, 286. 
Anderson, Allen, 150; Rev. Asher, 286, 

373; Isabel, 165; James, 150. 
Andre, Major, 140. 
Andrews, Gibson C, 286; J. M.. 100. 
Armstrong, George W., 5, 100. 
Arnold, Benedict, 301 305, 309. 
Ash, David, 317. 
Aten, Henry J., 286. 
Atherton, Samuel W., 100. 
Atkinson, Edward, 5, 100; George, 36; 

Theodore, 23, 31, 255. 
Atwood, F. E., 100. 
Ayer, Rev. Franklin D., 373; James, 

Avers, Rev. S. G., 286. 
Ayling, Augustus 1)., 5, 134. 
Bachelder, Nahum J., 5, 100, 134, 204, 

286, 373. 
Bacon, Horace S., 373; John L., 373; 

Lord, 141, 411. 
Badger, Colonel, 250. 
Bailey, Rev. P. T., 204; Jacob, 247, 

311; Joshua, 171; Sarah, 119; The- 
odore, 119; J. Warren, 373. 

Baird, David, 353. 

Baker, Abigail, 216; Fannie H., 280; 
Fannie M., 280; Henry M., 5, 100, 
105, 131, 161, 204, 215, 252 253, 286, 321, 
333, 373, 379-380, 895; Isaac, 216; 
Osman C, 216, 218-230. 

Balch, Thomas W., 5, 100, 131. 

Balcom, George L., 122-121; Jonas, 
122; Mary, 122. 

Ballard, John, 283, 360; Nathan, Jr., 
360; Lt. Nathan, 360. 

Bancroft, Charles P., 165, 286; Gen- 
eral, 312. 

Bangs, I. S., 286. 

Barclay, Captain, 30. 

Barker, Virginia, loo. 

Barnett, John, 150. 

Barnej , Ernest A., 167. 

Barnwull, James 11., 201, 2H6, 37.1. 

Barrett, Mia. ('. F., 105; Commodore, 
3.H*; Jay s., 20J; Norria >*>., 261, 

Barron. Timothy, 812. 

Barstow, /... in. 

flartiett, Colonel, 2li; J. C\, 5; Jo*li»h, 
261 265, 3-:'i; Rev. Kamuel C . *M, ;>< .- 

Bartley, Joseph D.,207, 37.*. 

Bascom, Robert ()., 373. 

Butchellor, Albert ri., 5, 100, ui. 166 

167, 169, 201. 268, 381. 

Bauin, General, 345. 
Baxter, Charles J., 204. 
Beauregard, General, 891. 

Beekwith, 5, 100. 131. 

Bedel, Timothy, 302-303, 310-313. 

Belknap, Ebenezer, 884; Ezokiel, 384; 

George E., 12, 381, 387, 889 392, 391; 

Jeremy, 32, 41, 381; Moses, 384; 

Sawyer, 384. 
Boll, Charles II., 43, 46, 107, 379, 418; 

Cora K., 283, 360; Miss II. E., Mi); 

John B., 411; John J., 360 361; John 

K., 361; Mrs. Mary E., 165, 369,418; 

Samuel, 325; Samuel K., 361. 
Bellas, H. II., 5, 100. 
Bellows, J. (J., 373. 
Benner, Allen R., 5. 



Bennett, A. H., 331. 

Benton, Joseph, 5, 100, 104, 204, 286, 373; 

Josiah H., Jr., 100, 134. 
Bergen, James J., 204. 
Berry, Mrs. Horace, 379; John M., 

Bettle, William, 186, 204, 373. 
Betton, James, 244. 
Betts, Fred A., 5. 
Beveredge, Albert J., 373. 
Biddle, Edward. 265. 
Bingham, George A., 268*; George W., 

5, 286; Harry, 5, 268-270; Thomas. 

Birtwell, Charles W., 5. 
Bisbee, Rev. Marvin B., 100. 
Bishop, Rev. Edwin W., 134. 
Bis in ark. Count, 297. 
Blackstone, H. M., 100. 
Blagden, Silliman, 286. 
Blake, Amos J., 323, 332; Charles F., 

125; Charlotte A., 166; John L., 5. 
Blanchard, F. S., 100; Miss Grace, 

5, 100, 210, 286, 292, 374; Mrs. G. A., 

Blinn, Henry C, 100. 
Blodgett, Mrs. Aimer, 134. 
Blomberg, Anton, 5, 100, 134, 204, 286. 
Blood, Aretas, 276; Everett, 100. 
Blumer, Dr. G. A., 286. 
Boscawen, Admiral, 335. 
Bostwick, Mrs. M. A., 167. 
Bourne, J., 204. 
Bouton, Christopher B., 164; Harriet 

S„ 282; Rev. Nathaniel, 282; N. 

Sherman, 165, 212, 286; Rev. Tilton 

C. H., 100,379. 
Bowditch, Doctor, 121. 
Bowers, Dwight E., 131. 
Boyd, Colonel, 35; Rev. William, 148- 

Boyuton, Henry, 286. 
Bracket!;, A. L., 5. 
Bradford, Ambry H., 204. 
Bradley, Arthur C, 164; Moses H., 5. 
Brainard, Jeremiah, 70, 72. 
Brennan, James P., 100. 
Brentnall, R. H., 286, 374. 
Brickett, Elizabeth A., 286, 371. 
Bridge, Horatio, 386. 
Bridges, B. F., 131.204. 
Briggs, Frank O., 204, 286, 374; L. Ver- 
non, 131, 141, 167, 201, 209. 
Brigham, Ueorge W., 204; H. H. C, 

100; Johnson, 204; W. I. Taylor, 5. 
Brock, Henry E., 134. 
Brooks, F. A., 204; General, 125. 

Brown, Dana J., 92; D. Arthur, 204, 
211, 286, 369, 419; David H., 100, 204; 
Elisha R., 164; Ernest, 5; Francis 
H., 5, 204, 286; George W., 204; Har-. 
vey, 386; Henry A., 419; Henry H., 
419; Dr. J. P., 100; J. W., 5; Peter, 
419; Susan H., 140; Warren, 134. 

Browne, Francis H., 134; J. T., 204; 
Margery, 191, 194, 197. 

Bruce, C. E., 134. 

Bryant, Henry W., 100,286; John D., 

Buchanan, Henry C, 204. 

Buckshorn, Rev. Louis II ., 2S6, 374, 378. 

Budd, Henry I., 204, 286. 

Bullard, Enoch, 165; E. P., 100, 106. 

Burge, C. F., 100. 

Burgoyne, General, 250, 264, 310-311, 

Burnham, E. J., 134, 239. 

Burns, Caroline, 367; Robert, 367. 

Burt, Joseph, 317. 

Burton, C. M., 5. 

Busiel, Charles A., 180, 274; John L., 
274; John \\\, 274; Julia T., 274. 

Butler, Benjamin F., 378. 

Butterlield, Major, 309; Mary A., 126; 
Samuel, 126; William, 126; Simeon, 
286. » 

Buxton, Rev. Dr., 10. 

Caldwell, William H., 5, 100, 201, 286, 

Calhoun, John C, 324, 408. 

Calvin, Samuel, 5, 100, 134, 204, 286, 373. 

Campbell, Alfred II., 5, 100; William 
H., 373. 

Canterbury, Archbishop, 58. 

Carleton, General, 307; William J., 5. 

Carnegie, Andrew, 234. 

Carpenter, Amos B., 292; Rev. C. C, 
5, 100, 131; Charles II., 215; David, 

Carr, Clarence E., 166; Ella, 359; 
Laura G., 100. 

Carroll, Lysander II., 100, 134, 286. 

Carruthers, Rev. J. B., 286. 

Carter, Miss A. F. ,100,264; Rev. Clark. 
134, 204; Dr. Ezra, 419; Mrs. F. H., 
286; Mrs. H. G.,286; Rev. N. F., 2, 4, 
5, 11, 15, 16, 48, 65, 100, 110, 112-113, 134, 
142, 163, 166, 16'J, 211-213, 232, 239, 252- 
253, 286-287, 293, 321-323, 332-333, 358, 
373,379-381, 384-385, 416; Mrs. N. F., 
5, 100, 108, 110, 204,373; Nathaniel H., 
232; Solon A., 5, 134, 201, 287, 373; Dr. 
William G., 369, 419-120. 

Cass, Arthur T., 167. 

43 2 


Caswell, Ezra, 318. 

Cate, E. E., 373; George W., 287. 

Chalmers, Rev. Thomas, 287. 

Chamberlain, D. H.,204; Henry, 212; 
Levi, 328; Robert N., 211. 

Chandler, George B., 373; Sarah, 276; 
William D., 100, 287,373; William E., 
5, 100, 134, 164. 

Chapman, Rev. Jacob, 174; Mary E.,. 

Charles, Captain, 195. 

Charlton, Athel A"!., 100. 

Chase, Addison, 50; Arthur H., 134, 
167; Burke, 50; Carlton, 48, 49-51, 53- 
64, 170; Charles, 48; Charles P., 5, 
140; Daniel, 170; Harry G., 171, 373; 
L. B., 204; Rev. Philander, 49; Sal- 
mon P., 182. 

Chatfleld, Colonel, 387. 

Cheney, Governor, 116. 

Chesley, Alpheus, 42; Jonathan, 42. 

Childs, Dr. William, 5. 

Choate, Joseph, 135. 

Chutter, Rev. F. G., 211. 

Cilley, Ann M., 140; Colonel, 311; 
John P., 5; Joseph, 168. 

Clark, Amos, 292; C. R., 292; Daniel, 
292; Rev. Frank G., 5, 204, 373; Mrs. 
Frank G., 374; Henry H., 374; Her- 
man A., 325; Mrs. J. G., 135; James, 
150; John, 201; Rev. Matthew, 157. 

Clarke, Adeline W., 273; Mrs. Arthur 
E., 5. 

Clay, Ithiel E., 287, 292, 374. 

Cleaves, George P., 5, 100, 133, 204. 

Clement, Nathaniel, 171. 

Clendennin, Archibald, 150. 

Cleveland, Grover, 270. 

Clifford, Laura, 105; M. E., 105; 
Thomas F., 135. 

Clinton, General, 347; Governor, 264- 
265; James, 312. 

Cobb, Dr. Farrar, 100; Rev. L. H., 5; 
Rev. W. H., 185, 204. 

Cochran, Capt. John, 19, 20, 22, 26, 32; 
Joseph A., 5, 135, 205, 287. 

Cogswell, Brainerd P., 12-14; Mrs. 
Brainerd P., 135. 

Coit, J. Milnor, 95, 287; Rev. Joseph 
H., 165. 

Coke, Edward, 144. 

Colby, Fred M., 100, 188; Henry B., 
100, 135, 205, 208, 287. 

Coleridge, Mr., 30. 

Colton, J. H., 117. 

Comstock, D. Y., 5, 100; John M., 5, 
100, 135, 205, 287. 

Conn, Dr. Granville P., 5, 100, 136, 205, 
287, 323, 374. 

Conway, General, 311. 

Cook, Corydon W.,287; Howard M., 
135, 171, 205, 210, 287, 322, 381. 

Cooper, 318; V. C, 5; William, 23. 

Coppey, R. J., 100. 

Corbin, Hannah M., 165. 

Cordes, Herman & Co., 287. 

Corning, Charles R., 15,16,110, 162-163, 
165, 212-213, 380-381, 415-416. 

Couch, Mrs. Benjamin H., 135. 

Cousins, Rev. E. M., 5, 135, 205, 287, 374. 

Cowan, Andrew, 374. 

Cowle}', Charles, 384. 

Cox, Charles E., 100. 

Cragg, T. W., 5, 100, 135. 

Crawford, John G., 40. 

Creighton, James B., 366; Z. Don, 366. 

Crisp, Fred A., 5, 374. 

Cross, George N., 5, 265; Mrs. Lucy 
R. H., 135. 

Cruft, George T.,135. 

Crunden, F. M., 5. 

Cudmore, P., 5, 135, 205. 

Cudworth, Mary, 299. 

Curran, Mrs. Mary H., 5, 100, 205, 287, 

Currier, A. N., 100; Miss Mary M.. 
374; Moody, 126. 

Cummings, I. W., 100; William H., 5. 

Gushing, E. L., 831; Mrs. E. E., 135; 
Parson, 189. 

Cushman, Captain, 312. 

Curtis, Rev. John S., 100, 205. 

Cutler, A. M., 100. 

Cutts, Samuel, 19, 21, 23, 25. 

Dabney, Lewis S., 100. 

Dahlgren, Admiral, 387-388. 

Dana, Daniel, 73; Richard H., 54; Syl- 
vester, 161, 170, 251. 

Danforth, Charles C, 369, 420; Reu- 
ben C, 378. 

Daniell, Warren F., 165. 

Daniels, Alfred H., 5. 

Dartmouth, Earl, 19, 25, 31. 

Davis, Aaron, 38, 42; Dora B., 167; 
Liu-y R., 6; Micah, 42; Mr., 126; 
William E., 6; William H., 140. 

Day, David T., 135; Koselle M., 166. 

Dearborn, Clarkson, 100, 105; Major, 

De Costa, W. T., 205. 

Deeth, Mary, 325. 

Demerritt, John, 40, 43, 181; .Major, 40. 

Dempster, Doctor, 221. 

Denio, Herbert W., 6. 

Dennet, John, 23. 



Depew, Chauncey, 205. 

Derbe, S. C, 135. 

Devcn.s, General, 125. 

Dewey, Rev. Harry P., 100. 

Dickinson, Thomas A., 6; T. D., 135. 

Dieskau, Baron, 254-255. 301. 

Dike, Rev. Samuel W., 6, 100, 135, 205, 

Dodge, Isaac B.,165; James H.,6,100, 

135, 205, 374. 
Donelly, Richard A., 205, 287, 371. 
Dorrance, Anne, 287. 
Dotterer, Henry S., 135. 
Dow, George F., 100, 205. 
Downing, Ellen, 170; Lewis, 176; 

Lewis, Jr., 100, 179, 205, 271; Lucy \V., 

170; Mary A., 166; Mary E., 205. 
Dowst, John, 15, 110, 103, 106, 213, 322, 

381-382, 410. 
Doyen, Mary E., 140. 
Drown, Daniel P., 40, 42. 
Drumm, Rev. T. J., 135. 
Drummond, Josiah II., 100, 205. 
Dryden, John, 101. 
Dudley, H. IL, 106; James, 239; John, 

239-251; Thomas, 239. 
Dunbar, J. H., 287. 
Dupont, Admiral, 337, 391-393. 
Duren, E. F., 205. 
Durgin, Lieutenant, 38, 42. 
Dye, Franklin, 205,287. 
Dyer, Samuel, 242. 
Eastman, Edson C, 14, 15, 110, 163, 213, 

321,323,332,380, 415; Edwin G., 211; 

John R., 323; Jonathan, 10; Lowell, 

110; Mary C, 211; Samuel C, 6, 15, 

105-106, 110, 113, 135, 163, 105, 167, 109, 

210, 213-214, 231-232, 238, 287, 292, 296- 

297,322-323, 359,374, 381-382, 395, 415; 

Webster, 140; William, 110. 
Eaton, Ellen L., 101, 105; John, 101, 

106; Luther P., 101. 
Eddy, Mary B., 164,294. 
Eldridge, Faith S., 101. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 141. 
Elliot, Rev. L. H., 6, 101, 135, 140, 205, 

Films, Rev. Louis, 171, 205, 374; Ro- 

Ellsworth, Oliver, 265. 
Elwyn, Rev. Alfred L., 143,106,298,381. 
Emerson, C. F., 6, 135, 205, 374; Emma 

F., 101; Sarah J., 367. 
Emery, Manning, 125; Samuel, 320. 
Ericson, John, 297. 
Ernst, F. W., 6. 
Frying, George, 31. 

Evans, Dr. B. D., 205, 287, 374; Carrie, 
287; G. H., 374; Ira C, 101; Pauline L., 
106; Stephen, 251. 

Everett, Erastus, 368. 

Eyler, Mrs. Myrtle B., 205, 287, 374. 

Fairbanks, John, 210. 

Farmer, John, 291; J. E., 287. 

Farnsworth, bred T., 6, 101. 

Farquar, David, 287. 

Farragut, Admiral, 119, 174. 

Farrar, Dr. Isaac, 101. 

Fassett, James, 211. 

Fernald, George A., 165; Josiah E.,166. 

Fernow, B. F., 205. 

Ferree, Barr, 205. 

Ferrin, Ebenezer, 166. 

Ferris, Morris P., 287. 

Field, Marshall, 135, 112. 

Fisk, Rev. Wilbur, 216-221, 223; Will- 
iam G.. 374. 

Fiske, Miss Abbie G.,374; William P., 
1, 3, 6, 15, 99, 101, 110-111, 113, 133, 163, 
165, 169-170, 201-203, 205, 210, 211-215, 
231, 252, 298, 321-322, 309, 371, 380, 382- 
383, 415. 

Fitts, Abigail L., 173; Rev. James H., 
131,173,293; Mrs. James II., 205, 287, 
292-293; J. Lane, 292; Mrs. Mary C., 

Flanders, F. L., 0. 

Fletcher, Alice, 140; George M., 394; 
Grace. 170; W. 1., 6, 135, 287. 

Florence, Charles, 195; Colonel, 195; 
Derby, 195; Owen, 195. 

Fogg, Mrs. J. L. B.;166. 

Folger, Allen, 135, 106, 287. 

Folsom, Capt. A. A., 101, 135,205,374; 
Chauning, 287; Colonel, 241; John, 
253-254; Jonathan, 254; Nathaniel, 20, 
26, 79, 253-266, 310. 

Footman, Mr., 38, 42. 

Force, Peter, 18. 

Foss, R. S., 105. 

Foster, A. H., 205; Rev. Addison P., 
101; John, 287. 

Fowler, Angelo IL, 292; Fred IL, 101; 
Trueworthy L., 106. 

Francis, A. F., 374. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 265, 336, 355, 378. 

French, Abram, 117; Collin M., 174; 
Dolly P., 171; Dr. Edward, 287; 
Eliza C, 117; Elizabeth A., 277; 
Enoch, 117; G. A., 277; Hannah L., 
117; John C, 117-118; Kathrine, 277; 
Louise, 277; Mary C, 174; Peter, 

Frisbie, P. Senter, 378. 



Frost, George, 264. 

Froude, Mr., 146. 

Fuller, G. S. T., 287; L. K. 135. 

Gage, Calvin, 175; Charles P., 361; 
Hannah P., 175; General, 21, 23, 27. 

Gallinger, Jacob H., 101, 135, 205, 211, 
287, 292, 374. 

Gaue, W. H., 6. 

Garrison, W. C, 374. 

Gates, General, 204, 304-306, 309-313. 

George, John«.B., 210; John H., 101, 
105, 135; King, 306; Miss S. A., 105. 

Gerould, Rev. S. L., 6, 105, 135, 140, 205, 
210. 212, 287, 374. 

Gerrish, Henry F., 379. 

Gerrj 7 , Elbridge, 265. 

Getty, General, 125. 

Gibbons v. Ogden, 408. 

Gibbs, William D., 205, 287, 374. 

Gilchrist, John J., 331; Robert C, 392. 

Gillillan, C. D., 287. 

Gihnan, Daniel, 239; Daniel C, 205: 
David, 302; Delia W., 361; Eliza- 
beth, 239; Emerson, 361; Goodwin, 
253; Harriet L., 363; John T., 239,325- 
326, 355, 418; Joseph, 254; Josiah, 
254; Mary, 253; Nathaniel, 275; Nich- 
olas, 44, 351, 356; yirgil C, 167, 238, 
283, 361-363. 

Ginn & Co., 287. 

Glassell, William T., 387. 

Glidden, John M., 287. 

Goddard, George S.,374. 

Godfrey, E. L. B., 205; Master, 392- 

Godon, Admiral, 388. 

Goldsmith, 50. 

Goodrich, G. II., 170. 

Goodridge, Rev. George E., 6. 

Goodell, D. 11., 167. 

Goodman, W. P., 175. 

Gookin, Daniel, 168; John W., 168. 

Gould, Nathan, 6, 101. 

Gordon, General, 306-309, 314-315; 
George A., 101; Lucy A., 6, 101,135, 

Gorges, 333-331; 319. 

Gould, Fred II., 140; Sylvester C.,135, 
205, 287. 

Govt*, Jesse A., 127; Mrs. Jesse A., 17, 
101; Jessie, 127. 

Grant, A. 11., 101, 135; Ulysses S., 

Graves, Admiral, 27; Dr. Eli E., 15, 
163, 169, 212, 321, 380. 

Gray, Clarissa E.,418; Harrison, 418. 
Greeley, Horace, 161, 270. 

Green, Ella B., 135. 205, 210; James 

M., 205,287; Dr. Samuel A., 6, 101, 

135, 205, 287, 374. 
Greenbanks, Laura, 280; Thomas, 280. 
Greene, J. A., 169; Nathaniel, 185,241. 
Greenlow, Lucy H., 6. 
Gregg, James, 150. 
Grey son, John, 287. 
Griflin, S. G., 166. 
Griffith, Mrs. Percival, 120. 
Grimes, James W., 368. 
Grout, Rev. Lewis, 101, 135. 
Hackett, Chauncey C, 6; Frank \V., 

166, 205, 287, 374, 384. 
Hadley, Amos. 14, 15, 110, 163, 179,212- 

213,295,298,321,380; George P., 139; 

Martin A., 292. 
Haftards, Pilot, 392-393. 
Haines, Crosby K.,378; Lavina A. D., 

Hale, John P., 384; Richard W., 210. 
Haley, Rev. John W., 101; Sara M., 

Hall, A. A., 6; Daniel, 395, 111; Ed- 
win W., 6, 287; Frank, 316; Mrs. Lu- 

cinda S., 379. 
Ham, Wallace IL, 135. 
Hamilton, M., 314. 
Hammond, Otis G., 169, 287, 381-382. 
Hancock, Mr., 263, 265; William S.,205. 
Hanson, Anna, 6. 
Harding, G. M., 101. 
Hardy, Theophilus, 187. 
Harper Brothers, 374. 
Harrington, Colonel, 330. 
Harris, William C, 171. 
Hart, James IL, 6. 
Hartshorn, Fred G., 131, 175; Myra S., 

175; Samuel G., 175. 
Harvey, Elizabeth P., 209; Hetta M., 

101; Matthew, 325; Peter, 169, 209; 

Mrs. Peter, 214. 
Haselton, Abigail G., 174; Gage, 175; 

Ira, 174; John IL, 171; Roger IL, 175. 
Haskell, F. W., 135. 
Hassam, John T., lot, 287. 
Hastings, Hugh, 6; T. Nelson, 211; 

V. C.,6, 101, 205; W. H. IL, 101. 
Haussen, M. H., 101. 
Haven, Mary T., 124; Nathaniel A., 121. 
llawkes, Dr. J. M., 101, 105. 
Hay, John, 165, 374. 
Hayden, It. E., 135. 
Hayes, Rutherford IL, 379. 
Haynes, John C, 374. 
Hayward, Fred D., 287; Rev. Silva- 

Ulis, 6, 287, 374. 



Hazard, John W., 101. 

Hazelton, John 13., 131. 

Hazeh, Rev. Henry A., 6; Mrs. Henry 
A., 205; General, 312-313. 

llazlett, Charles A., 381. 

Hemmenway, Herbert D., 374. 

Henry, Hugh, 101, 135,212; Patrick, 265. 

Herbert, Alma J., 6, 101, 105, 110, 210, 
284, 292, 374. 

Hermann, Oscar, 287. 

Hewitt, Frank S., 2C5. 

Hibbard, Harry, 210, 268; Moses, 316. 

Hicks, Harry W., 374. 

Higgins, Ellen M., 299. 

Hildreth, Dr. Henry A., 251. 

Hill, Beftsey C, 176; Charles S., 361; 
Ella H. J., 166; Frank A., 6; Rev. 
H. F., 6, 10, 101, 105, 163, 169. 2S7, 292, 
322-323, 381; Isaac, 325, 363-361; Isaac 
A., 99, 133, 163, 165, 213-215, 283, 363; 
John, 176; Joseph C. A., 6, 15, 97, 101, 
105, 110, 131, 135, 165,176; Mrs. Joseph 
C. A., 374, 379; Josiah F., 364; Law- 
rence R., 361; Mrs. Mabel W., 371; 
Miss M. Pearl, 374; Walter B., 361. 

Hillis, Rev. N. D.,287; William 8., 287. 

Hills, Elizabeth Q., 122; W. D., 6. 

Hilton, Martha, 292. 

ilimes, Rev. W. L., 135, 205, 207, 292. 

Hind, Jacob, 302. 

Hitchcock, Charles H., 101. 

Hobart, Samuel, 244. 

Hobbs, William J., 205, 374. 

Hoitt, Beulah A., 101, 135,205; Charles 
W., 363. 

Holden, Adam P., 212; Daniel. 280; 
Farwell P., 180, 280-281; Ida M., 105; 
Laurence G., 280; Roxanna H., 280; 
Royal D., 280. 

Holmes, Mr., 147; Rev. Theodore J., 

Holt, II. J., 6. 

Hopkins, Mark, 76; Stephen, 265. 

Home, John, 322; Priscilla, 572. 

Horton, Lieutenant, 318. 

Houghton, Jacob, 299. 

Houston, Dr. J. A., 101, 287; William 
C, 374. 

Howard, H. B., 6; Master, 387; Gen. 
O. O., 374. 

Howe, DeWitt C, 394; General, 343, 
346-317; Lord, 168; Lydia, 318; Miss 
S. A., 205, 287, 374; Sam'uel W., 292. 

Hoyt, Dr. J. Elizabeth, 6; Louis G., 

Hubbard, Rev. Dr. Isaac. 53; Martha 
W., 101; Dr. Oliver P., 6. 

Hugo, Victor, 406. 

Huidekoper, H. S., 101. 

Humphrey, Lydia, 272; Moses, 6, 179, 

272; Moses L., 272; Sarah L., 272. 
Humphreys, H. II., 205. 
Huntington, W. R., 6. 
Huntress, Harriet L., 101. 
Hurd, Charles O., 101; Mrs. Eva G., 

101, 381; Samuel. 301. 
Hurlburt, General, 390. 
Hurlin, Rev. William, 6, 101. 
Ilutchins, Gordon, 344. 
Ide, Lemuel N., 135, 374. 
Ingersoll, Mrs. Robert C, 291. 
Inman, J. M., 205. 

Ives, Rev. Joel S., 205, 287, 374; T. S.,6. 
Jack, D. R.,374. 
Jackson, Andrew, 297,364; Helen B., 

101; Thomas M., 232, 292. 
Jacques, William II., 394. 
James, King, 114, 146. 
Jameson, Rev. E. ()., 6, 205. 
Jardine, Carrie S. R., 210. 
Jay. John, 265. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 186, 355, 408. 
Jenks, Rev. Mr., 69. 
Jesse. R. II., 205. 
Jewell, M. Blanche, 6, 101, 135, 287, 374; 

Susan B., 165. 
Jewett, Sarah O., 287. 
Johnson, F. C.,205; General, 255; Mrs. 

Henry, 135, 374; J. E., 135,287; John 

P., 205; John J., 209; Samuel, 50, 190. 
Jones, Elizabeth \Y\, 125; John F., 

101, 135,252,287, 298, 374; John Paul, 

348-319; Mr., 52; William, 125. 
Jordan, Chester B., 391. 
Joslyn, N., 299. 
Kasson, J. F., 6. 
Keeler, I. Eugene, 371. 
Kelley, F. P., 135; Mrs. George F. v 292. 
Kelvin, Lord, 389. 
Kendall, Sarah A., 205, 291; Sarah W., 

Kennedy, John, 6. 
Kent, Eliza J. II., 360; George E., 361; 

Henry O., 101; Hervey,360; John F. 

99, 205, 323, 332, 358; Katherine A.' 

101; Prentise, 165. 
Killeen, James M., 394, 416; Jessie G., 

Kimball, Achsah, 379; Annah J., 135, 

287; Benjamin A., 6, 135, 164, 167, 238, 

267; Edward P., 166, 211; George M., 

164; Henry A., 6, 105, 135, 140, 210; 

John, 6, 47, 135, 164, 213, 287, 415-416; 

Sarah U., 171; Willis G. C, 212. 

43 6 


King, Horatio C., 6; Rev. T. S., 176. 
Kingsley, Shuman C, 287. 
Knowdes, Rev. D. C, 216. 
Knowlton, E. C, 127; George W., 6. 
Knox, Charles S., 166; George, 156. 
Kossuth, Louis, 408. 
Kummel, Henry R., 287; Henry S., 

Ladd, Alexander, 124; Alexander H., 

'124-126; Ann P., 125; Anna, 251; 

Eliphalet, 125; Elizabeth H., 125; 

Ezekiel, 312; Daniel, 124; Fletcher, 

369, 421; Maria F., 205; Maria II., 

125; Mary T. H., 125; William J., 

125; William S., 421. 
Lafayette, George W., 328; Marquis 

De, 311-313, 328. 
Lake, Rev. George F., 374. 
Lamb, Fred W., 101, 106, 185, 110,287, 

Lamberton, James, 6, 287. 
Lamprey, Maitland, 374. 
Landers, Albert C, 6. 
Lane, Amanda, 105; Dr. E. B., 101, 287; 

Thomas W., 6, 135, 205. 
Langdon, John, 37, 41-42, 44, 185, 325- 

326, 343, 356; Woodbury, 264. 
Langmaid, Nancy J., 140. 
Lasher, George F., 287, 374. 
Lawrence & Stone, 119. 
Leahy, William A., 2s7. 
Leland, Elizabeth K., 71-72. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 273, 297, 390; Dear- 
born & Co., 419; General, 250. 
Linehan, John C, 6, 101, 205, 287, 374. 
Lippincott & Co., 183. 
Little, brown & Co., 214-215, 231-232, 

287, 374; Cyrus H., 371; Gardner, 

105; George P., 166; George T., 6, 

101, 287, 374; Priscilla, 6. 
Livermore, Judge, 183; Samuel, 264. 
Livingston, Philip, 265; Robert B., 

355; William W., 292. 
Locke, Arthur II., 47, 167. 
Long, Colonel, 37, 41; Mary O., 166; 

Pierce, 42, 241. 
Lord, Catharine W., 135; Charles C, 
170-171, 205, 210, 374, 378; John, 68; 

John K., 65; Myra B., 101; Nathan, 

65 68, 70, 72-87, 89-91, 94; Samuel, 181; 

Dr. William H., 92. 
Louis XIV, 145. 
Lovejoy, George E., 101; Mary W., 

135, 205, 210. 
Lovell, Aldis, 331. 
Loyne, Rev. W. A., 101. 
Luce, Thomas D., 170. 

, 146, 408. 


J (dm, 15 

in, 195. 















Ludlow, Henry H., 374. 
Lyford, James O., 101, 167. 
Lyman, John D., 13. 
Lyon, Clara P., 287. 
Lytle, John J., 101,205, 
Macauley, Thomas B., 
Macdonough, Mr., 32. 
Mackenzie, Alexander S.. 
Maguire, Irving G., 287. 
Mahoney, Honora, 195. 
Malone, Thomas II., 205. 
Mann, F. W., 101. 
Marsh, Rev. F. J., 135, 205. 
Martin, Noah, 121. 
Mason, Miss Helen, 378; 

334; Tufton, 349-350. 
Matthews, Captain, 115. 
McCarthy, Dermod, i95; J 
McCauley, L. S., 135. 
McClintock, John N., 101 
McClure, Phillips & Co, 

McCollester, Rev. S. It., 101. 
McDowell, Anne, 287. 
McDufT, Isabella S., 205. 
McFarland, Annie A., 
Rev. Dr. Asa, 282; 
Henry, 6, 11, 17, 47, 
161, 213. 359, 414, 416. 
McGanri, Edward W., 
MeGlenen, E. W., 271. 
McGregor, Rev. J.. 

Robert, 160. 
McGuire, Irvine E., 205. 
McKean, J. H. G.,374. 
McKeen, James, 150. 
McLaren, Mrs., 108. 
McLean, Boyd, 205. 
McLeer, George, 374. 
McMaster, John B., 287. 
McMillan, Conway, 101, 135, 205. 
McMurphy, John, 152, 155; Dr. N. 

McQuesten, Evarts, 6; James, 

Mary E., 367. 
McSweeney, Edmund, 195; Mary, 

Owen, 195. 
Mead, Edwin D., 101. 
Means, Charles G., 180; Charles T., 

166, 276-277; Emily R., 287. 
Meigs, M. C, 386. 
Merriam, Rev. Matthew, 200. 
Merrill, Anna, 6; Charles A., 101; 
Fred W., 101; John, 232; Rev. John, 
217; Louis G., 167. 
Merry, Ralph, 318; Ruth, 318. 
Meseroll, William H., 135; W. F., 205. 

205, 287, 


149-153, 156-158; 






Meserve, George, 337. 

Metcalf, Henry H., 371. 

Mifflin, Thomas, 265. 

Miller, Dr. H. M., 287; James, 161. 

Mills, William C, 287; Maj. W. M., 353. 

Minot, Abbie P., 165 ; James, 105; Mrs. 

James, 101, 374. 
Mitchell, Henry, 287; John, 150; John 

M., 166, 268; William H., 268. 
Moffat, John, 125. 
Montcalm, General, 30J. 
Montgomery, John, 156. 
Moody. Rev. Dr., 191. 
Mooney, Hercules, 190. 
Moor, Mary E., 210. 
Moore, John, 299; Samuel S., 205; 

William E., 101; Rev. William H., 

6. 101, 205. 
Morrill. David L., 325, 328; Mrs. S. C, 

Morris, Anna, 318; George F., 298; 

Governor, 265; Samuel, 318. 
Morrison, Eleanor R. K., 364; Jere- 
miah, 361; John, 150; Leonard A., 

283, 364-365; Rev. N. J., 6, 135, 374; 

Samuel, 365. 
Morse, Fred W., 287, 374. t 

Morton, Mrs. Jennie C, 374. 
Moseley, Edward A., 101. 
Moulton, Captain, 249-250; Edward A., 

205; John C, 105. 
Mowatt, Captain, 30. 
Moylan, Stephen, 244. 
Murkland, Rev. Charles S., 6, 14, 17, 

101, 135, 205,210, 287. 
Murray, O. D., 361; Thomas H., 205. 
Musgrove, E. A., 101; R. W., 135, 287, 

Myers, Anna E. H., 135. 
Kelson. Captain, 312; William, 287. 
Nesmith, James, 15. 
Neweomb, Sarah L., 363. 
Newland*s, Francis G., 374. 
Nichols, Moses, 313. 
Niles, Nathaniel, 101; Rev. W. W., 48, 

Noble, John, 205. 
Norton, Deacon, 38, 42. 
Noyes, Daniel, 281; Elizabeth McF., 

282; Harriet E., 232,374; Isabella A., 

282; James, 101; John W., 180, 281- 

282; Mary B., 211,282; Nancy S. A., 

282; Nancy W., 281. 
Nudd, Warren D., 135. 
Nutter, John P., 135, 287. 
Odlin, Grace, 224; Herbert W., 65, 101; 

James E., 6; John, 247. 

Ogden, I. N., 205; Jeremiah L., 205. f 
Oilson, Smith & Co., 123. 
Olin, William M., 6, 101, 287, 374. 
Oliphant, Alexander C, 205. 
Ordway, John C, 6, 14.-17, 47, 65, 95, 

110-113, 135, 162, 171, 212-215,231, 238- 

239, 251-252, 267, 287, 321-323, 332, 358- 

359; 380-385; 391-395; 414-416; John D., 

209; Nehemiah G., 169, 295, 379; 

Sarah D., 211. 
Orke/Owen, 242. 
Osgood, Charles W., 135. 
O'Sullivan, Cornelius, 195; Daniel, 

195; Dermod,195; Ellena, 195; Owen, 

195; Philip, 188, 195-19G. 
Otis, Mr., 383. 
Owen, Thomas M., 374. 
Page, Charles T., 6, 135, 210; Mary A., 6. 
Paine, Robert T., 265. 
Palmer, Mrs. C. F., 6. 
Parker, Amos, 324; Amos A., 323-329, 

331-332; Andrew, 331; Charles R., 

171 ; Francis J., 210; George W., 331; 

Isaac, 135; Isaac A., 6, 371; John, 

219; John M., 321, 332; John McC., 

331; Jonas, 324; Joseph, 316; Nahum, 

324, 326. 
Parry, Ann, 125; Edward, 338. 
Parsons, Charles L., 17; Mrs. J. W., 

101; Mary A., 6. 
Parvin, Newton It., G, 101, 205, 288, 374; 

Theodore S., 135. 
Patten, Pro., 218. 
Patterson, James W., 404; Joab N., 

101; Samuel P., 101, 135, 205, 288, 374. 
Peabody, Colonel, 249; George, 119; 

Nathaniel, 264. 
Pearson, Abigail A., 126; Charles C, 

128; Edward N., 6, 101, 135,205,288, 

374; Florence C, 288; George H., 

288; John H., 126-129; Thomas, 126. 
Peaslee, Dr. Edmund It., 368; John B., 

135, 205, 288. 
Peck, Thomas B., 205. 
Pecker, Harriet E., 420; J. Eastman, 

15-17, 113, 213, 215, 381, 383; Robert E., 

Pendergast, Dennis, 242. 
Perkins, Miss A.J. G., 135, 374; David, 

126; George H., 391; James W., 135; 

Mehitable, 68; Susan G., 165, 211. 
Perley, Mehitabel, 224. 
Perry, Abigail G., 275; Anthony, 275; 

Doctor, 121; John T., 6, 166, 180, 275; 

William, 275. 
Peters, William R., 101. 
Phaneuf, J., 288. 



Philbrick, Annie M., 118; L. B., 118. 
Pickering, Captain, 348; Thomas, 41- 

Pidgeon, Charles F., 288, 371. 
Pierce, Franklin, 10. 
Pike, E. Bertram, 167,231; Rev. James, 

Pillsbury, Albert E., 288, 374; Frank J., 

105, 13G, 140, 205, 210, 288, 292. 
Pinckney, Charles, 265. 
Pinkertoh, James, 156; John, 156. 
Pinkham, Betsey S., 366; John, 366; 

Joseph, 283, 366. 
Pitcher, Rev. E. F., 224; Mrs. E. F., 

Pitman, Fred H., 291. 
Plumer, William, 140, 320. 
Plummer, Governor, 297. 
Polk, James K., 385. 
Pond, Sarah, 210. 
Poole, Mrs. A. A. Paul, 280. 
Poor, Enoch, 256, 316-317. 
Porter, Admiral, 387; Asa, 219; Fitz 

John, 6, 358; Henry K., 323; How- 
ard L., 16. 
Potter, E.T., 136. 
Powderly, T. V., 205. 
Pratt, Mrs., 10; K. H., 205. 
Preutiss, Charles E., 6. 
Preseott, Mrs. B. F., 6; Colonel, 312; 

Mrs. E. H., 136; I. W., 205. 
Preston, Frank W., 6, 206. 
Priest, Damaris, 300. 4 

Printer, Mr., 29. 
Pritchett, Henry S., 6. 
Proctor, Frank, 211, 387. 
Putnam, Colonel, 387; General, 312. 
Quarles, It. T., 374. 
Quartick, Bernard, 101. 
Quimby, Charles E., 136; Fred E.,206. 
Quint, Rev. A. II., 46-47. 192-193. 412. 
Ramsdell, George A., 136, 111, 167; 

Mrs. George A., 136. 
Rand, Thomas C, 374. 
Randall, Rev. Benjamin, 252. 
Randlett, James E., 171, 369. 
Rankin, Rev. Jeremiah E., 286. 
Randolph, Peyton, 265. 
Raymond & Whitcomb, 6. 
Read, George, 265; Paymaster, 391. 
Reade, Michael, 193. 
Reagh, McCarthy, 195. 
Reed, Col. George, 160, 310,311; Rev. 

George H., 136, 206, 212-213, 288, 321, 

380; James, 256, 302, 311. 
' Remick, James W., 211. 
Renonf, E. A., 167. 

Revell, F. H., 136. 

Revere, Paul, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 170, 339, 

Rice, Almira R., 278; Almira S., 114, 

278; Emanuel, 114,278; Franklin P., 

102, 136, 288. 
Richards, William F., 166, 211. 
Richardson, Luther, 312; M. 1)., 102. 
Ricker, Mr., 200. 
Rix, Guy S., 6, 136, 206, 288. 
Roberts, Cora A., 136; Rev. Daniel C, 

109, 162, 169, 212, 214, 252, 267, 288, 291, 

321, 358-359, 380, 415. 
Robinson, Rev. C. F.,202; Miss Helen 

G.,378; Henry, 166; John, 411; Sara 

T. D., 288. 
Rogers, C. R. P., 393; Elizabeth, 250; 

Mrs. Fairman, 371; Horatio, 6; 

James S., 136; N. P., 367; Robert, 

Rolfe, Abial W.,47, 206. 
Roller, Robert 1)., 102. 
Rollins, Frank W., 161, 288, 37;); Mar- 
tha, 1 10; Mrs. Nellie A., 375. 
Root, A/ariah 8., 375; L. Carroll, 6. 
Ropes, Rev. William L., 6. 
Rosengarten, Joseph (»., 288, 375. 

Ross, Re\ . J. A., 206. 

Ro\v;in, Commodore, 887. 

Rowe, James C, 37s. 

Rowell, (lark 1'., 105; R . 102 

Rowland, ['arson, 210. 

Roy, (i 'go U.,212. 

aunuls, Samuel, 813 :n I 

llundlott, l.outs J., \M. 

Runnels, Caroline S..27H; M -.-..> 
ReV. Moses T., im>. j;« i;\>, 

Russell, Alfred, 303. 

Rutledgo, Edward, 205. 

Sabiu, Rev. John, 321. 

Sabine, Lorenzo, 359; Mrs. [.ortinxo, 
16, 64-65, 108 110. 

Salter, Mary F., 119; Titus, 119; Will- 
iam, 206. 

Sampson, Wendell, 292. 

Sanborn, Edwin 1)., Ill; Frank P., 16, 
102, 112. 

Sanders, Daniel C, 31; Miranda \V„ 

Sanderson, Sarah A., 364. 

Sanford & Rossiter, 123. 

Sanger, Austin L.,102, 105; AustinT.,6. 

Sargent, Cyrus, 283, 366; Cyrus, Jr., 
367; John, 367; Louise, 367; Moses, 
367; O. C, 206,288; Ruflis, 367, 375. 

Sawyer, Charles IL, 384; Ezra, 300. 

Sayles, Merriam & Brewer, 363. 



Scales, John, 47, 180, 251. 

Scammeli, Alexander, 17, 42-43; Colo- 
nel, 311. 

Schell, F. Robert, 136. 

Schley, Admiral, 389. 

Schuyler, Gen. Philip, 249, 265, 310, 

Scott, Bishop, 222; John F., 375; N. D., 
375; Walter, 50. 

Scribner, Charles, 117. 

Seng-ham, Jonathan, J91. 

Sedgley, Isabelle, 165; Nellie, 165. 

Seliridge, Commander, 388. 

Sellers, Edwin J., 375. 

Sessions, William R., 102. 

Seward, George F., 136, 288; William 
H., 297. 

Seymour, General, 387; Horatio, 270. 

Shatter, Rev. E. F., 6. 

Shatluck, Doctor, 64. 

Shaw, Colonel, 387; Leslie M., 288. 

Sheldon, George, 7, 102, 136. 

Shepard, Frank E., 7; Ida F., 288. 

Sherburne, Samuel, 241. 

Sherman, Roger, 265, 355. 

Sherwood, George H. T., 7. 

Shoemaker, Julian, 375. 

Shurtleff, Roswell, 140. 

Shute, Governor, 148-150, 153. 

Silsby, George II., 102, 105, 136, 111. 

Simpson, Bishop, 222. 

Skene, Colonel, 308. 

Skilton, James A., 288. 

Shifter, Rev. E. F., 375. 

Sleeper, J. T., 200., John J., 288, 375. 

Snow, Rev. Elihu, 7- 

Snow & Farnham, 7. 

Small, Benjamin, 42; Isaac, 42. 

Smart, Airs. Calvin H., 292. 

Smiley, Albert K.,7, 102, 206, 288, 375. 

Smith, Albert B., 7; Anson B., 331; 
Mrs. A. L.,7; C. E., 105; F. II., 288; 
Frank B.,288, 375; Grace. 102; Grace 
P., 7; Isaac W., 118; Jeremiah, 165, 
210, 375; John B., 165; Jonathan, 99, 
136; Joseph H., 121; Julia E., 331; 
Miranda S., 331; W. M., 102. 

Smock, John C, 206, 288. 

Smyth, David M.,206; Mrs. Frederick, 
165; G. Hutchinson, 288. 

Spalding, Abbie J., 136; Dora N., 102, 
105; Edward, 362-303. 

Sparks, S. C, 102. 

Spencer, John, 42. 

Sponord, Charles B., 136. 

Stackpole, Charles H., 122; Charlotte 
E., 122; Dr. Harry II., 122; Paul A., 
120-122; Philip, 190; Rosanna, 120; 
Samuel, 120. 

Stainsbury. William, 206. 

Stainsby, William, 288. 

Stanwood, Arthur G., 102. 

Staples, Rev. C. J., 136. 

Stark, Archibald, 160; John, 100,244- 
245, 249-250, 256-258, 308, 311-312, 341- 

Stearns, Charles A., 375; Ezra S., 206, 
382; Henry B., 206; Henry P., 375. 
. Stedman, Doctor, 121. 

Steele, Judge, 194; Mrs., 194; Thomas, 

Sterrett, James, 150. 

Stevens, Dr. Abel, 230; Ellen T., 167; 
Frances C, 15, 110, 163, 213, 321,380; 
Henry W., 166-167, 211, 231; Lyman 
D., 1, 7, 65, 97, 109-110, 133, 169, 179, 
214-216, 231, 322, 369, 381-382; Simeon, 

Steward, J. F., 206. 

Stiekney, Joseph, 164. 

S til lings, Mr., 200. 

Stillson, 11. L., 7. 

Stitt, 7, 288, 375. 

Stockwell, George A., 136; J. W., 102, 
288; Richard W., 206. 

Stone, Anna, 324; Ephraim,3l3; George 
F., 288; MasonS., 7; Richard, 209. 

Stoodley, James, 23. 

Stbrrs; Charles, 7. 

Stoutenburg, Henry A., 288. 

Strachan, Bishop, 52. 

Stratton, George L., 166. 

Straw, Jonathan, 170. 

Street, Mary A., 136. 

Streeter, Mrs. Adam, 318; Frank S., 
165, 211; Mrs. Lilian C, 875. 

Strong, Emily W., 288; General, 387. 

Stuart, Adam, 213; John, 150. 

Sullivan, Benjamin, 183; Daniel, 183; 
Ebenezer, 168; Edward, 12; Gen- 
eral, 336; George, 186; James, 1*0, 
199; John, 20, 24-26, 28-29, 33-34, 
36-44, 168, 180-191, 261-262, 326, 310, 312, 
345, 359, 401; Margery, 182, 188, 192, 
198; Mary, 187. 

Sulloway, Alvah W., 165. 

Sutherland, Rev. David, 105. 

Swan, Robert T., 102, 136, 206, 375; 
W. W , 102. 

Swain, George B., 206; Jonathan, 240. 

Swazey, Benjamin F., 288. 



Swett, Charles E.,7, 102, 136, 206,288,375. 

Talbot, Thomas H., 65. 

Tandy, Asbury F., MO. 

Tappan, Almira R., 114; Rev. Charles 
L., 15, 110, 112, 114, 133, 163-164, 168- 
161), 180, 210, 277-278, 372, 381; Dolby 
H., 277; Eva M., 288, 292, 372, 381-382; 
Jonathan, 277. 

Tarleton, Captain, 312; Charles W.,* 

Tasker, Minnie L. H., 176. 

Tate, Joseph, 191. 

Taylor, Captain, 312; Samuel, 57; Dr. 
S. M., 102. 

Tebbets, Thomas, 189, 193. 

Tenney, Rev. E. P., 102, 210; Martha 
A., 105; U. D.,10. 

Terry, James, 102. 

Thayer, Miss Kate M., 136, 206, 288, 
375; William F., 165, 375. 

Thiers, M., 409. 

Thomas, Dr. C. M., 102; Isaiah, 378. 

Thompson, Rev. A. II., 288; Ebenezer, 
36-37, 39, 41-42, 46, 241, 245; George, 
367; Lucien, 18, 39-40, 136, 206; Mary 
P., 40,46,-17; \V. D., 167. 

Thorne, John C, 7, 14-17, 48, 64, 95, 97, 
99, 104, 108-109, 112-113, 133, 136, 163- 
164, 179, 203, 213-215, 231-232, 238, 252, 
285, 288, 294, 298, 359, 369, 372, 380, 382, 
385, 414-417; Mary G., 211. 

Thornton, Colonel, 211; George E., 7, 
47; Matthew, 151, 161, 404. 

Thurston, Rev. C. A. G., 106. 

Tibbets, Charles W., 375. 

Tileston, Harvey, 102, 206, 210, 288. 

Tillinghast, C. B., 206. 

Tingiey, Rev. J. W., 171. 

Tittnian, O. II., 288. 

Tobey, Rev. Alvan, 42. 

Todd, Betsey K., 421; Carrie R., 298; 
Ebenezer, 421; Mrs. George E.,7, 
102, 136, 206; William C, 14, 16, 105, 
109-112, 131-133, 162-164, 167, 171, 179, 
201-203, 212-214, 238, 252, 270, 283-285, 
369-371, 384, 395, 421-423. 

Tolles, Jason E., 102. 

Tomlinson, Irving (J., 102; John, 255. 

Town, Francis, 302. 

Trask, Julian F., 7; W. B., 7. 

Treat, John H.,206. 

Trediek, Jonathan M., 119; Titus S., 

Tripper, Sarah P., 280. 

True, Henry, 136. 

Truesdell, C. T., 7. 

Tuck, Edward, 164, 288. 

Tucker, James E., 379; William J., 

Tufts, James A., 375. 

Turner, Commodore, 387, 392-393. 

Turnley, P. T., 7. 

Tuttle, Lucius, 136. 

Tyler, Rennet, 72-73; Lyon G., 206. 

Tyrconnel, Earl, 144. 

Tyrone, Earl, 144. 

Underwood , James, 43. 

Usher, Thomas B., 206. 

Van Tyne, C. II., 169, 214-215, 293. 

Vaudreil, Marquis, 152. 

Vaughan, 335. 

Virgil, Charles P., 136. 

Vose, Frederick, 330. 

Wadleigh, John, 210; Sarah, 136, 110. 

Wadlin, Horace, 206, 288. 

Wait, Albert S., 11-12, 14, 16-17, 99, 109, 
111, 113, 162-164, 212-214, 283, 321-322, 
369, 380-381; Brother, 331; Horatio 
L., 303. 

Waldron, Rev. D. W., 7, 1(2, 206, 288, 
375; Richard, 384. 

Walker, Adair, 375; Arthur W., 102; 
Dr. C. 11., 169; Isaac, 7, 206, 288; J. 
Albert, 165; Joseph P., 7, 16-17, 17, 
64, 95, 102, 110-111, 112, 16G-167, 169, 
171, 180, 210, 213-214, 231-232, 238, 253, 
267, 288, .296-298, 322-323, 332, 358-359, 
375, 381-383, 395, 414; Joseph T., 167; 
Reuben E.,212; Rev. Timothy, 136, 

Wallace, Albert, 165; John, 155; Sum- 
ner, 165. 

Wallingford, Thomas, 190, 192. 

AValton, J. P., 7. 

Ward, J. Langdon, 125; John W., 288. 

Warner, George E., 77. 

Washington, George, 185, 244-245, 261- 
265, 304, 313, 346-317, 378, 408; Martha, 

Waterman, Rev. Lucius, 7, 166. 

Waters, T. Frank, 288; Rebecca, 299. 

Watkins. D. O., 375. 

Watson, Anna R., 125; Dr. Irving A., 
7, 102, 136,288,375. 

Way land, 76. 

Webster, Dr. C. B., 206, 283, 367-368; 
Mrs. Calvin C, 378; Colonel, 250; 
Daniel, 10, 106, 118, 140, 170, 182, 209, 
230-231, 303, 378, 403; David, 303; 
Ebenezer, 10; Elizabeth K., 367; 
Grace F., 118; John P., 212; Rev. 
Josiah, 367; Mary E., 368. 

Weare, Meshech, 242, 245, 251, 3lfi, 353, 
355, 404. 



Weaver, Ethan A., 136. 

Weeks, Miss Mary L., 375. 

Weir, Robert, 150. 

Wellman, Rev. Joshua W., 136. 

Wells, C.N. , 171; Charles T., 102; Ed- 
ward, 187; Frank P., 206, 212; John 
8. ,186-187,200; Joseph B., 157; Samuel, 
187, 198. 

Wentworth, Benning, 32, 210, 334-335; 
Charles E.,125; George, 171; George 
A., 165; Governor, 19-23, 25, 30-31, 36, 
153, 184; John, 240, 202, 265, 350-352. 

West, Anna, 124. 

Weston, James A., 118. 

Wheeler, Everett P., 375; Giles, 163, 

Wheelock, Colonel, 311-312; John, 303. 

Wheelwright, Rev. John, 153, 276. 

Whidden, C. W.,7. 

Whipple. Captain, 241; Sherman L., 
165; William, 125. 

Whiteher, William F.. 7, 375. 

Whitcomb, Abigail, 300; Anna, 318-319; 
A.K.,320; Azulia, 318-319; Benjamin, 
298, 300-304, 306-320; Benjamin, Jr., 
300, 318; Catharine, 299; Damaris, 
S00; David, 299-300; David, Jr., 300; 
Deborah, 300; Dorothy, 300; Eph- 
raim, 301-302; Eunice, 300; Frank 
H., 102, 206, 375; Hezekiah, 300; 
James, 299; Joanna, 300; Job, 299; 
Johanna, 300; John, 301-302; Jona- 
than, 299-300; Joseph, 300; Joshua, 
318; Josiah, 301; Lois, 301; Lydia, 
318-319; Mary, 300-301; Nathaniel, 
300; Prudence, 301; Rebecca, 299- 
301; Robert, 299; Ruth, 318-319; Si- 
mon, 300; Tamar, 300. 

White, Miss AlmiraL., 375; Mrs. A.S., 
166; Armenia A., 115; Betty, 300; 
Rev.C.L.,136; Curtis, 136; Dorothy, 
300; J. DuPratt, 206, 288; John A., 
115-116; J.T. & Co., 206. 

Whitney, E. D., 136. 
Whittier, Rev. .1. H., 7. 
Whitton, John M., 41. 
Wigglesworth, George, 7. 
Wilder, Nathaniel, 300. 
Wiley, Rev. Frederick L., 252, 288. 
Willard, Mrs. D. E., 7; S., 300. 
Willey, Rev. Samuel II., 7; W. L., 

William, Dutch, 145; King, 152, 157; of 

Orange, 146. 
Williams, Benjamin F., 136, 140; Colo- 
nel, 160; Job, 7. 
Willis, Dr. J. M. L., 375. 
Wills, Mrs. P. R., 136. 
Wilson, James, 327; Mrs. M. C. C, 

Wing, George D., 136. 
Wingate, Isabel C.,210; Joseph C. A., 

12, 14, 16, 110, 163,213,322,381; Rev. 
Paine, 210. 
Winn, A. B. & Co.. 419. 
Winslow, Rev. William C, 7, 102. 
Wolcott, Charles D., 206, 288; Oliver, 

Wolfe, General, 160. 
Wolsey, President, 76. 
Wood, James A., 288 
Woodbury, Mrs. A., 102; E. R., 206; 

Frank D., 136,206,288, 375; Gordon, 

142, 206, 379; John, 7, 375. 
Woodman, Mrs. G. H., 102; Jonathan, 

38, 42. 
Woods, Chief Justice, 268; Edward, 

268; Leonard, 69-70; Porter, 70; Ra- 
chel, 300; Stuart, 70. 
Woodworth, Albert B., 211, 384. 
Worcester, George A., 206. 
Wright, Carroll D., 206; Dwiunell & 

Co., 375; Matilda, 318; Mr., 305. 
Wyman, Partridge & Co., 7; T., 136. 
Wynne, T., 136. 
Young, John, 318; Sally, 318; Samuel, 

302, 317-318. 



■ "■■■»■«■ i i i . i iimmmmmmmmm 

1: fil